Severodvinsk is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, 35 kilometers west of Arkhangelsk, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 192,353. Due to the presence of important military shipyards, Severodvinsk is an access restricted town for foreign citizens. A special permit is required, it was known as Sudostroy, Molotovsk. Vikings explored the territories around the North Dvina River - part of Bjarmaland - at the start of the second millennium. British and Norman ships came to these places for mining and fishing before the 13th century, but the climate became colder and access to the northern seas became closed; the historical records first mention the settlement on the site of modern Severodvinsk in 1419, when the Swedes sailed into the bay and burnt down the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery that stood by the shore during the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars. Tradition states that an Orthodox missionary in Karelia, founded this monastery.
The abbey stood in ruins until 1471. At the urging of Boretskaya, the monastery was restored and her sons were buried there. On August 24, 1553, a ship of Richard Chancellor reached the salt-mining settlement of Nyonoksa, still famous for its traditional wooden architecture; the British sailors visited the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery, where they were surprised to find a community of "sailors in soutanes" and a pier large enough to accommodate several ships. The main church of this extraordinary establishment was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the holy patron of sailors. In late 1613, during the Time of Troubles in Russia, Polish-Lithuanian vagabonds, the Lisowczycy and looted Severodvinsk with the monastery; the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery flourished after the establishment of the Muscovy Company, as the bulk of their trade passed through the local harbor. In August 1618 the harbour was visited by John Tradescant the elder, who conducted a survey of an island situated opposite the monastery; this island became known to the British as "Rose Island", because it was there that Tradescant found an exceedingly rare plant which he named "Rosa moscovita" and brought back to London.
The surviving buildings of the monastery were constructed at the close of the Muscovite period. The five-domed cathedral of St. Nicholas was built between 1670 and 1674, preceded by the Assumption church, to which it is joined by a gallery. Several decades the walls and towers were built of timber. Severodvinsk is the second-largest city in Arkhangelsk Oblast, its main industry remains defense-related — the construction and repair of submarines at the huge Northern Machine-building Enterprise SEVMASH. The Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine Leninsky Komsomol was built here in 1957. At the beginning of the 1980s the world's largest submarine, a Typhoon class, was built here recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records; the modern city of Severodvinsk developed in the Soviet period. As it began to be built it was called Sudostroy, it received town status until 1957 was named Molotovsk, after Vyacheslav Molotov. On September 12, 1957 it was renamed Severodvinsk. During World War II a significant portion of the materials delivered by the Arctic Convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk for the Soviet Union were unloaded in Severodvinsk.
For example, the Empire Elgar, a British heavy lift ship that arrived in Arkhangelsk with convoy PQ 16 and subsequently spent eight weeks unloading ships from the ill-fated convoy PQ 17. A Russian naval-base supports the sea trials of nuclear submarines from the major submarine construction- and repair-facilities located in the area. In Soviet times the 17th-century buildings of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery, located on the territory of the shipyard, were adapted and used for shipbuilding purposes. In recent years the monastery buildings the main church, have been restored and re-consecrated. Church-goers attending services have to be shipyard workers or able to obtain a pass to enter the church portion of the shipyard. Severodvinsk is an access-restricted town for foreign citizens. A special pass is required. On 8 August 2019 a nuclear accident took place on Russian Navy’s Central Missile Range in Nyonoksa, 30 km to the west from Severodvinsk. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug. Population: 192,353 . From 1950 until 1990, high-tech industries generated demand for a considerable quantity of suitably qualified experts and workers which prompted growth in population. Since 1992, the population has declined due to economic crises and unemployment that has provoked significant migration from the city; the main role of the city has been, remains, the production and repair of submarines and military ships. During the Cold War, the city prospered, but with the decline and break-up of t
Neue Liebeslieder, Op. 65, written by Johannes Brahms, is a collection of Romantic pieces written for four solo voices and four hands on the piano. They are known as Neue Liebesliederwalzer. Neue Liebeslieder were written during the Romantic period between 1869 and 1874; the text of the songs is adapted from folk songs of various areas of Europe including Turkey, Poland and Sicily. The text for songs 1 through 14 were translated and compiled by Georg Friedrich Daumer in his poem series, Polydora. Neue Liebeslieder were written following the success of the popular Liebeslieder Waltzes, Op. 52. The Neue Liebeslieder differs from the earlier Liebeslieder in that only seven of its 15 songs are for the ensemble quartet, while seven others are solo songs for individual members of the quartet, one is for a duo. Throughout the quartet songs, Brahms uses innovative techniques to portray a central idea. For example, in the first song, measures 16–21, he depicts the rocky shores by the repeated cry of "zertrümmert", which in English means "wrecked".
Brahms enhances the text "Well auf Well" with octave leaps in all four parts in measure 4 and 29. In No. 8, Brahms's use of the musical rest in the middle of the words mixed with the chorus singing dolce helps to create a gentle atmosphere. The seven solo songs and one duet differ from the quartet songs in that the soloists illustrate different characters who behave in certain ways when it comes to love; the soprano is a female. The final song in this cycle, "Zum Schluß", written for the entire vocal quartet, moves away from the subject of lovers and puts the spotlight on the muses and thanks them for inspiring not only the author, but all of the artists in the world. With this change in subject comes the change in meter; when Brahms changes the standard 34 meter to 94, the nine beats are grouped into three groups of three. In addition, "Zum Schluß" has a Baroque influence in two respects: the music is much more contrapuntal than the previous songs in this cycle, the song is a passacaglia, with the theme running throughout the outer sections.
