Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se
B61 and B62 buses
The Crosstown Line is a public transit line in Brooklyn, New York City, United States, running along Van Brunt Street and Manhattan Avenue between Red Hook and Long Island City, Queens. A streetcar line, it is now the B61 and the B62 bus routes; the northern section, the B62, is operated by MTA New York City Bus' Grand Avenue Depot in Maspeth and the southern section is the B61, operated by MTA New York City Bus' Jackie Gleason Depot in Sunset Park. The entire route was a single line, the B61, until January 3, 2010; the streetcar line, B61 and the original B62 operated from the now-closed Crosstown Depot in Greenpoint. The original Crosstown Line began at the Richards Street at the foot of Erie Basin, the portion of the Upper New York Bay south of Red Hook, it ran north on Richards Street to Woodhull Street north on Columbia Street to Atlantic Avenue at Brooklyn's South Ferry landing. The line ran east along Atlantic Avenue into Downtown Brooklyn, turning north at Court Street and east at Joralemon Street east along Willoughby Street north on Raymond Street.
It proceeded east along Park Avenue north along Washington Avenue through the Brooklyn Navy Yard and north on Kent Avenue to Broadway Ferry. The route ran east a short distance along Broadway ran north along Driggs Avenue through northern Williamsburg, north on Manhattan Avenue to Box Street near the foot of Newtown Creek in Greenpoint; the streetcar line operated out of the Crosstown Depot at its northern terminus, which would become a bus depot for the B61 and other routes. The current B61 bus route begins at 20th Street and Prospect Park West at the north end of Green-Wood Cemetery and adjacent to the defunct Bishop Ford Central Catholic High School, straddling the Park Slope, South Slope, Windsor Terrace neighborhoods. Northbound, the route turns west at 9th Street near New York Methodist Hospital, continuing west through Gowanus and Red Hook via 9th Street, Lorraine Street, Beard Street or Van Dyke Street. Much of this routing in Gowanus and Red Hook between Smith Street and the Red Hook IKEA Terminal is shared with the B57, the only other bus line that travels to and from Red Hook.
The B61 parallels the Crosstown streetcar line, running north on Van Brunt Street to Carrol Street near the Red Hook Container Terminal and the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel north along Columbia Street and east along Atlantic Avenue into Downtown Brooklyn. The route terminates just south of the Fulton Mall and the Jay Street–MetroTech subway station at Smith Street and Livingston Street, in front of the headquarters of the New York City Transit Authority. Southbound buses reenter service via Boerum Place one block west. Prior to 2008, the B61 comprised the entire Crosstown surface route, running between Long Island City and the south end of Van Brunt Street in Red Hook. In 2008, the route's southern terminus was extended two blocks east to Ostego Street and Beard Street to serve the then-newly-opened IKEA terminal in Red Hook. In January 2010 the route split into the current B62 routes to improve reliability. Six months the new B61 was extended to Prospect Park West to replace the B75 routes Park Slope section and the whole B77 route.
Based out of the Crosstown Depot the Jackie Gleason Depot, the B61 was moved to the Grand Avenue Depot in Queens upon the depot's opening in January 2008. It was moved back to the Jackie Gleason Depot following the creation of the current B62; the route serves Bishop Ford High School, New York Methodist Hospital, IKEA Red Hook, Red Hook II Houses, Coffey Park, Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn Bridge Park, the Brooklyn Criminal Court, the New York Transit Museum, the Brooklyn Civil Court, Borough Hall, St. Francis College, MetroTech Center, the Brooklyn Civic Center. Bus connections:Windsor Terrace: B67/69, B68 Park Slope: B63, B67/69 Cobble Hill: B63, B65, B57 Downtown Brooklyn: B25, B26, B38 Limited, B41 Limited, B45, B52, B54, B57, B65, B67, B103 Limited In addition, there is a three-leg transfer available for MetroCard customers transferring between the B61 and B62 in Downtown Brooklyn. Subway connections:Jay Street–MetroTech on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, IND Culver Line, IND Fulton Street Line Court Street–Borough Hall on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, IRT Eastern Parkway Line Smith–Ninth Streets on the IND Culver Line Fourth Avenue/Ninth Street on the IND Culver Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line Seventh Avenue on the IND Culver Line 15th Street–Prospect Park on the IND Culver Line The B62 bus route operates between Schermerhorn Street and Boerum Place in front of the New York City Transit Headquarters in Downtown Brooklyn, Queens Plaza South and 28th Street near the Queensboro Plaza subway station in Long Island City via Park Avenue and Manhattan Avenue at all times.
