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A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation; the estimation of this angle, the altitude, is known as sighting or shooting the object, or taking a sight. The angle, the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart—for example, sighting the Sun at noon or Polaris at night to estimate latitude. Sighting the height of a landmark can give a measure of distance off and, held horizontally, a sextant can measure angles between objects for a position on a chart. A sextant can be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object in order to determine Greenwich Mean Time and hence longitude; the principle of the instrument was first implemented around 1731 by John Hadley and Thomas Godfrey, but it was found in the unpublished writings of Isaac Newton.

Additional links can be found to Bartholomew Gosnold indicating that the use of a sextant for nautical navigation predates Hadley's implementation. In 1922, it was modified for aeronautical navigation by Portuguese navigator and naval officer Gago Coutinho; this section discusses navigators' sextants. Most of what is said about these specific sextants applies to other types of sextants. Navigators' sextants were used for ocean navigation. Like the Davis quadrant, the sextant allows celestial objects to be measured relative to the horizon, rather than relative to the instrument; this allows excellent precision. Unlike the backstaff, the sextant allows direct observations of stars; this permits the use of the sextant at night. For solar observations, filters allow direct observation of the sun. Since the measurement is relative to the horizon, the measuring pointer is a beam of light that reaches to the horizon; the measurement is thus limited by the angular accuracy of the instrument and not the sine error of the length of an alidade, as it is in a mariner's astrolabe or similar older instrument.

A sextant does not require a steady aim, because it measures a relative angle. For example, when a sextant is used on a moving ship, the image of both horizon and celestial object will move around in the field of view. However, the relative position of the two images will remain steady, as long as the user can determine when the celestial object touches the horizon, the accuracy of the measurement will remain high compared to the magnitude of the movement; the sextant is not dependent upon anything human-controlled. For these reasons, it is considered an eminently practical back-up navigation tool for ships; the frame of a sextant is in the shape of a sector, ​1⁄6 of a circle, hence its name. Both smaller and larger instruments are in use: the octant and the quadrant span sectors of ​1⁄8 of a circle, ​1⁄5 of a circle and ​1⁄4 of a circle, respectively. All of these instruments may be termed "sextants". Attached to the frame are the "horizon mirror", an index arm which moves the index mirror, a sighting telescope, sun shades, a graduated scale and a micrometer drum gauge for accurate measurements.

The scale must be graduated so that the marked degree divisions register twice the angle through which the index arm turns. The scales of the octant, sextant and quadrant are graduated from below zero to 90°, 120°, 140° and 180° respectively. For example, the sextant shown alongside has a scale graduated from −10° to 142°, so, a quintant: the frame is a sector of a circle subtending an angle of 76° at the pivot of the index arm; the necessity for the doubled scale reading follows by consideration of the relations of the fixed ray, the object ray and the direction of the normal perpendicular to the index mirror. When the index arm moves by an angle, say 20°, the angle between the fixed ray and the normal increases by 20°, but the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection so the angle between the object ray and the normal must increase by 20°. The angle between the fixed ray and the object ray must therefore increase by 40°; this is the case shown in the graphic alongside. There are two types of horizon mirrors on the market today.

Both types give good results. Traditional sextants have a half-horizon mirror. On one side, there is a view of the horizon; the advantage of this type is that both the horizon and celestial object are bright and as clear as possible. This is superior in haze, when the horizon can be difficult to see. However, one has to sweep the celestial object to ensure that the lowest limb of the celestial object touches the horizon. Whole-horizon sextants use; this makes it easy to see. Since most sights are of the sun or moon, haze is rare without overcast, the low-light advantages of the half-horizon mirror are important in practice. In both types, larger mirrors give a large

Doña Soledad Avenue

Doña Soledad Avenue is an east-west route in the southern Metro Manila city of Parañaque, Philippines. It is located in Don Bosco, Sun Valley and Moonwalk, which are Barangays located in northeastern Parañaque, it runs from its intersection with E. Rodriguez Avenue in the eastern edge of Moonwalk; the road continues to the east. It curves north for a few blocks turns east and heads for its terminus at Doña Soledad interchange of South Luzon Expressway and the Manila Skyway. East of SLEX, the avenue enters San Martin de Porres followed by Lower Bicutan, Taguig where it continues as General Santos Avenue, it was intended to be a private road meant for Better Living Subdivision residents, but was opened to outsiders because of the heavy traffic when Dr. Arcadio Santos Avenue was expanded; this caused poor road conditions on the private road and. It is plagued with Heavy Traffic due to non residents passing by. Better Living Subdivision Residents are hoping to have Doña Soledad Avenue be a private road again in the upcoming years With Limited or Tolled access to finance extensive rehabilitation.

