The Severn bore is a tidal bore seen on the tidal reaches of the River Severn in south western England. It is formed when the rising tide moves into the funnel-shaped Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary and the surging water forces its way upstream in a series of waves, as far as Gloucester and beyond; the bore behaves differently in different stretches of the river. In the narrower, upper reaches, the river occupies the whole area between its banks and the bore advances in a series of waves that move upstream. Near Gloucester, the advancing water overcomes two weirs, sometimes one in Tewkesbury, before petering out. Bores are present on about 130 days in the year, concentrated on the days following the new and full moon; the size and precise timing of the bore depend on such things as the time of high tide, the barometric pressure, the wind speed and direction, the amount of water coming down the river and how well scoured the main drainage channels are. There are a number of viewpoints from which the bore can be seen, or viewers can walk along the river bank or floodbanks.
The bore has been of importance to shipping visiting the docks at Gloucester, but this was alleviated by the construction of an alternative route, the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal, which opened in 1827. Nowadays the bore is of more interest to canoeists who attempt to ride the waves; the Severn Estuary, which empties into the Bristol Channel, has traditionally been thought to have the second largest tidal range in the world – about 13 metres, exceeded only by the Bay of Fundy in Canada. Some controversy exists as to whether the tidal range in Ungava Bay in Canada, is greater than the Bay of Fundy, relegating the Severn Estuary to third place; the tidal wave starts far out in mid-ocean. It moves towards the continent of Europe at about 700 miles per hour; when it reaches the continental shelf, its velocity decreases to about 200 miles per hour and its amplitude increases. Approaching the Bristol Channel, a segment of the wave has to accommodate to the ever-decreasing width by raising its height.
When it reaches the Severn proper, its width has decreased from a 100 miles or so to less than 5 miles, its height is nearly 50 feet. As the bed of the estuary starts to rise and the sides continue to converge, the bore forms and begins to surge up the river in a tidal stream; the front edge of the wave is the trailing edge flatter. The bore consists of four sizeable waves followed by a few of diminishing size; as with other waves, the wave tends to break in shallow places and near the bank, flow smoothly in deep water. The wave travels upstream against the river current at a speed of 8 to 13 miles per hour. In the lower, broader part of the estuary near Avonmouth, the tidal surge advances as a slight roll in the deepwater channels and the water spreads across the sands and mudbanks. Past Sharpness, the bore begins to form and when it encounters the large left-handed bend at Hock Cliff, it crashes headlong into the rocks. Reforming, it runs up-river close to the Overton shore before crossing the estuary towards Box Cliff.
As it rounds the Horseshoe Bend it keeps to the outside but it afterwards moves across to the eastern side of the river. Above Langney Sands, the river abruptly narrows to a hundred yards, the sands diminish and the channel occupies the whole of the river. Now the bore is recognisably the spectacular phenomenon that people expect rather than a swelling flood of water. From Minsterworth to Gloucester, the width of the river varies little and the bore continues unhindered, climbing the banks on the outer side of bends and breaking over shallow places. At Lower Parting, close to Gloucester, it splits in two to pass either side of Alney Island. Both branches encounter and overcome weirs and rejoin at Upper Parting, the much diminished bore continues upstream. In high tides the water may overtop the weir at Tewkesbury, the foot of the weir at Worcester may experience a rise in water level of a foot or so; the largest bores occur around the times of the equinoxes but smaller ones can be seen throughout the year.
There are about 260 bores in each year occurring twice a day on 130 days. Because the bores are associated with the phases of the moon, one occurs between 7 a.m. and noon on bore days, the other between 7 p.m. and midnight GMT, with the largest bores occurring between 9 and 11 in both the morning and evening. Maximum bores occur between one and three days after new and full moons, smaller ones on the days that precede and follow the maxima. Timetables for the bore and predictions of bore heights are published each year, the heights and timings are subject to minor variations; the bore height is increased by a strong southwest or west wind, low barometric pressure, about 2 ft of fresh water below Gloucester and well-scoured channels in the estuary. The height is decreased by strong winds from the east or north, high barometric pressure and little fresh water below Gloucester or excessive fresh water; the bore is made earlier by strong southwest or west wind, low barometric pressure, between two and five feet of fresh water, shorter and well-scoured channels in the estuary.