This bus replaced the northern leg of the B61 route on January 3, 2010. The B62 is based out of Grand Avenue Depot in Maspeth, Queens The route serves the Brooklyn Criminal Court, the New York Transit Museum, the Brooklyn Civil Court, Borough Hall, St. Francis College, MetroTech Center, the Brooklyn Civic Center, the Brooklyn Supreme & Family Court, the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, the Ne
Fourth Avenue/Ninth Street (New York City Subway)
Fourth Avenue/Ninth Street is a New York City Subway station complex shared by the elevated IND Culver Line and the underground BMT Fourth Avenue Line. It is located at the intersection of Ninth Street and Fourth Avenue in Park Slope and served by the: F, G and R trains at all times D and N trains late nights W train during rush hours only, with a few trips in the peak direction The BMT Fourth Avenue Line station was built first, opening on June 22, 1915 as part of the line's extension to 59th Street; the IND Culver Line station opened on October 7, 1933 as part of its extension to its "temporary" terminal at Church Avenue. A free transfer point was established between the two stations on May 28, 1959 to compensate for the loss of through Culver service via the Fourth Avenue Line. In 2007, the MTA announced a three-year renovation project of the elevated Culver Viaduct; the work area covers from south of Carroll Street to north of Ditmas Avenue. For Phase 2A of the project, a temporary platform was built over the southbound express track to allow northbound trains to stop at the station.
The platform was removed for Phase 2B. For Phase 3A a temporary platform was built over the northbound express track to allow southbound trains to stop. Reconstruction of the Fourth Avenue station was completed in April 2013; as part of the project, the arch bridge over Fourth Avenue was restored with the elimination of billboards and the removal of paint over the windows. The station received a public address system as part of the project. In addition, the MTA reopened the east station house to the station, after it had been closed for over 40 years. Before 2009, G service terminated at Smith -- one stop to the north. Terminating southbound trains used the switches just west of Fourth Avenue to enter the southbound express tracks. After being stored on the southbound express track, the G trains would start their Queens-bound runs by using the switches to enter the northbound local track; the switches were taken out of regular service in 2009, when the viaduct's reconstruction started and the G was extended to Church Avenue.
The station has five entrances. There is one entrance each in the vestibules on both sides of 4th Avenue between 9th and 10th Streets. There is an entrance on the north side of 10th Street west of Fourth Avenue, which leads to the southbound BMT Fourth Avenue Line and both IND Culver Line platforms; the other two are entrances on either northern corner of 4th Avenue and 9th Street, lead directly to the BMT Fourth Avenue Line platforms. Fourth Avenue is a local station on the IND Culver Line that has two side platforms; the center express. The platforms are the IND's usual length of 660 feet, the width of the platforms is 16 feet. Both platforms have tan brick windscreens and column-less cantilevered windscreens along their entire lengths except for a small portion of the west end; the station has a crew quarters structure over both platforms, constructed of brick with evidence of covered windows. This station's fare control area is at street level underneath the platforms and tracks and built within the viaduct's concrete structure.
Two staircases from each platform near their east end go down to a balcony before three staircases go down to the turnstile bank. Outside fare control, there is a token booth and two sets of entry/exit doors, one to the west side of Fourth Avenue directly underneath the viaduct and the other to the north side of Tenth Street. Both entrances have their original lit-up IND "SUBWAY" sign while mosaic direction tiles reading "To Coney Island" and "To Manhattan" are in the mezzanine; the fare control area has a single staircase going down to the extreme south end of the Bay Ridge-bound platform of Ninth Street on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line. The extreme east ends of each platform have a single staircase going down to the entrance to the east side of Fourth Avenue underneath the viaduct at ground level. Another staircase from this eastern landing goes down to the Manhattan-bound platform of Ninth Street; the staircase and mezzanine areas have tile accents of green. West of this station was a short stub-end reversing spur entered only from this station.
It remained level between the two express tracks while the other tracks ramped up toward Smith–Ninth Streets. The track was removed during overhaul of the Culver Viaduct from 2007 to 2013. East of this station, the line enters a tunnel toward Seventh Avenue; that station is underground, but at a higher altitude than this elevated station due to the steep slope of the land. Ninth Street on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line is a local station that has four tracks and two side platforms. White tiled. Both platforms have cinder-block tiles installed during a 1970s renovation that replaced the original mosaic trim line and name tablets; the original trim lines were replaced with white cinderblock tiles, except for small recesses in the walls, which contain yellow-painted cinderblock tiles. The staircases were repaired and new platform edges were installed; the yellow cinderblock field contains the station-name signs and black text pointing to the exits. The renovation replaced incandescent lighting with fluorescent lighting.
