Michel de Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with intellectual insight, his massive volume, contains some of the most influential essays written. Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, on the works of William Shakespeare. During his lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author; the tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather than as an innovation, his declaration that, "I am myself the matter of my book", was viewed by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, Montaigne came to be recognized as embodying better than any other author of his time, the spirit of entertaining doubt that began to emerge at that time.
He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que sçay-je?". Montaigne was born in the Aquitaine region of France, on the family estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called, Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux; the family was wealthy. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and he had been the mayor of Bordeaux. Although there were several families bearing the patronym "Eyquem" in Guyenne, his father's family is thought to have had some degree of Marrano origins, while his mother, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism, his maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano family that had converted to Catholicism. His maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in France. During a great part of Montaigne's life his mother lived near him and survived him, but is mentioned only twice in his essays. Montaigne's relationship with his father, however, is reflected upon and discussed in his essays.
Montaigne's education began in early childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latter's humanist friends. Soon after his birth, Montaigne was brought to a small cottage, where he lived the first three years of life in the sole company of a peasant family, in order to, according to the elder Montaigne, "draw the boy close to the people, to the life conditions of the people, who need our help". After these first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château. Another objective was for Latin to become his first language; the intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor. His father hired only servants who could speak Latin, they were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin; the same rule applied to his mother and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he employed, thus they acquired a knowledge of the language his tutor taught him. Montaigne's Latin education was accompanied by spiritual stimulation.
He was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical method that employed games and exercises of solitary meditation, rather than the more traditional books. The atmosphere of the boy's upbringing, although designed by refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boy's life the spirit of "liberty and delight" that he would describe as making him "relish... duty by an unforced will, of my own voluntary motion...without any severity or constraint". And so a musician woke him every morning, playing one instrument or another, an épinettier was the constant companion to Montaigne and his tutor, playing tunes to alleviate boredom and tiredness. Around the year 1539, Montaigne was sent to study at a highly-regarded boarding school in Bordeaux, the Collège de Guyenne under the direction of the greatest Latin scholar of the era, George Buchanan, where he mastered the whole curriculum by his thirteenth year, he began his study of law at the University of Toulouse in 1546 and entered a career in the local legal system.
He was a counselor of the Court des Aides of Périgueux and, in 1557, he was appointed counselor of the Parlement in Bordeaux, a high court. From 1561 to 1563 he was courtier at the court of Charles IX and he was present with the king at the siege of Rouen, he was awarded the highest honour of the French nobility, the collar of the Order of St. Michael, something to which he aspired from his youth. While serving at the Bordeaux Parlement, he became a close friend of the humanist poet Étienne de la Boétie, whose death in 1563 affected Montaigne, it has been suggested by Donald M. Frame, in his introduction to The Complete Essays of Montaigne that because of Montaigne's "imperious need to communicate", after losing Étienne he began the Essais as a new "means of communication" and that "the reader takes the place of the dead friend". Montaigne married Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565 in an arranged marriage, she was the niece of wealthy merchants of Toulouse and Bordeaux. They
Shakespeare's sonnets are poems that William Shakespeare wrote on a variety of themes. When discussing or referring to Shakespeare’s sonnets, it is always a reference to the 154 sonnets that were first published all together in a quarto in 1609. Shakespeare’s sonnets are considered a continuation of the sonnet tradition that swept through the Renaissance, from Petrarch in 14th-century Italy and was introduced in 16th-century England by Thomas Wyatt. With few exceptions, Shakespeare’s sonnets observe the stylistic form of the English sonnet — the rhyme scheme, the 14 lines, the meter, but Shakespeare’s sonnets introduce such significant departures of content that they seem to be rebelling against well-worn 200-year-old traditions. Instead of expressing worshipful love for an goddess-like yet unobtainable female love-object, as Petrarch and Philip Sidney had done, Shakespeare introduces a young man, he introduces the Dark Lady, no goddess. Shakespeare explores themes such as lust, misogyny and acrimony in ways that may challenge, but which open new terrain for the sonnet form.
