Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 until his death in 1286. Alexander was born at the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander III was the grandson of William the Lion. Alexander's father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249; the years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party, but though disgraced, they still retained great influence, two years seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties.
On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. He laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks. At length Haakon, weary of delay, only to encounter a terrific storm which damaged his ships; the Battle of Largs proved indecisive, but so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263; the Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained only Shetland in the area. Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 25 December 1251.
She died in 1275. Margaret, who married King Eric II of Norway Alexander, Prince of Scotland. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway"; the need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 18 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day, he had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was advised by them not to make the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but he travelled anyway. Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing; the 44-year-old king was found dead on the shore the following morning with a broken neck. Some texts have said. Although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found, there is a steep rocky embankment, which "would have been fatal in the dark."
After Alexander's death, his strong realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would lead to war with England. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey; as Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended with a miscarriage, Alexander's seven-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290; the inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land. The death of Alexander and the subsequent period of instability in Scotland was lamented in an early Scots poem recorded by Andrew of Wyntoun in his Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. Quhen Alexander our kynge was dede, That Scotlande lede in lauche and le, Away was sons of alle and brede, Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle. Our golde was changit into lede. Crist, borne in virgynyte, Succoure Scotlande, ramede, That is stade in perplexite.
In 1886, a monument to Alexander III was erected at the approximate location of his death in Kinghorn. Alexander III has been depicted in historical novels, they include: The Thirsty Sword by Robert Leighton. The novel depicts the "Norse invasion of Scotland" and the Battle of Largs, it includes his opponent Haakon IV of Norway. Alexander the Glorious by Jane Oliver; the novel covers the entire reign of Alexander III, "almost from Alexander's viewpoint". The Crown in Darkness by Paul C. Doherty. A crime fiction novel where Hugh Corbett
Godfrey Ludham was Archbishop of York from 1258 to 1265. Ludham's parents were Richard and Eda of Ludham, he had a brother Thomas, a priest. Matthew Paris gives him the name Godfrey Kineton, but without any explanation of why, his name, he attended a university, for he bore the title of magister but the exact university is unknown. Ludham was a clerk of Archbishop Walter de Gray before 17 June 1226 and was the rector of the moiety of Pengston by 26 August 1228, he was named Precentor of York by September 1249, may have held that office by 1244. Ludham served as Dean of York from 1256 to 1258 before being elected as Archbishop of York about 25 July 1258, he was consecreated on 22 September 1258 by Pope Alexander IV at Viterbo. His brother Thomas was papal chaplain, held prebends at York Minster and Southwell Minster, he was enthroned at York Minster sometime around Christmas of 1258. While archbishop, Ludham visited monasteries, issued a set of synodal decrees for York were issued in 1259, he excommunicated the monks of Beverley.
In 1261 he put an interdict on the city of York for unspecified offences against the cathedral chapter and himself. No register of his acts survives, so no detailed study of his time as archbishop is possible. He, does not seem to have played any part in the political life of the kingdom. In 1191 John, Count of Mortain, had granted the church of Walesby and its chapelry of Haughton to the church of St Mary, in 1257, Ludham confirmed Rouen's authority to present Walesby's vicar, specified among his dues and duties the chapel of Hockton with its tithes, the joint funding with Rouen of repairs, books and other alterages. Ludham died on 12 January 1265, was buried in the south transept of York Minster. In 1968 his tomb was opened and studied because of construction work in the cathedral, his body had evidently been embalmed. A mitre was on his head, he had his pallium as well as a crozier and silver chalice and paten
Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord (cardinal)
Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord was a French Cardinal, from one of the most aristocratic families in Périgord, south-west France. Hélie was born at Périgueux, third son of Elias VII, Count of Périgord, Brunissende of Foix, daughter of Roger Bernard III, comte de Foix, his elder brothers were Archambaud, who inherited the County, Roger-Bernard. As a third son Hélie was destined for an ecclesiastical career, his brother, Roger Bernard, had an ecclesiastical career, becoming Canon of Lyon. But the eldest son died, Roger-Bernard became the Count of Périgord. Hélie became a major figure in the Avignon papacy, a diplomat engaged in the negotiations of the Hundred Years' War, having friendships in both English and French royal families. In his last months he had been appointed Papal Legate for a crusade against the Turks. In 1308, at the age of six, Hélie was granted a Canonry in Agen, for which Pope Clement V granted him special dispensation, he was educated at first in the local school of the cathedral of Périgueux, but in 1320 he was granted permission by Pope John XXII to study Civil Law for five years though he was primicerius in the Church of Metz.
