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Sexual objectification

Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as an object of sexual desire. Objectification more broadly means treating a person as a commodity or an object without regard to their personality or dignity. Objectification is most examined at the level of a society, but can refer to the behavior of individuals and is a type of dehumanization. Although both males and females can be sexually objectified, it is associated with the objectification of women, is an important idea in many feminist theories and psychological theories derived from them. Sexual objectification of girls and women contributes to gender inequality, many psychologists associate objectification with a host of physical and mental health risks in women; the sexual objectification of women involves them being viewed as an object of male sexual desire, rather than as a whole person. Although opinions differ as to which situations are objectionable, many see objectification of women taking place in the sexually oriented depictions of women in advertising and media, the occupations of stripping and prostitution, women being brazenly evaluated or judged sexually or aesthetically in public spaces and events, such as beauty contests.

Some feminists and psychologists argue that sexual objectification can lead to negative psychological effects including eating disorders and sexual dysfunction, can give women negative self-images because of the belief that their intelligence and competence are not being, nor will be, acknowledged by society. Sexual objectification of women has been found to negatively affect women's performance and level of position in the workplace. How objectification has affected women and society in general is a topic of academic debate, with some saying girls' understanding of the importance of appearance in society may contribute to feelings of fear and disgust during the transition to womanhood, others saying that young women are susceptible to objectification, as they are taught that power and wealth can be derived from one's outward appearance. Pro-feminist cultural critics such as Robert Jensen and Sut Jhally accuse mass media and advertising of promoting the objectification of women to help promote goods and services, the television and film industries are accused of normalizing the sexual objectification of women.

The objection to the objectification of women is not a recent phenomenon. In the French Enlightenment, for example, there was a debate as to whether a woman's breasts were a sensual enticement or rather a natural gift. In Alexandre Guillaume Mouslier de Moissy's 1771 play The True Mother, the title character rebukes her husband for treating her as an object for his sexual gratification: "Are your senses so gross as to look on these breasts – the respectable treasures of nature – as an embellishment, destined to ornament the chest of women?"The issues concerning sexual objectification became first problemized during the 1970s by feminist groups. Since it has been argued that the phenomenon of female sexual objectification has increased drastically since its problematization in all levels of life, has resulted in negative consequences for women in the political sphere. However, a rising form of new third-waver feminist groups have taken the increased objectification of women as an opportunity to use the female body as a mode of power.

Some have argued that the feminist movement itself has contributed to the problem of the sexual objectification of women by promoting "free" love. One study found that men exposed to media content in which women were objectified were more to accept those behaviors than men who were exposed to content where women were not objectified. Ariel Levy contends that Western women who exploit their sexuality by, for example, wearing revealing clothing and engaging in lewd behavior, engage in female self-objectification, meaning they objectify themselves. While some women see such behaviour as a form of empowerment, Levy contends that it has led to greater emphasis on a physical criterion or sexualization for women's perceived self-worth, which Levy calls "raunch culture". Levy discusses this phenomenon in Female Chauvinist Pigs: the Rise of Raunch Culture. Levy followed the camera crew from the Girls Gone Wild video series, argues that contemporary America's sexualized culture not only objectifies women, it encourages women to objectify themselves.

In today's culture, Levy writes, the idea of a woman participating in a wet T-shirt contest or being comfortable watching explicit pornography has become a symbol of feminist strength. Jordan Peterson has asked why women need to wear make-up or high-heels in the workplace, that a double standard exists for sexual harassment and females who self-objectify themselves in society. Male sexual objectification involves a man being viewed as an object of sexual desire, rather than as a whole person. Christina Hoff Sommers and Naomi Wolf write that women's sexual liberation led women to a role reversal, whereby they viewed men as sex objects, in a manner similar to what they criticize about men's treatment of women. Psychologist Harold Lyon suggests that men's liberation is a necessary step toward woman's liberation. Instances where men may be viewed as sex objects by women include advertisements, music videos, television shows, beefcake calendars, women's magazines, male strip shows, clothed female/nude male events.