Conversely, it is delayed by strong winds from the east or north, high barometric pressure, little fresh water and more meandering, poorly scoured channels. The wind direction out at sea is of more significance than the local air-flow. Being the onset of the flood tide, the bore is accompanied by a rapid rise in water level which continues for about one and a half hours after the bore has passed; the Severn
Sand Point and Middle Hope
Sand Point in Somerset, England, is the peninsula stretching out from Middle Hope, an 84.1-hectare biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It lies to the north of the village of Kewstoke, the stretch of coastline called Sand Bay north of the town of Weston-super-Mare. On a clear day it commands views over Flat Holm, of the Bristol Channel, South Wales, the Second Severn Crossing and the Severn Bridge. A line drawn between Sand Point and Lavernock Point in South Wales marks the lower limit of the Severn Estuary and the start of the Bristol Channel. Middle Hope is a sequence of carboniferous limestone with unusual geological features including a Pleistocene-aged fossil cliff and as a result has been designated as a regionally important geological site; the underlying geology and soil types support scarce plants such as the smallflower buttercup, Cheddar pink and Somerset hair grass. Human use of the sites is shown by a bowl barrow and disc barrow from late Neolithic or Bronze Age and the site of a motte-and-bailey castle.
Woodspring Priory, a former Augustinian priory, founded in the early 13th century, sits just inland of the rocky promontory. The priory and surrounding land is a popular place for walking. At Middle Hope a sequence of carboniferous limestone is exposed, which includes thick volcanic tuffs and lavas, demonstrating Tournaisian carbonate sections; the site shore platform. These features have led to the designation of Middle Hope as a regionally important geological site; the raised beach of wave-cut platforms has been created by changes in sea level of the Bristol Channel since the Quaternary period. The arrangement of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, including the Black Rock Limestone, illustrates the events of 350 million years ago; the strata have been compressed during the variscan orogeny. Among scarce plants found on Sand Point are smallflower buttercup, honewort; the range of soils at the site support various fauna. The calcareous grassland is dominated by Festuca species and Dactylis glomerata, while the scrub towards the west of the site is dominated by hawthorn and blackthorn, while that to the east consists of common gorse and bramble.
Less common plants include the cheddar pink and Somerset hair grass. Evidence of early human occupation if provided by a bowl barrow and disc barrow from the late Neolithic or Bronze Age have been identified on the higher ground; the bowl barrow is 10 metres in diameter and 0.5 metres high. West of the bowl barrow is a disc barrow surrounded by a bank and ditch which enclose an area about 8 metres across; these are situated at the highest point where the Ordnance Survey have constructed a triangulation station. A motte-and-bailey castle may have been constructed after the Norman Conquest; the site is known as Castle Mound or Castle Batch and can be seen as a 2 metres high mound, 30 metres in diameter and marked by a ditch on the landward eastern edge. The mound was damaged by the construction of a building during World War II; the medieval date for the construction is in doubt with some sources suggesting that the mound may have been a watchtower constructed in the 16th century. The walls of the sheep fold were built by prisoners from the Napoleonic Wars.
Hope Cove on the northern coast had a reputation for smuggling as it was "well away from the men of HM Customs and Excise". Woodspring Priory was an Augustinian priory, it was founded by William de Courtney, in the early 13th century, dedicated to Thomas Becket. The small community built monastic lodgings during the next hundred years, they were Victorine Canons who were influenced by the Cistercians emphasis on manual labour and self-sufficiency. As a result, the clerks who had taken holy orders worked on the farm, as well as providing clergy for surrounding churches. Despite endowments of land the priory was not wealthy until the 15th century when further building work, including the current priory church and barn was undertaken, it was dissolved in 1536 and owned by local noblemen and leased to local farmers. In 1969 the priory was taken over by the Landmark Trust who spent 20 years on restoration work, since the 1990s have rented out the farmhouse as holiday accommodation; the surviving buildings include the priory church, a 15th-century replacement for the earlier 13th century structure, barn and 16th century prior's lodging, converted into a farmhouse.