At the climax of this song in measure 16, the piano drops out and the choir sings a cappella and moves from the dominant key back to the tonic key of F major. J. A. Fuller Maitland, in Grove's Dictionary, wrote: One of the most beautiful of all the quartets not in waltz-rhythm, is the epilogue to the second set of ‘Neue Liebeslieder’, a true lyric for four voices, with a gentler style of accompaniment than is provided for the rest, it is self-evident that Zum Schluß, whose text and music are in stark contrast to all of the other waltzes in both Op. 52 and Op. 65, is a personal statement by Brahms, who throughout the troubled relationships in his life found solace in music. Zigeunerlieder Hungarian Dances Fuller Maitland, J. A.. 1904. "Brahms, Johannes". Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland, M. A. F. S. A. in five volumes, 1:382–91. London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd.. Stark, Lucien. 1998. Brahms’s Vocal Duets and Quartets with Piano: A Guide with Full Texts and Translations.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33402-0. Neue Liebeslieder, op. 65: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Rehearsal Information for The Napa Valley Chorale 2006 Detailed Listening Guide using a recording with four solo voices Neue Liebeslieder, op. 65, Neue Liebeslieder, op. 65a: Free scores at the Brahms Institut
Mar Meelis Zaia AM is the Metropolitan of the Assyrian Church of the East, presiding over the Diocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon. He serves as the Chairman of the Board of Trustees which controls the financial affairs of the Church, is one of five trustees of the Assyrian Church of the East Relief Organization, which he founded in 2017. A native of Baghdad, Meelis Zaia was ordained a priest of the Church in 1982 in California, he was appointed Bishop, being given the title of Mar, of the Church's diocese of Australia and New Zealand in 1984 and arrived to take up that position in March 1985, which he held until 2009 when he was elevated to Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon. Mar Meelis's diocese includes all of Australia, including Sydney and Melbourne, New Zealand and Lebanon. Presently, there are about 19,000 registered adult members who contribute financially to the Church, about 4,500 registered non-paying members under the age of 18 years. Of the adult members there are 13,000 in Sydney/New South Wales, 3,500 in Victoria, 2,500 in New Zealand.
The Assyrian community includes about 6,000 people who are not members of the diocese. On 26 January 2007, Mar Meelis was awarded a'Member of the Order of Australia' Medal, in the Australia Day 2007 Honours List by the Queen of Australia, Elizabeth II, for his community service through the Assyrian Church of the East and for his pioneering work in the field of education and the establishment of educational facilities. On 7 December 2008, Mar Meelis was elevated to the rank of Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon, taking the honorific His Beatitude in place of the earlier His Grace, he was blessed by Mar Dinkha IV who flew from Chicago along with a further five bishops from around the world. The event drew close to 3,700 people at the St. Hurmizd Assyrian Cathedral, Greenfield Park in Sydney, Australia. Since his arrival, as Bishop of the Diocese of Australia and New Zealand, Mar Meelis has expanded and contributed to the growth of the Church and its activities, which has built up the Assyrian communities in both countries.
In 1988, Mar Meelis established the Assyrian Church Youth Group and preaching in Assyrian. In 1990, he played a central role in obtaining a donation of $1.1 million to build a cathedral in Greenfield Park, in 1999 assisted in the raising of funds for the construction of a reception hall on the cathedral property. In recent times, he played an important part in raising funds from private and government sources for the construction of classrooms and an administration facility for a primary school. Mar Meelis was instrumental in the 2002 establishment, of the first Assyrian school outside of the Assyrian homeland, St. Hurmizd Assyrian Primary School in Sydney, which accommodates over 700 Kinder to Year 6 students. In 2006, Mar Narsai Assyrian Christian College, a secondary school in Sydney, became the second school run by the Diocese of Australia and New Zealand, catering to 1200 students in the Fairfield area and its surrounding suburbs. In 2004, Mar Meelis approved and supported the establishment of the St. Peter and Paul Parish in Sydney.
The fledgling parish grew from 50 members to a 300+ strong congregation in less than two years. Meelis initiated a number of programs for troubled youth including drug and alcohol addicts. In 2007, he founded the Assyrian Church of the East Relief Organization, a charitable aid/relief organisation supporting Assyrian and other Christian refugees, internally/externally displaced persons in the Middle East, it has its international headquarters in London, United Kingdom, is registered with the relevant regulatory bodies in the countries in which it operates. He serves as one of the organization's five trustees, his Beatitude has not only focused on educational institutions for the young and youth, but the elderly. In 2012, St. Mary's Retirement Village was opened, with 52 units of different configurations catering retirees. In 2016, utilizing St Narsai's temporary campus, the Assyrian Language College was established where hundreds of youth and adults enrolled in classes run twice a week to learn the Assyrian language Aramaic.
In 2018, announcements were made for the establishment of another primary school in Sydney's Cecil Park, next door to Saints Peter and Paul Church. In early 2019, Mar Meelis held a third meeting to discuss the establishment and academic teaching commencement of the Nisibis Assyrian Theological College in Sydney, during which a Dean was appointed. In 1987, there was a major church split in the Church of the East in Fairfield; the event resulted in legal proceedings over property rights. After the Supreme Court of New South Wales ruled in favour of Bishop Mar Meelis, the Assyrian Church of the East Diocese of Australia and New Zealand, to take ownership of St Mary's Church, Assyrians of the Ancient Church of the East sect protested since they found the court's ruling objectionable and unjust, as their sect claimed the St Mary's Church beforehand. Richard Carleton from 60 minutes covered the story in a studio that contained around 200 Assyrians who opposed the Bishop; the Bishop described the actions of his raucous opponents as "primitive".
Mar Meelis's alleged efforts at controlling the Church Committee and taking possession of its assets split the Church of the East community into old and new calendar factions. He took the Old Calendar faction to court in order to take full control of St. Mary's church in 1988–9; this confli