The avenue was named after Doña Soledad Lirio Dolor, a former Assemblywoman from the province of Batangas and real estate developer who pursued several subdivision projects, including Better Living in Parañaque where this road passes. It is sometimes referred to by non-Parañaqueños as Bicutan Road being the road that goes to and from Bicutan. Starting the early 2000s, there has been a continued buildup of traffic along Doña Soledad Avenue; this can be attributed to the increasing number of homeowners and tenants within Better Living Subdivision and adjacent properties that use the avenue. Conversely, a high volume of pass-thru vehicular traffic has been observed. Most of these are private and delivery vehicles that use the avenue as a shortcut to and from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport; as of 2015, it can take two hours to traverse the 3.7 kilometer avenue during rush hours by commute. Three new property developments once completed can add to the volume of traffic which clogs the avenue.

These are: Azure Urban Resort Residences - located at the west service road corner Doña Soledad Avenue Amaia Steps Bicutan - located at the West Service Road corner Sun Valley Drive Amaranthe Land Development - located at the east service road near the DOST campus. Azure Urban Resort Residences Château Élysée Citra Metro Manila Tollways Corp. Parañaque Doctors Hospital PLDT - North Parañaque Office SM City Bicutan National Shrine of Mary Help of Christians The Cake Planet - bakeshop/cafe

Nikka Graff Lanzarone

Nikka Graff Lanzarone is an actress and dancer. On November 20, 1983, Lanzarone was born in California. Lanzarone's mother is an actress. Lanzarone's father is a composer. Lanzarone is the niece of director and actor Todd Graff Lanzarone graduated from the Boston Conservatory with a degree in Musical Theatre, her first professional performance following her education was in Jerry Mitchell's Peepshow in Las Vegas. Broadway saw her debut as Marisa in Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, based on the Pedro Almodóvar film of the same name, her last Broadway performance was in Chicago as the iconic Velma Kelly. Along with fellow Broadway actor Mo Brady, Graff is co-creator and host of The Ensemblist, an acclaimed podcast honoring and sharing experiences of the hardest working members of the theatrical community, chorus members. Broadway Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown Chicago Off-BroadwaySeussical The Musical Hello Again Zorba! Sweet Charity Bandslam.... New Art Teacher Outside the Box....

Marion Crane Unforgettable.... Heather Divorce The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel.... Myrna Nikka Graff Lanzarone on IMDb Video Nikka Graff Debut Nikka graff lanzarone in Broadway

Craig Spence (golfer)

Craig A. Spence is an Australian professional golfer. Spence was born in Colac and first played golf at the age of 10. Around the age of 15 he began competing at an amateur level, he went on to the Victorian Institute of Sport, winning two Victorian Amateurs back to back. He joined the PGA Tour of Australasia. In 1999 Spence made his professional breakthrough with victory in the Ericsson Australian Masters. Having opened up with a 9 under par first round, he finished by hitting a 6 iron to two feet for a birdie on the final hole to win by a single stroke over Australia's most successful golfer, playing partner Greg Norman. Following that win Spence received invites to tournaments around the world, on five of the major tours, he managed to record top 5 finishes in events on all of those tours. At the end of 1999, Spence earned his PGA Tour card for the 2000 season with a top 10 finish at the tour's Qualifying School, his rookie year on the PGA Tour was a struggle and he missed out on keeping a full card for 2001, finishing 129th on the money list.

He made just two cuts the following season to lose all playing rights on the tour. He spent two more years in the United States competing on mini-tours while receiving invites to a limited number of second tier Nationwide Tour events, he continued to play on the PGA Tour of Australasia with limited success. Spence turned his attentions to Europe at the end of 2003, earning a spot on the European Tour for 2004 via the qualifying school. In his début season, he made just three cuts, he returned to the United States, to play on the Gateway Tour in preparation for another try at qualifying for the PGA Tour. Having missed out on reaching the final qualifying tournament by one shot in 2006, he and his family moved back to Australia. Spence is married to an American, they have two children. 1994 Victoria State Amateur Championship 1995 Luxembourg Amateur Championship, Victoria State Amateur Championship PGA Tour of Australasia playoff record 1997 Borrego Springs Open Note: Spence never played in the Masters Tournament or the PGA Championship.

CUT = Missed the half-way cut 1999 PGA Tour Qualifying School graduates Craig Spence at the PGA Tour of Australasia official site Craig Spence at the PGA Tour official site Craig Spence at the European Tour official site Craig Spence at the Official World Golf Ranking official site

Salian dynasty

The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four German Kings. After the death of the last Saxon of the Ottonian Dynasty in 1024, the elective titles of King of the Germans and three years Holy Roman Emperor both passed to the first monarch of the Salian dynasty in the person of Conrad II, the only son of Count Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace, he was elected German King in 1024 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 26 March 1027. The four Salian kings of the dynasty—Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, Henry V—ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1125, established their monarchy as a major European power, they achieved the development of a permanent administrative system based on a class of public officials answerable to the crown. Werner of Worms and his son Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine, who died in 955, founded the ancestral dynasty. Conrad the Red married Liutgarde, a daughter of Emperor Otto I, their son Otto I, Duke of Carinthia ruled Carinthia from 978 to 1004.

