Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics, weight, colour and may include behavioral and cognitive differences; these differences may be subtle or exaggerated, may be subjected to sexual selection and natural selection. The opposite of dimorphism is monomorphism. Common and identified types of dimorphism consist of ornamentation and coloration, though not always apparent. A difference in coloration of sexes within a given species is called sexual dichromatism, seen in many species of birds and reptiles. Sexual selection leads to the exaggerated dimorphic traits that are used predominantly in competition over mates; the increased fitness resulting from ornamentation offsets its cost to produce or maintain suggesting complex evolutionary implications, but the costs and evolutionary implications vary from species to species.
Exaggerated ornamental traits are used predominantly in the competition over mates, implying sexual selection. Ornaments may be costly to produce or maintain, which has complex evolutionary implications but the costs and implications differ depending on the nature of the ornamentation; the peafowl constitute conspicuous illustrations of the principle. The ornate plumage of peacocks, as used in the courting display, attracts peahens. At first sight one might mistake peacocks and peahens for different species because of the vibrant colours and the sheer size of the male's plumage; the plumage of the peacock increases its vulnerability to predators because it is a hindrance in flight, it renders the bird conspicuous in general. Similar examples are such as in birds of paradise and argus pheasants. Another example of sexual dichromatism is that of the nestling blue tits. Males are chromatically more yellow than females, it is believed that this is obtained by the ingestion of green lepidopteran larvae, which contain large amounts of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin.
This diet affects the sexually dimorphic colours in the human-invisible UV spectrum. Hence, the male birds, although appearing yellow to humans have a violet-tinted plumage, seen by females; this plumage is thought to be an indicator of male parental abilities. This is a good indicator for females because it shows that they are good at obtaining a food supply from which the carotenoid is obtained. There is a positive correlation between the chromas of the tail and breast feathers and body condition. Carotenoids play an important role in immune function for many animals, so carotenoid dependent signals might indicate health. Frogs constitute another conspicuous illustration of the principle. There are two types of dichromatism for frog species: ontogenetic and dynamic. Ontogenetic frogs have permanent color changes in males or females. Litoria lesueuri is an example of a dynamic frog that has temporary color changes in males during breeding season. Hyperolius ocellatus is an ontogenetic frog with dramatic differences in both color and pattern between the sexes.
At sexual maturity, the males display a bright green with white dorsolateral lines. In contrast, the females are rusty red to silver with small spots; the bright coloration in the male population serves to attract females and as an aposematic sign to potential predators. Females show a preference for exaggerated male secondary sexual characteristics in mate selection; the sexy son hypothesis explains that females prefer more elaborate males and select against males that are dull in color, independent of the species' vision. Similar sexual dimorphism and mating choice are observed in many fish species. For example, male guppies have colorful spots and ornamentations while females are grey in color. Female guppies prefer brightly colored males to duller males. In redlip blennies, only the male fish develops an organ at the anal-urogenital region that produces antimicrobial substances. During parental care, males rub their anal-urogenital regions over their nests' internal surfaces, thereby protecting their eggs from microbial infections, one of the most common causes for mortality in young fish.
Most flower plants are hermaphroditic but 6% of species have separate males and females. Males and females in insect-pollinated species look similar to one another because plants provide rewards that encourage pollinators to visit another similar flower, completing pollination. Catasetum orchids are one interesting exception to this rule. Male Catasetum orchids violently attach pollinia to euglossine bee pollinators; the bees will avoid other male flowers but may visit the female, which looks different from the males. Various other dioecious exceptions, such as Loxostylis alata have visibly different genders, with the effect of eliciting the most efficient behaviour from pollinators, who use the most efficient strategy in visiting each gender of flower instead of searching say, for pollen in a nectar-bearing female flower; some plants, such as some species of Geranium have. The flowers of such species might for example present their anthers on opening shed the exhausted anthers after a day or two and change their colours as well while the pistil matures.
Some such plants go further and change their appearance a
Missing Millions is a 1922 American silent drama film directed by Joseph Henabery and written by Jack Boyle and Albert S. Le Vino; the Boston Blackie film stars Alice Brady, David Powell, Frank Losee, Riley Hatch, John B. Cooke, William B. Mack, George LeGuere; the film was released on September 1922, by Paramount Pictures. Alice Brady as Mary Dawson David Powell as Boston Blackie Frank Losee as Jim Franklin Riley Hatch as Detective John Webb John B. Cooke as Handsome Harry Hawks William B. Mack as Thomas Dawson George LeGuere as Daniel Regan Alice May as Mrs. Regan H. Cooper Cliffe as Sir Arthur Cumberland Sydney Deane as Donald Gordon Beverly Travers as Claire Dupont Sidney Herbert as Frank Garber Missing Millions is considered to be a lost film. Missing Millions on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie
Shawn Edward Barton is an American professional baseball scout and a former Major League Baseball relief pitcher who appeared in 73 games pitched for the Seattle Mariners and San Francisco Giants. Born in Los Angeles, California, he threw left-handed, batted right-handed, stood 6 feet 3 inches tall and weighed 195 pounds. Barton attended the University of Nevada and was selected by the Philadelphia Phillies in the 21st round of the 1984 Major League Baseball Draft, he passed into the organizations of the New York Mets and Atlanta Braves before signing with the Mariners as a free agent. He made his MLB debut with them, at age 29, in August 1992 and worked in 14 games and 121⁄3 innings pitched during the course of the season, allowed ten hits and seven bases on balls, compiled an earned run average of 2.92, with no decisions and no saves. However, he spent all of 1993 with the Mariners' Triple-A affiliate, the Calgary Cannons, was released at the end of the campaign. Signed by the Giants, he spent all of 1994 and the early weeks of 1995 with the Triple-A Phoenix Firebirds before his recall in May.
Used in short relief and as a situational lefty, he worked in 51 games for the Giants over the remainder of the season, winning four of five decisions and notching one save. In 44 1⁄3 innings, he gave up 19 bases on balls. However, his earned run average rose to 4.26. In 1996, he was effective in his first three outings. However, his ineffectiveness in his next four appearances resulted in his demotion to Phoenix, where he spent the rest of his final active season. Altogether, as a Major Leaguer, he gave up 66 hits and 27 walks with 29 strikeouts. Barton remained in the game, however, as a minor league pitching coach in the Giants' and Los Angeles Dodgers' farm systems, an area scout for the Arizona Diamondbacks. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pura Pelota