The whole site was arranged around a central cloister from which only the east wall and west wall of the chapter house remain, the sacristy, chapter house, lady chapel and parlour having been demolished. Because of the biological and geological interest the site was designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1952. In 1968 the priory and adjoining land of Middle Hope was purchased by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty as part of Project Neptune. During World War II weapons were tested at Sand Point, in association with the base at Birnbeck Pier, commissioned as "HMS Birnbeck" by the Admiralty as part of the Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development for research into new weapons. To support this buildings were constructed at St Thomas Head, east of Middle Hope; some of these have since been removed and the site is now used by QinetiQ as an explosives and shock test facility. National Trust information on Sand Point and Middle Hope
Weston-super-Mare known as just Weston is a seaside town in North Somerset, England, on the Bristol Channel 18 miles south west of Bristol between Worlebury Hill and Bleadon Hill. It includes the suburbs of West Wick and Worle, its population at the 2011 census was 76,143. Since 1983, Weston has been twinned with Germany. Although there is evidence in the local area of occupation since the Iron Age, it was still a small village until the 19th century when it became a seaside resort, was connected with local towns and cities by a railway, two piers were built; the growth continued until the second half of the 20th century, when tourism declined and some local industries closed. A regeneration programme is being undertaken with attractions including the Helicopter Museum, Weston Museum, Grand Pier and an aquarium; the Paddle Steamer Waverley and MV Balmoral offer day sea trips from Knightstone Island to various destinations along the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary. Cultural venues include the Winter Gardens and Blakehay Theatre.
Owing to the large tidal range in the Bristol Channel, the low tide mark in Weston Bay is about 1 mile from the seafront. Although the beach itself is sandy, low tide uncovers areas of thick mud, hence the colloquial name, Weston-super-Mud; these mudflats are dangerous to walk in and are crossed by the mouth of the River Axe. Just to the north of the town is Sand Point which marks the lower limit of the Severn Estuary and the start of the Bristol Channel, it is the site of the Middle Hope biological and geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. In the centre of the town is Ellenborough Park, another SSSI due to the range of plant species found there. Weston comes from the Anglo-Saxon for the west settlement. Prior to 1348 it was known as Weston-juxta-Mare; the name was changed by Ralph of Shrewsbury, the Bishop of Bath and Wells. Between the 14th and 17th centuries the "super Mare" part of the name disappeared and it was just known as Weston, although in 1610 it was recorded as Weston on the More.
Weston's oldest structure is Worlebury Camp, on Worlebury Hill, dating from the Iron Age. Castle Batch was a castle; the present site has an earthwork mound of 160 feet in diameter, believed to be the remains of a motte. The parish was part of the Winterstoke Hundred; the medieval church of St John was demolished in 1824 and rebuilt on the same site, though a stump of the medieval preaching cross survives by the exterior south wall. The former rectory is a 17th-century structure with additions. Though it remains adjacent to the church, it has not been a parsonage house since the end of the 19th century. Today it is divided into flats; the Old Thatched Cottage restaurant on the seafront carries the date 1774. William Leeves of Wrington. Early in the 19th century, Weston was a small village of about 30 houses, located behind a line of sand dunes fronting the sea, created as an early sea wall after the Bristol Channel floods of 1607; the Pigott family of Brockley, who were the local Lords of the Manor, had a summer residence at Grove House.
Weston owes its prosperity to the Victorian era boom in seaside holidays. Construction of the first hotel in the village started in 1808. Along with nearby Burnham-on-Sea, Weston benefited from proximity to Bristol and South Wales; the first attempt at an artificial harbour was made in the late 1820s at the islet of Knightstone and a slipway built from Anchor Head towards Birnbeck Island. Isambard Kingdom Brunel and his family lived in Weston, at Swiss Villa, while he was supervising the construction of the Bristol and Exeter Railway in the area. With the opening of the railway in 1841, thousands of visitors came to the town from Bristol, the Midlands and further afield, on works outings and bank holidays. Mining families came across the Bristol Channel from South Wales by paddle steamer. To cater for them, Birnbeck Pier was completed in 1867, offering in its heyday amusement arcades, tea rooms, amusement rides and a photographic studio, it is now in a derelict state and has been added to English Heritage's Buildings at Risk Register, but visitors can still admire its structure from behind barbed wire.
It was designed by Eugenius Birch with ironwork by the Isca Foundry of Monmouthshire. It is a grade II* listed building. Large areas of land were released for development from the 1850s onwards. Large detached villas, for the middle classes, were built on the southern slopes of Worlebury Hill. Semi-detached and terraced housing was built on the low "moorland" behind the sea front in an area known as South Ward. Many of these houses have now been converted into bedsits. Most of the houses built in the Victorian era are built from stone and feature details made from Bath Stone, influenced by local architect Hans Price. In 1885, the first transatlantic telegraph cable of the Commercial Cable Company was brought ashore and the company started a long association with the town, ending in 1962. Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of wireless telegraphy transmitted radio signals across the Bristol Channel in the spring of 1897, from Penarth to Brean Down. A second railway, the Weston and Portishead Light Railway, opened on 1 December 1897, connecting Weston to Cleved
Penarth is a town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales 4 miles southwest of Cardiff city centre on the north shore of the Severn Estuary at the southern end of Cardiff Bay. Penarth is the wealthiest seaside resort in the Cardiff Urban Area, the second largest town in the Vale of Glamorgan, next only to the administrative centre of Barry. During the Victorian era Penarth was a popular holiday destination, promoted nationally as "The Garden by the Sea" and was packed by visitors from the Midlands and the West Country as well as day trippers from the South Wales valleys arriving by train. Today, the town, with its traditional seafront, continues to be a regular summer holiday destination, but their numbers are much lower than was common from Victorian times until the 1960s, when cheap overseas package holidays were introduced. Although the number of holiday visitors has declined, the town retains a substantial retired population, representing over 25% of residents, but Penarth is now predominantly a dormitory town for Cardiff commuters.