The primary source of Shakespeare’s sonnets is a quarto published in 1609 titled Shake-speare’s Sonnets. It contains 154 sonnets, which are followed by the long poem "A Lover's Complaint". Thirteen copies of the quarto have survived in good shape from the 1609 edition, the only edition. There is evidence in a note on the title page of one of the extant copies that the great Elizabethan actor Edward Alleyn bought a copy in June 1609 for one shilling; the sonnets cover such themes as the passage of time, infidelity, jealousy and mortality. The first 126 are addressed to a young man; the title of the quarto, Shakespeare’s Sonnets, is consistent with the entry in the Stationer Register. The title appears in upper case lettering on the title page, where it is followed by the phrase “Neuer before Imprinted”; the title appears every time the quarto is opened. That the author’s name in a possessive form is part of the title sets it apart from all other sonnet collections of the time, except for one — Sir Philip Sidney’s posthumous 1591 publication, titled, Syr.
P. S, his Astrophel and Stella, considered one of Shakespeare’s most important models. Sidney’s title may have inspired Shakespeare if the “W. H." of Shakespeare's dedication is heir, William Herbert. The idea that the persona referred to as the speaker of the Shakespeare’s sonnets might be Shakespeare himself, is aggressively repudiated by scholars, the title of the quarto does seem to encourage that kind of speculation; the first 17 poems, traditionally called the procreation sonnets, are addressed to the young man – urging him to marry and have children in order to immortalize his beauty by passing it to the next generation. Other sonnets express the speaker's love for the young man; the final two sonnets are allegorical treatments of Greek epigrams referring to the "little love-god" Cupid. The publisher, Thomas Thorpe, entered the book in the Stationers' Register on 20 May 1609: Tho. Thorpe. Entred for his copie under the handes of master Wilson and master Lownes Wardenes a booke called Shakespeares sonnettes vjd.
Whether Thorpe used an authorised manuscript from Shakespeare or an unauthorised copy is unknown. George Eld printed the quarto, the run was divided between the booksellers William Aspley and John Wright. Shakespeare's Sonnets include a dedication to "Mr. W. H.": TO. THE. ONLIE. BEGETTER. OF. THESE. INSUING. SONNETS. Mr. W. H. ALL. HAPPINESSE. AND. THAT. ETERNITIE. PROMISED. BY. OUR. EVER-LIVING. POET. WISHETH. THE. WELL-WISHING. ADVENTURER. IN. SETTING. FORTH. T. T; the upper case letters and the stops that follow each word of the dedication were intended to resemble an ancient Roman lapidary inscription or monumental brass accentuating the declaration in Sonnet 55 that the work would confer immortality to the subjects of the work: “Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Of princes shall outlive this pow'rful rhyme”The initials "T. T." are taken to refer to the publisher, Thomas Thorpe, though Thorpe signed prefatory matter only if the author was out of the country or dead. However, Thorpe's entire corpus of such consists of three prefaces.
It has been suggested that Thorpe signing the dedication, rather than the author, might indicate that Thorpe published the work without obtaining Shakespeare's permission. Though Thorpe's taking on the dedication may be explained by the great demands of business and travel that Shakespeare was facing at this time, which may have caused him to deal with the printing production in haste before rushing out of town. After all, May 1609 was an extraordinary time: That month saw a serious outbreak of the plague, which shut down the theatres, caused many to flee London. Plus Shakespeare’s theatre company was on tour from Ipswich to Oxford. In addition, Shakespeare had been away from Stratford and in the same month, was being called on to tend to family and business there, deal with the litigation of a lawsuit in Warwickshire that involved a substantial amount of money; the identity of Mr. W. H. “the only begetter of Shakespeare's Sonnets”, is not known for certain. His identi
A consistory court is a type of ecclesiastical court within the Church of England where they were established pursuant to a charter of King William the Conqueror, still exist today, although since about the middle of the 19th century consistory courts have lost much of their subject-matter jurisdiction. Each diocese in the Church of England has a consistory court. Consistory courts have been in existence in England since shortly after the Norman conquest and their jurisdiction and operation was unaffected by the English reformations; the jurisdiction of consistory courts was wide indeed and covered such matters as defamation and matrimonial causes as well as a general jurisdiction over both clergy and laity in relation to matters relating to church discipline and to morality more and to the use and control of consecrated church property within the diocese. The judge of the consistory court, appointed by the bishop, was the bishop’s official principal and vicar-general of the diocese and became known in his judicial capacity by the title “chancellor”.