Women purchase and consume pornography. Within gay male communities, men are objectified by other men. Sexual objectification

Blackness, Falkirk

Blackness is a small village and harbour at Blackness Bay, an inlet of the Firth of Forth in Scotland. It lies 3.4 miles east-southeast of Bo'ness, 5.0 miles west-northwest of South Queensferry and 3.8 miles north-east of Linlithgow, within the council area of Falkirk. It was part of the historic county of West Lothian. At the 2001 Census Blackness was reported as having a population of around 135 residents; the village served as a port for nearby Linlithgow, a principal residence of the Scottish monarchs from as early as the 12th century. As a port, Blackness was superseded by Bo'ness, fell into decline from the 17th century. Blackness Yacht Club use the village as a base for its sailing activities; the small village is dominated by Blackness Castle, situated on a promontory overlooking the bay. The castle was both a residence and a prison before passing to Crown ownership in 1453; the castle is under the care of Historic Scotland and has been used as a setting for several films including Hamlet, the BBC production of Ivanhoe.

In addition to the castle and the boat club, the village contains a small variety shop and a pub restaurant. The old smithy has long since shut its doors. List of places in Falkirk council area Gazetteer for Scotland Blackness Community

1857 Belgian general election

General elections were held in Belgium on 10 December 1857, the first full general elections since 1848. The elections were called by royal order of 12 November 1857, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives that had convened in a new session only two days earlier. Going into the elections, Liberals held a majority in the Senate and the Catholics in the Chamber of Representatives; the unionist De Decker government resigned and a liberal government led by Charles Rogier took over shortly before the elections were called. In the elections for the Chamber of Representatives the result was a victory for the Liberal Party, which won 70 of the 108 seats; the Liberal Party now had a majority in both chambers of parliament. Voter turnout was 79.3 %. Twelve of the 108 seats were uncontested, of which the Liberals won three and the Catholics nine

Marina Towers (Beirut)

Marina Towers project is a residential complex in Beirut Central District, Lebanon. It is located near the Beirut Marina and consists of a high-rise apartment building, Marina Tower, two mid-rise apartment buildings, Marina Court and Marina Garden. Designed by the renowned firm of architects Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, the Marina Towers project is built on over 7,000 square metres of land with the main tower reaching a height of 150 metres, making it the second tallest building in Lebanon; the Marina Towers project is on the Mediterranean Sea. The project consists of three distinct elements, the Marina Tower, the Marina Garden, the Marina Court; the orientation of the Marina Tower is set on the radial axis of the harbor, emphasizing its vital link with the Beirut Western Marina. A crescent shape has been used in the design of the structure to incorporate the rounded forms of waterfront architecture and provide each of the apartments with dramatic panoramas to the sea, the mountains, the Beirut Central District Park and the Marina.

The contemplative, clean-lined architecture consists of 26 floors. The entire structure uses stone and glass with a combination of aluminum curtain walls and clear double-glazing that extends all the way to the top. Residents with boats can use a nearby floating slip. Directly adjacent to the Marina Tower is the Marina Garden, an area offering the choice of smaller, units that are surrounded by over 3,000 square metres of gardens; as a complement to the Tower and Garden, the Court offers space with smaller, more adaptable, modular surface areas that allow for a possible expansion by joining apartments. Each apartment has 3.4-meter-high ceilings, glass walls, trendy space management, intended to make the most of each square meter. Ministry of Tourism Tourism in Lebanon Beirut Central District Marina Towers on Emporis Marina Tower on Phorio

Michael Duffy (footballer)

Michael Duffy is an Irish footballer who plays for Dundalk. Duffy is a product of the Derry City youth team and made his first appearance for the senior team at Richmond Park on 3 September 2012 as a second-half substitute in a 3–0 defeat to St Patrick's Athletic. Duffy scored his first league goal in the 1–0 win away to Shelbourne on 8 June 2013; as a 19-year-old Duffy scored against Aberystwyth Town and Shakhtyor Soligorsk in the Europa League and netted a hat-trick in July on his 20th birthday in a league match against UCD. In October 2014 it was reported. In February 2015 he was transferred to Scottish club Celtic. Duffy has not impressed in the Development squad. In July 2015, he was loaned to Alloa Athletic on a six-month deal. At the start of 2016, Duffy was reported to be extending his stay at Alloa until the end of the 2015–16 season. On 27 February 2016, Duffy scored his first goal for Alloa in a 3–1 home loss to Livingston. Duffy went on to score the only goal in a 1–0 win against Hibs and was on target in a 1–1 draw with Rangers.