The town's population was recorded as 20,396 in the United Kingdom Census 2001. The town retains extensive surviving Victorian and Edwardian architecture in many traditional parts of the town. Penarth is a Welsh placename and could be a combination of pen meaning head and arth meaning bear, hence'Head of the Bear' or'Bear's Head'; this was the accepted translation for several hundred years and is still reflected in the town's crest which depicts bears. Modern scholars have suggested that the name is shortened from an original “Pen-y-garth”, where garth means cliff, hence'Head of the cliff' or'Clifftops'. and the Welsh-English dictionary Y Geiriadur Mawr reveals that penardd/penarth eb means'promontory'. The civic town crest was drawn by the town's architect in 1875 from a detailed brief prepared by the Town Board, it features a bear's head above a shield supported by two further bears standing. The shield contains a Draig Goch to denote that the town is in Wales and a sailing vessel recognising Penarth's long association with sea commerce.
The Penarth area has a history of human inhabitation dating back at least 5000 years. In 1956 several Neolithic stone axe heads were found in the town. A large hoard of Roman rings and coins were discovered at nearby Sully. From the 12th century until 1543 the lands of Penarth were owned by the canons of St Augustine, Bristol; the Norman church of St Augustine dates from this period. After the dissolution of the monasteries the ownership transferred to the dean and chapter of Bristol Cathedral; the manor lands were leased to the Earls of Plymouth of St. Fagans Castle. In 1853 the family purchased the manor outright; because the surrounding land was owned by religious institutions from an early date, there was no need for a large family house in Penarth. The oldest building in the area is a Tudor mansion, owned by the Herbert family, on the hillside at Cogan Pill; this has since been converted into a chain restaurant. Piracy was prevalent on the coast near Penarth and, in the 1570s, a Special Commission being set up to investigate and suppress it.
Leading family members in Penarth were believed to be implicated. Penarth's medieval walled Sheriff's Pound, an early form of multi-purpose gaol, remained in use until the late 18th century, as a place to retain stray sheep and pigs or to imprison thieves and vagabonds, it was located where the car park now stands, at the rear of the NatWest Bank in Plymouth Road. In 1803, Penarth is recorded as having between 800 - 900 acres of land under cultivation as several farms. In the 1801 census, there were just 72 people living in the Manor; as late as 1851, Penarth was still little more than a small rural farming and fishing village since medieval times, with just 24 houses and 105 residents, being one of five parishes contained within the Hundred of Dinas Powys, with a combined population of just over 300. Before the pier and dock were built, there was a tiny fleet of local sail-powered fishing vessels based on the main town beach that tied up on the seafront quayside; the Plymouth estate office retained control over the planning and development of the new town, offering 99-year leases and remaining the ground landlord.
All householders in Penarth were tenants of the Plymouth Estates, paying an annual ground rent. The situation would not change until the Leasehold Reform Act 1967, that gave householders the choice of purchasing their freehold or negotiating 999 year extensions on their short leases; the earliest homes built in the town were streets of terraced houses with busy corner shops and public houses on every corner, following the contours of the headland and in the expanding Cogan area near the docks. Local grey limestone, quarried from what is now Cwrt-y-vil playing fields, gave a particular character to the surviving older buildings of the town. To the south of the town centre, imposing detached villa residences along the cliff tops looked across the Channel to the Somerset coast and the islands of Flat Holm and Steep Holm; the villas were built by wealthy shipping and dock owners from Cardiff who were moving out of the industrialised city for a more genteel and sophisticated lifestyle. By 1861, the number of people in the five parishes had increased to 1,898 and to 3,382 by 1871.