Beige columns run along both platforms at either ends where they were extended in the 1960s to accommodate lengthened trains. The ceiling is lower in this section; each platform has one same-level fare control area in the middle. The one on the Manhattan-bound platform has a turnstile bank, token booth, one staircase going up to the northeast corner of Ninth St
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au
The Dual Contracts known as the Dual Subway System, were contracts for the construction and/or rehabilitation and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. The contracts were signed on March 19, 1913, by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company; as part of the Dual Contracts, the IRT and BRT would build or upgrade several subway lines in New York City operate them for 49 years. Most of the lines of the present-day New York City Subway were built or reconstructed under these contracts; the contracts were "dual" in that they were signed between the City and two separate private companies. Both the IRT and BRT worked together to make the construction of the Dual Contracts possible. In the late 19th century and for most of the 20th century, New York was host to millions of immigrants each year. Many of the immigrants crowded into other apartment buildings in the inner city; this resulted in overpopulation of the buildings, congestion of city streets.
Manhattan's population had risen from 516,000 people in 1850 to 2.33 million people in 1910. The population of the entire city had grown from 1.17 million people in 1860 to 3.44 million in 1900 and 4.77 million in 1910. Living in Manhattan was becoming a hazard due to the higher probability of crime and overcrowding, for the most part, the first subway line only served areas that were developed; the first subway lines to the outer boroughs were planned during the early 20th century. Dispersion resulted in the development of the boroughs. In 1906, Charles Evans Hughes was elected as the governor of New York, the next year, he created the New York State Public Service Commission; the PSC was responsible for new rapid transit lines in New York City. Although the PSC had created ambitions plans for the expansion of the city's subway system, they only had $200 million on hand. In 1911, George McAneny was appointed leader of the Transit Committee of the New York City Board of Estimate, which oversaw the subway expansion plans.
Some opposed the Dual Contracts as they thought that the company owners and city officials were just looking for another way to produce personal revenue. Reformists like Hughes and McAneny would not have it any other way than to see the expansion of the city and the subway, they wanted to see the inner city become less populated and spread the people to the outer boroughs of the city. They planned to expand the city and disperse the people by building subway lines which would result in new homes being built near the subway lines and the areas surrounding; this would lower population densities in the city and made as a good reason to help prove the subway expansion as necessary. Before the Contracts, there was crowding in many of the forms of transportation in the city; the following is a list of annual ridership for each mode of transportation between June 30, 1910, June 30, 1911: Interborough Rapid Transit Company–subways, elevated roads — 578,154,088 Hudson and Manhattan Railroad — 52,756,434 Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad System — 167,371,328 East River ferries — 23,460,000 Municipal ferry to Staten Island — 10,540,000 Hudson River ferries — 91,776,200In total, 924,058,050 passengers were carried that year over these six modes of transport.
The New York Times noted that streetcar ridership had increased more than 25 times over between 1860, where there were 50.83 million annual riders, 1910, where there were 1.531 billion annual riders. It was expected that, within five years of completion: When completed the rapid transit facilities of the City will have been more than trebled. During the year ended June 30, 1911, shortly after which the construction of the new system was begun, the existing rapid transit lines carried 798,281,850 passengers; the new Dual System will have a capacity of upwards of, although it is not expected that such capacity will be demanded upon the completion of the system. The combined trackage of the existing lines amounts to 303 miles of single track. To this will be added by the new lines of the Dual System 334 miles of single track, making a new system with 637 miles of single track. What this will mean to the City may be appreciated by considering how the existing lines will be amplified by the new additions and extensions.
The Hudson and Manhattan road, however, is not to be a part of the Dual System. This system expansion was expected to be as big as, if not bigger, than the proposed Second System expansion put forth by the Independent Subway System in 1929 and 1939. Built before the Dual Contracts, the first operated subway in New York City was built by the city and leased to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company for operation under city Contracts 1 and 2; until 1918, when the new "H" system, still operated – with separate East Side and West Side lines – was placed in service, it consisted of a single trunk line below 96th Street with several northern branches. The system had four tracks between Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall and 96th Street, allowing for local and express service on that portion. Contract 1 was for the original 28 stations of the subway system that opened on October 27, 1904, from City Hall to 145th Street, as well as for stations opened before 1908 on several IRT extensions; the original system as included in Contract 1 was completed on January 14, 1907, when trains started running across the Harlem Ship Canal on the Broadway Bridge to 225th Street, the Contract 2 portion was opened to Atlantic Avenue on May 1, 1908.