Appeals lay from the consistory court to the provincial court of the archbishop. In the province of Canterbury, the Archbishop’s court was known as the Court of Arches and was presided over by the Archbishop’s official principal, known as the Dean of the Arches. In the province of York, appeals lay to the Chancery Court of York presided over by the Archbishop of York’s official principal, the Auditor; until 1532 further appeal lay to Rome. By the end of the eighteenth century, the exercise of jurisdiction over the laity in moral matters had fallen into desuetude, but there was no reform of the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts until the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1855 the defamation jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical court was brought to an end and in 1857 the probate jurisdiction was transferred to the newly created Court of Probate and the matrimonial jurisdiction to the newly-created Divorce Court. Both of these new courts were temporal rather than ecclesiastical courts. A major part of the jurisdiction left to the ecclesiastical courts was that which concerned the control of consecrated ecclesiastical property – churches and their churchyards and certain other consecrated places such as municipal burial grounds.
The other major aspect of their jurisdiction which remained was their criminal jurisdiction in relation to the clergy – i.e. their jurisdiction to deal with allegations of ecclesiastical offences against the clergy. Following a report in 1954 from the Archbishops’ Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts, the ecclesiastical courts were put on a statutory footing by the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Measure 1963; the jurisdiction of the consistory courts was not much altered by the 1963 Measure save that criminal jurisdiction over the clergy where the case involved a question of doctrine, ritual or ceremonial was transferred to a new court called the Court of Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved. A further reform took place more when the Clergy Discipline Measure 2003 transferred the criminal jurisdiction over the clergy to new “bishop’s tribunals” with modern tribunal procedure and a revised scheme of statutory penalties. Consistory courts are The Queen's courts with the ultimate appellate authority being either Her Majesty in Council or a Commission of Review directed by Her Majesty under the Great Seal.
They are superior courts in the sense that it need not appear in any proceedings or judgments of a consistory courts that the court was acting within its jurisdiction. A consistory court has the same powers as the High Court in relation to the attendance and examination of witnesses and the production and inspection of documents. If any person does or omits to do anything in connection with proceedings before, or with an order made by, a consistory court that constitutes contempt of the consistory court, that person is liable to be punished by the High Court as if that person hade been guilty of contempt of the High Court; the consistory court of a diocese has jurisdiction to hear and determine— proceedings for obtaining a faculty to authorise an act relating to land in the diocese, or to something on, in or otherwise appertaining to land there, for which a faculty is required.
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
Judith Quiney, née Shakespeare, was the younger daughter of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway and the fraternal twin of their only son Hamnet Shakespeare. She married a vintner of Stratford-upon-Avon; the circumstances of the marriage, including Quiney's misconduct, may have prompted the rewriting of Shakespeare's will. Thomas was struck out, while Judith's inheritance was attached with provisions to safeguard it from her husband; the bulk of Shakespeare's estate was left, in an elaborate fee tail, to his elder daughter Susanna and her male heirs. Judith and Thomas Quiney had three children. By the time of Judith Quiney's death, she had outlived her children by many years, she has been depicted in several works of fiction as part of an attempt to piece together unknown portions of her father's life. Judith Shakespeare was the daughter of Anne Hathaway, she was the twin sister of Hamnet. Hamnet, died at the age of eleven, her baptism on 2 February 1585 was recorded as "Judeth Shakespeare" by the vicar, Richard Barton of Coventry, in the parish register for Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon.
The twins were named after a husband and wife and Judith Sadler, who were friends of the parents. Hamnet Sadler was a baker in Stratford. Unlike her father and her husband, Judith Shakespeare was illiterate. In 1611, she witnessed the deed of sale of a house for £131 to William Mountford, a wheelwright of Stratford, from Elizabeth Quiney, her future mother-in-law, Elizabeth's eldest son Adrian. Judith signed twice with a mark instead of her name. On 10 February 1616, Judith Shakespeare married Thomas Quiney, a vintner of Stratford, in Holy Trinity Church; the assistant vicar, Richard Watts, who married Quiney's sister Mary officiated. The wedding took place during the pre-Lenten season of Shrovetide, a prohibitive time for marriages. In 1616, the period in which marriages were banned without dispensation from the church, including Ash Wednesday and Lent, started on 23 January, Septuagesima Sunday and ended on 7 April, the Sunday after Easter. Hence the marriage required a special licence issued by the Bishop of Worcester, which the couple had failed to obtain.