He may have studied at Toulouse. Early in his career Hélie became Abbot Commendatory of the Abbey of Chancelade in the diocese of Périgueux, with which the family had long been connected. At the age of twenty-three Hélie de Talleyrand, Canon of Périgueux and Archdeacon of Richmond in the Church of Lincoln, was appointed Bishop of Limoges, approved by Pope John XXII on 10 October 1324, he held the diocese until 1328. It appears, that he was never consecrated during his years as bishop of Limoges. If he had been consecrated, as Zacour points out, he would have had to resign his other benefices, which might have proved financially disadvantageous. On 4 January 1328 his translation to the diocese of Auxerre was approved, it is said that he was consecrated bishop by Pope John XXII himself. In 1330 Bishop de Talleyrand founded the Chartreuse de Vauclaire; this was at the command of the King of France, in reparation for outrages committed against a Franciscan convent on the outskirts of Périgueux by Talleyrand's eldest brother Archambeau, Count of Périgord, at the time of their mother's funeral in October, 1324.
Talleyrand held the diocese of Auxerre until he became a cardinal in 1331. His successor was approved on 24 January 1332. In a Consistory held for the promotion of cardinals on 25 May 1331, Pope John XXII appointed one and only one cardinal, Hélie de Talleyrand, as a Cardinal-Priest; this was at the request of King Philip VI of France, on the recommendation of Étienne de Mornay, Maître des Comptes and former Chancellor. The appointment caused a good deal of friction between the Pope. Philip had asked for two cardinals. Though he did elevate Talleyrand, Pope John sent off a tart letter to the King on 25 May, the day after he had approved the promotion, he pointed out that the College of Cardinals was well supplied with the talents required by the Church. Moreover, the Papacy had not been deaf to the requests of the French kings. Of the twenty current cardinals, thirteen were subjects of the King of France. Nonetheless, with the consent of those cardinals, he had agreed to promote Bishop Talleyrand.
The Pope's complaints seem to have fallen on deaf ears, for the royal family were again begging for more cardinals in September. This time, on 26 September, the Pope wrote to Queen Joanna, he reminded. Appointments were never made in private, only in open Consistory, with votes of the current cardinals heard. In fact the number of cardinals was excessively high, there was talent aplenty, she should consider that there were now sixteen cardinals of French extraction, only six Italians. He therefore refused the royal request; the pressure continued, on 20 December 1331 yet another French cardinal, Pierre Bertrand, was appointed. Of the two names put forward, Talleyrand was the less undesirable choice, he was smart, he had studied the law, he was a relative by marriage of the Pope. This may explain the Pope's indulgence in allowing Talleyrand to keep the diocese of Auxerre until 22 July 1332, to finance his move to Avignon, he signed at least two papal bulls on 25 May and 22 June, but not with the name of a titular church, indicating that one had not yet been assigned.
When one was assigned, he became the Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli, he made his official appearance in Avignon in the third week of July, 1331, at which time there was a banquet with the Pope and Cardinals in his honor. Pope John XXII died on Sunday, December 4, 1334. On the day before, the Pope had a bedside meeting with the Cardinals in Avignon. Four cardinals were Napoleone Orsini and Giovanni Gaetano Orsini among them, it was at this meeting that the Pope recanted his notions about the Beatific Vision, w
John Yonge, English ecclesiastic and diplomatist, was born at Upper Heyford and educated at Winchester and New College, where he became a fellow in 1485. The son of John Yonge, Lord Mayor of London, he was ordained in 1500 and held several livings before receiving his first diplomatic mission to arrange a commercial treaty with the archduke of Austria in 1504, in the Low Countries in 1506 in connection with the projected marriage between Henry VII and Margaret of Savoy. In 1507 he was made Master of the Rolls, in the following year was employed in various diplomatic missions, he was one of the ambassadors who arranged the Holy League in 1513, accompanied Henry VIII during the ensuing campaign. In 1514 he was made dean of York in succession to Wolsey, in 1515 he was one of the commissioners for renewing the peace with Francis I; that year he became archdeacon of Barnstaple. Yonge died in London on 25 April 1516. Yonge was on terms of intimate friendship with Dean Colet, was a correspondent of Erasmus.
A statue of him stands in the former Rolls Chapel in King's College London. He is not to be confused with John Young; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Yonge, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "Yonge, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination; the city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre; the economy of York is now dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy; the City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011, it had a population of 198,051. The word York is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" and a suffix of appurtenance *-āko "belonging to-, place of-" meaning either "place of the yew trees"; the name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, -wic a village by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík; the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. Jórvík, meanwhile reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century; the form York was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name; the 12th‑century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, Historia Regum Britanniae, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus.
The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature. Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes; the Brigantian tribal area became a Roman client state, but its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss; the fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.
The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, it is that it was he who granted York the privileges of a'colonia' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province. While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century. Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, York became his chief city; the first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede.
Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone. In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York, he had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe; the last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of