The Dual Contracts were signed on March 19, 1913. The contracts bound Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company to
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground. When the flying object returns to water, the process is called alighting, although it is called "landing", "touchdown" or "splashdown" as well. A normal aircraft flight would include several parts of flight including taxi, climb, cruise and landing. Aircraft land at an airport on a firm runway or helicopter landing pad constructed of asphalt concrete, gravel or grass. Aircraft equipped with pontoons or with a boat hull-shaped fuselage are able to land on water. Aircraft sometimes use skis to land on snow or ice. To land, the airspeed and the rate of descent are reduced such that the object descends at a low enough rate to allow for a gentle touch down. Landing is accomplished by descending to the runway; this speed reduction is accomplished by reducing thrust and/or inducing a greater amount of drag using flaps, landing gear or speed brakes. When a fixed-wing aircraft approaches the ground, the pilot will move the control column back to execute a flare or round-out.
This increases the angle of attack. Progressive movement of the control column back will allow the aircraft to settle onto the runway at minimum speed, landing on its main wheels first in the case of a tricycle gear aircraft or on all three wheels in the case of a conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft referred to as a "taildragger"; this is known as flaring. In a light aircraft, with little crosswind, the ideal landing is when contact with the ground occurs as the forward speed is reduced to the point where there is no longer sufficient airspeed to remain aloft; the stall warning is heard just before landing, indicating that this speed and altitude have been reached. The result is light touch down. Light aircraft landing situations, the pilot skills required, can be divided into four types: Normal landings Crosswind landings - where a significant wind not aligned with the landing area is a factor Short field landings - where the length of the landing area is a limiting factor Soft and unprepared field landings - where the landing area is wet, soft or has ground obstacles such as furrows or ruts to contend with In large transport category aircraft, pilots land the aircraft by "flying the airplane on to the runway."
The airspeed and attitude of the plane are adjusted for landing. The airspeed is kept well at a constant rate of descent. A flare is performed just before landing, the descent rate is reduced, causing a light touch down. Upon touchdown, spoilers are deployed to reduce the lift and transfer the aircraft's weight to its wheels, where mechanical braking, such as an autobrake system, can take effect. Reverse thrust is used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, redirecting engine exhaust forward instead of back; some propeller-driven airplanes have this feature, where the blades of the propeller are re-angled to push air forward instead of back using the'beta range'. Factors such as crosswind where the pilot will use a crab landing or a slip landing will cause pilots to land faster and sometimes with different aircraft attitude to ensure a safe landing. Other factors affecting a particular landing might include: the plane size, weight, runway length, ground effects, runway altitude, air temperature, air pressure, air traffic control, visibility and the overall situation.
For example, landing a multi-engine turboprop military such as a C-130 Hercules, under fire in a grass field in a war zone, requires different skills and precautions than landing a single engine plane such as a Cessna 150 on a paved runway in uncontrolled airspace, different from landing an airliner such as an Airbus A380 at a major airport with air traffic control. Required Navigation Performance is being used more. Rather than using radio beacons, the airplane uses GPS-navigation for landing using this technique; this translates into a much more fluid ascend, which results in decreased noise, decreased fuel consumption. The term "landing" is applied to people or objects descending to the ground using a parachute; some consider these objects to be in a controlled descent instead of flying. Most parachutes work by capturing air, inducing enough drag that the falling object hits the ground at a slow speed. There are many examples including the seeds of a dandelion. On the other hand, modern ram-air parachutes are inflatable wings that operate in a gliding flight mode.