Duke Otto had three sons: Bruno, who became Pope Gregory V. Henry was the father of the first Salian Emperor Conrad II. Pope Leo IX had family ties to the dynasty, since his grandfather Hugo III was the brother of Adelheid, the grandmother of Henry III. After the death of the last Saxon Emperor Henry II the first Salian regent Conrad II was elected by the majority of the Prince-electors and was crowned German king in Mainz on 8 September 1024. Early in 1026 Conrad went to Milan, where archbishop of Milan, crowned him king of Italy; when Rudolph III, King of Burgundy died 1032, Conrad II claimed this kingship on the basis of an inheritance Henry II had extorted from the former in 1006. Despite some opposition, the Burgundian and Provençal nobles paid homage to Conrad in Zürich in 1034; this Kingdom of Burgundy would become known as the Kingdom of Arles under Conrad's successors. In 1028 Conrad II had his son Henry III elected and anointed king of Germany. Henry's tenure led to an overstatement of unknown sacral kingship.

So during this reign Speyer Cathedral was expanded to be the largest church in Western Christendom. Henry's conception of a legitimate power of royal disposition in the duchies was successful against the dukes, thus secured royal control. However, in Lorraine, this led from which Henry emerged as the winner, but in southern Germany a powerful opposition group was formed in the years 1052–1055. 1046 Henry ended the papal schism, freed the Papacy from dependence on the Roman nobility, laid the basis for its universal applicability. His early death in 1056 was long regarded as a disaster for the Empire; the early Salians owed much of their success to their alliance with the Church, a policy begun by Otto I, which gave them the material support they needed to subdue rebellious dukes. In time, the Church came to regret this close relationship; the alliance broke down in 1075 during what came to be known as the Investiture Controversy, a struggle in which the reformist Pope, Gregory VII, demanded that Emperor Henry IV renounce his rights over the Church in Germany.

The pope attacked the concept of monarchy by divine right and gained the support of significant elements of the German nobility interested in limiting imperial absolutism. More important, the pope forbade ecclesiastical officials under pain of excommunication to support Henry as they had so done in the past. In the end, Henry IV journeyed to Canossa in northern Italy in 1077 to do penance and to receive absolution from the pope. However, he resumed the practice of lay investiture and arranged the election of an antipope in 1080; the monarch's struggle with the papacy resulted in a war that ravaged through the Holy Roman Empire from 1077 until the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The reign of the last ruler of the Salian dynasty Henry V coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, Henry V surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers; this agreement stipulated that the pope would appoint high church officials but gave the German king the right to veto the papal choices.

Imperial control of Italy was lost for a time, the imperial crown became dependent on the political support of competing aristocratic factions. Feudalism became more widespread as freemen sought protection by swearing allegiance to a lord; these powerful local rulers, having thereby acquired extensive territories and large military retinues, took over administration within their territories and organized it around an increasing number of castles. The most powerful of these local rulers came to be called princes rather than dukes. According to the laws of the feudal system of the Holy Roman Empire, the king had no claims on the vassals of the other princes, only on those living within his family's territory. Lacking the support of the independent vassals and weakened by the increasing hostility of the Church, the monarchy lost its pre-eminence, thus the Investiture Contest strengthened local power in the Holy Roman Empire – in contrast to the trend in France and England, where centralized royal power grew.

The Investiture Contest had an additional effect. The lon

Harry Coyne

John Henry Coyne was a politician in Queensland, Australia. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. John Henry Coyne was born on 16 January 1865 in Melbourne, the son of John Henry Coyne and his wife Margaret, he left school at 16 and took up fencing, shearing and many other professions. After finding his feet, he moved to Eulo, Queensland in 1890, he married Mary Elizabeth Gordon, a widow and had six children with her. Harry Coyne was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly at the 1908 election in the electoral district of Warrego, he held the seat until he retired on 31 July 1923. During that period, he was Chairman of Committees from 15 July 1915 to 12 October 1916, Secretary for Railways from 13 October 1916 to 30 April 1918, Secretary for Public Lands from 22 October 1919 to 12 November 1920 Minister without Office from 12 November 1920 to 16 December 1920, again Secretary for Public Lands from 16 December 1920 to 2 July 1923. Harry Coyne was the chairman of a number of subcommittees of the Queensland War Council including those concerned with Anzac Cottage Trust and the commemoration of Anzac Day.

He was involved in the construction of Anzac Avenue to Redcliffe. On 7 June 1926, Harry Coyne was the passenger in a taxi that hit an electric light pole outside the Excelsior Hotel in Flinders Street, Townsville. Without having recovered consciousness, Harry Coyne died on 12 June 1926 surrounded by his family; the taxi driver Otto Korn was hospitalised but survived. Harry Coyne was accorded the honour of a state funeral, held at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church on the corner of Ann Street and Edward Street, Brisbane, on 16 June 1926, after which he was buried in Toowong Cemetery. Members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 1908–1909.