In 1875, three of the constituent parishes - Penarth and Llandough - were merged into the Penarth Local Board, giving a population of 6,228 persons by 1881. This figure had doubled by 1891 with the opening of the railway and had increased further by 1901 to 1
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
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Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Aust is a small village in South Gloucestershire, about 10 miles north of Bristol and about 28 miles south west of Gloucester. It is located on the eastern side of the Severn estuary, close to the eastern end of the Severn Bridge, now part of the M48 motorway; the village has a church and a public house. There is a large area of farmland on the river bank, sometimes flooded due to the high tidal range of the Severn. Aust Cliff, above the Severn, is located about 0.5 miles from the village. The civil parish of Aust includes the villages of Littleton-upon-Severn. Aust, on the River Severn, was at one end of an ancient Roman road, its name, may be one of the few English place-names to be derived from the Latin Augusta. The name of Aust is recorded in 793 or 794 as Austan when it was returned to the Church of Worcester after having been taken by King Offa's earl, Bynna. In Domesday, Aust Cliff was recorded as Austreclive, "clive" being a Middle English spelling of cliff. and the estate was held by Turstin FitzRolf in 1066.
In 1368 the area was called Augst, "the short unmistakable form of Augusta. Aust was a village and manor in the parish of Henbury, it was reported as a part of the church of Worcester's Westbury on Trym estate in the Domesday book. About 1100 Winebaud de Ballon gave the church to the Abbey of St. Vincent at Le Mans. In the 14th century, the chapel at Aust was part of the Church of Westbury; the Lollard theologian John Wycliffe is by tradition said to have been prebend of Aust and to have preached there, yet Baker was unable to find any record of such an appointment in the diocesan registers at Worcester, which see held Aust for many centuries. The existing church is dedicated to St John, is built in the Perpendicular Gothic style; the timber roofs and octagonal stone font date from the 15th century, the western church tower, with an embattled parapet, was rebuilt in the Tudor period. The church contains several 18th century marble memorial tablets, the earliest dated 1704 to Sir Samuel Astry; the whole church was restored in 1866 by the firm of Bindon.
The estate at Aust was held from the Bishop of Worcester as part of the extensive feudal barony of Turstin FitzRolf who had acted as standard-bearer to William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. FitzRolf's properties in Gloucestershire were held in capite, including Aust, reverted to the Crown and where granted to Wynebald de Ballon from Maine. Wynebald had a holding at Caerleon on the River Usk near the manor of his brother Hamelin de Ballon of Abergavenny. Both brothers made significant donations to the Abbey of St Vincent at Le Mans, including Wynebald's donation of the church of Aust. A daughter of de Ballon married a man named de Newmarch, their son Henry held the estate of Aust in 1166. John, his son and heir, next held Aust. One of John's daughters and co-heiress married Ralf Russell of Kingston Russell, who held the estate, it passed in moiety through generations of the Russell and Dennis families, through Margret Russell who married Sir Gilbert Denys to her grandson Walt Dennis.
The moiety was purchased by the Astry family, The other moiety of Aust was held by Roger de Acton and was sold to the Astry family. It came into the Astry family in 1652, it was sold several times. In 1801 it was owned by Sacheverell Sitwell of Derbyshire; the village is within a short walking distance of 24hr shops at near-by Severn View services at Aust is a small motorway service area operated by Moto on the M48 motorway near the Severn Bridge. There are Burger King, Costa Coffee located there; the main building is a two-storey stone construction. The service area was listed as the last-known whereabouts of former Manic Street Preachers band member Richey Edwards presumed deceased since 2008; the Severn Bridge, a suspension bridge opened as part of the M4 motorway in 1966, crosses the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley. It was the first Severn road crossing south of Gloucester, took five years to construct at a cost of £8 million, it replaced the Aust ferry. The Aust Ferry passage across the Severn estuary between Aust and Beachley – known as the Old Passage – was used from antiquity.
In the 12th century, responsibility was granted to the monks of Tintern Abbey, it continued to operate in subsequent centuries. From 1827, a regular steamboat ferry service was established, but it lost much of its trade when a rival service was set up downstream at New Passage in 1863, when the Severn rail tunnel was opened in 1886; the growth of road traffic led to the re-establishment of a ferry between Aust and Beachley in 1926, carrying no more than 17 vehicles each time. Bob Dylan was photographed in 1966 standing outside the ferry ticket office, with the almost-completed Severn Bridge behind; the ferry service closed when the Severn Bridge was opened in September 1966. Aust Cliff SSSI Olveston and Aust website Aust in the Domesday Book