Parachutists execute a flare at landing, reducing or eliminating both downward and forward speed at touchdown, in order to avoid injury. Sometimes, a safe landing is accomplished by using multiple forms of lift and dampening systems. Both the Surveyor unmanned lunar probe craft and the Apollo Lunar Module used a rocket deceleration system and landing gear to soft-land on the moon. Several Soviet rockets including the Soyuz spacecraft have used parachutes and airbag landing systems to dampen the landing on earth. In November 2015, Blue Origin's New Shepard became the first rocket to cross the van Karman line and land vertically back on Earth. In December 2015, SpaceX's Falcon 9 became the first launch vehicle on an orbital trajectory to vertically-land and recover its first stage, although the landed first stage was on a sub-orbital trajectory. Arresting gear Landing performance Instrument landing system Instrument flight rules Visual flight rules
Park Slope is a neighborhood in northwest Brooklyn, New York City. Park Slope is bounded by Prospect Park and Prospect Park West to the east, Fourth Avenue to the west, Flatbush Avenue to the north, Prospect Expressway to the south; the section from Flatbush Avenue to Garfield Place is considered the "North Slope", the section from 1st through 9th Streets is considered the "Center Slope", south of 10th Street, the "South Slope". The neighborhood takes its name from its location on the western slope of neighboring Prospect Park. Fifth Avenue and Seventh Avenue are its primary commercial streets, while its east-west side streets are lined with brownstones and apartment buildings. Park Slope features historic buildings, top-rated restaurants and shops, as well as proximity to Prospect Park, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Conservatory of Music, the Central Library as well as the Park Slope branch of the Brooklyn Public Library system.
The neighborhood had a population of about 62,200 as of the 2000 census, resulting in a population density of 68,000/square mile, or 26,000/square kilometer. Park Slope is considered one of New York City's most desirable neighborhoods. In 2010, it was ranked number 1 in New York by New York Magazine, citing its quality public schools, nightlife, access to public transit, green space and creative capital, among other aspects, it was named one of the "Greatest Neighborhoods in America" by the American Planning Association in 2007, "for its architectural and historical features and its diverse mix of residents and businesses, all of which are supported and preserved by its active and involved citizenry." In December 2006, Natural Home magazine named Park Slope one of America's ten best neighborhoods based on criteria including parks, green spaces and neighborhood gathering spaces. Park Slope is part of Brooklyn Community District 6, its primary ZIP Codes are 11215 and 11217, it is patrolled by the 78th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 33rd and 39th Districts. The area that today comprises the neighborhood of Park Slope was first inhabited by the Native Americans of the Lenape people; the Dutch farmed the region for more than 200 years. During the American Revolutionary War, on August 27, 1776, the Park Slope area served as the backdrop for the beginning of the Battle of Long Island. In this battle, over 10,000 British soldiers and Hessian mercenaries routed outnumbered American forces; the historic site of Battle Pass is now preserved in Prospect Park, on Fifth Avenue there is a reconstruction of the stone farmhouse where a countercharge covered the American retreat. In the 1850s, a local lawyer and railroad developer named Edwin Clarke Litchfield purchased large tracts of what was farmland. Through the American Civil War era, he sold off much of his land to residential developers. During the 1860s, the City of Brooklyn purchased his estate and adjoining property to complete the West Drive and the southern portion of the Long Meadow in Prospect Park.
However, Park Slope’s bucolic period ended soon after. By the late 1870s, with horse-drawn rail cars running to the park and the ferry, bringing many rich New Yorkers in the process, urban sprawl changed the neighborhood into a streetcar suburb. Many of the large Victorian mansions on Prospect Park West, known as the Gold Coast, were built in the 1880s and 1890s to take advantage of the beautiful park views. Today, many of these buildings are preserved within the Park Slope Historic District. Containing 2,575 buildings stretching over part or all of around 40 city blocks, the historic district is New York's largest landmarked neighborhood. Early colloquial names for the neighborhood included "Prospect Heights", "Prospect Hill", "Park Hill Side", before residents settled on Park Slope. By 1883, with the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge, Park Slope continued to boom and subsequent brick and brownstone structures pushed the neighborhood's borders farther; the 1890 census showed Park Slope to be the richest community in the United States.
In 1892, President Grover Cleveland presided over the unveiling of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch at Grand Army Plaza, a notable Park Slope landmark. The Park Slope Armory was completed in 1893. Nearby, Old Stone House is a 1930 reconstruction of the Vechte-Cortelyou House, destroyed in 1897, it is located beside the former Gowanus Creek. Realtors and community members saw a clear connection between Park Slope's bucolic setting and the comfort of living there; as the New York Tribune wrote in 1899, "Nature set the park down where it is, man has embellished her work in laying out great lawns and artificial lakes, in bringing together menageries and creating conservatories, in making roads and driveways, in doing everything in his power to make the place a pleasant pleasure ground and a charming resort." Baseball had played a prominent role in the history of the Park Slope area. From 1879 to 1889, the Brooklyn Atlantics played at Washington Park on 5th Avenue between 3rd and 4th Streets; when the park was destroyed by a fire, the team moved to their part-time home in Ridgewood, Queens and to a park in East New York.
In 1898, the "New" Washington Park was built between Third and Fourth Avenues and between First and Third Streets near the Gowanus Canal. Th