Duffy was named as Alloa Advertiser Player of the Year. On 30 June 2016, Duffy moved on loan to Dundee. Duffy signed for Irish champions Dundalk in January 2017, he was part of the team that won the EA Sports Cup in September, but he missed the crucial penalty in their shoot-out defeat to Cork City in the FAI Cup Final in November. The following season Duffy was a near ever-present in the side that won the 2018 League and FAI Cup Double and Duffy was subsequently honoured by his fellow professionals by being awarded the PFAI Players' Player of the Year award. On the 26 August 2018 it was reported that he intended to make the switch from playing for Northern Ireland to the Republic of Ireland. Michael Duffy was called up to the Home-Based Republic of Ireland under-18 by Paul Doolin on 1 February 2012 for a friendly game against Wales. On 15 February, he played the entire game in a 2 -- 1 defeat at Wexford. Duffy has since represented Northern Ireland at under-21 level, he made his debut for the under-21 team on 9 September 2014 in a 4–1 defeat against Serbia at Shamrock Park, Portadown.

On 24 August 2016 Duffy received his first call up to the senior Northern Ireland squad by manager Michael O'Neill. In August 2018 Duffy stated his intention of playing for the Republic of Ireland. Dundalk League of Ireland Premier Division: 2018, 2019 FAI Cup: 2018 League of Ireland Cup: 2017, 2019 President's Cup: 2019Awards PFAI Players' Player of the Year: 2018 As of 4 November 2019 Michael Duffy at Soccerbase

Aivars Gipslis

Aivars Gipslis was a Latvian chess FIDE Grandmaster and an ICCF Grandmaster, a chess writer and editor. Born in Riga, he was champion of Latvia in 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1966, he played in several Soviet Chess Championships, his best result coming in 1966, when he was equal third with 12/20. Gipslis did not advance to the Candidates' level, his best tournament result was the Alekhine Memorial 1967 in Moscow, where he finished on 10/17, a point behind the winner Leonid Stein. His second place was shared with Milko Bobotsov and two World Champions, Vasily Smyslov and Mikhail Tal, ahead of two others, Boris Spassky and Tigran Petrosian, among a host of other strong players, his other outstanding tournament results include equal first at Bad Liebenstein 1963 with Lev Polugaevsky, equal second at Budapest 1977 behind David Bronstein. Drink affected his performance in years, but he continued to play right up to the year of his death. Gipslis became a Grandmaster in 1967, he edited the Latvian chess periodical Šahs from 1963.

Gipslis played for USSR in the World Student Team Chess Championships of 1957, 1958 and 1959 and in the European Team Chess Championship of 1970. He played for Latvia in the World Team Chess Championship of 1993. With the white pieces, he most opened 1.e4. His repertoire as Black was more varied, he is the eponym of the Gipslis Variation of the Sicilian Defence, which he played as Black several times in the 1960s: 1.e4 c5 2. Nf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 a6 5. Bd3 Nf6 6.0-0 d6 7.c4 g6. Viktor Kupreichik vs Aivars Gipslis, Olympiad URS 1972, Alekhine Defense: Four Pawns Attack, Main Line, 0–1 Ivica Raicevic vs Aivars Gipslis, Vrnjačka Banja 1975, English Opening: King's English, Four Knights Variation General, 0–1 Aivars Gipslis vs Artur Sygulski, Jūrmala 1987, Italian Game: Classical Variation, Giuoco Pianissimo, 1–0 Karoly Honfi vs Aivars Gipslis, Nimzo-Indian Defense: Classical. Berlin Variation Pirc Variation · Bibliography Hooper, David; the Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. P. 153.

ISBN 0-19-280049-3. Kirillov, Valentin. Team Tal: An Inside Story. Moscow: Elk and Ruby Publishing House. ISBN 5-950-04330-8. Aivars Gipslis player profile and games at