They had posted the required banns in church, since Walter Wright of Stratford was cited for marrying without banns or licence: but this was not considered sufficient. The infraction was a minor one caused by the minister, as three other couples were wed that February. Quiney was summoned by Walter Nixon to appear before the Consistory court in Worcester.. Quiney failed to appear by the required date; the register recorded the judgement, excommunication, on or about 12 March 1616. It is unknown if Judith was excommunicated, but in any case the punishment did not last long. In November of the same year they were back in church for the baptism of their firstborn child; the marriage did not begin well. Quiney had impregnated another woman, Margaret Wheeler, who died in childbirth along with her child. A few days on 26 March, Quiney appeared before the Bawdy Court, which dealt, among other things, with "whoredom and uncleanliness." Confessing in open court to "carnal copulation" with Margaret Wheeler, he submitted himself for correction and was sentenced to open penance "in a white sheet" before the Congregation on three Sundays.
He had to admit to his crime, this time wearing ordinary clothes, before the Minister of Bishopton in Warwickshire. The first part of the sentence was remitted letting him off with a five-shilling fine to be given to the parish's poor; as Bishopton had no church, but only a chapel, he was spared any public humiliation. Where the Quineys lived after their marriage is unknown: but Judith owned her father's cottage on Chapel Lane, Stratford; the cottage passed from Judith to her sister as part of the settlement in their father's will. In July 1616 Thomas swapped houses with his brother-in-law, William Chandler, moving his vintner's shop to the upper half of a house at the corner of High Street and Bridge Street; this house is the house traditionally associated with Judith Quiney. In the 20th century The Cage was for a time a Wimpy Bar before being turned into the Stratford Information Office; the Cage provides further insight into. Around 1630 Quiney was prevented by his kinsmen. In 1633, to protect the interests of Judith and the children, the lease was signed over to the trust of John Hall, Susanna's husband, Thomas Nash, the husband of Judith's niece, Richard Watts, vicar of nearby Harbury, Quiney's brother-in-law and who had officiated at Thomas and Judith's wedding.
In November 1652, the lease to The Cage ended up in the hands of Thomas' eldest brother, Richard Quiney, a grocer in London. The inauspicious beginnings of Judith's marriage, in spite of her husband and his family being otherwise unexceptional, has led to speculation that this was the cause for William Shakespeare's hastily altered last will and testament, he first summoned his lawyer, Francis Collins, in January 1616. On 25 March he made further alterations because he was dying and because of his concerns about Quiney. In the first bequest of the will there had been a provision "vnto my sonne in L".
The "Chandos" portrait is the most famous of the portraits that may depict William Shakespeare. Painted between 1600 and 1610, it may have served as the basis for the engraved portrait of Shakespeare used in the First Folio in 1623, it is named after the Dukes of Chandos, who owned the painting. The portrait was given to the National Portrait Gallery, London on its foundation in 1856, it is listed as the first work in its collection, it has not been possible to determine with certainty who painted the portrait, nor whether it depicts Shakespeare. However, the National Portrait Gallery believes that it does depict the writer, it has been claimed that Shakespeare's friend Richard Burbage painted the Chandos portrait, but the first known reference to the painting is in a note written in 1719 by George Vertue, who states that it was painted by John Taylor, a respected member of the Painter-Stainers' company who may have been the same John Taylor who acted with the Children of Paul's. Vertue refers to Taylor as an actor and painter and as Shakespeare's "intimate friend".
Katherine Duncan-Jones argues that'John Taylor' could have been a misreading of what had been "Jo: Taylor". Vertue states that before the Duke of Chandos acquired it, the portrait was owned by Shakespeare's possible godson, William Davenant, according to the gossip chronicler John Aubrey, claimed to be the playwright's illegitimate son, he states that it was left to Davenant in Taylor's will and that it was bought by Thomas Betterton from Davenant and sold to the lawyer Robert Keck, a collector of Shakespeare memorabilia. After Keck's death in 1719, it passed to his daughter, was inherited by John Nichol, who married into the Keck family. Nichol's daughter Margaret married James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos; the painting passed through descent within the Chandos title until Richard Temple-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos sold it to the Earl of Ellesmere in 1848. Ellesmere donated it to the National Portrait Gallery. A contemporary image of the playwright is the engraving in the posthumously published First Folio of 1623, created by Martin Droeshout and was commissioned by Shakespeare's friends and family.
It is considered that the Droeshout engraving is a reasonably accurate likeness because of the use by these close associates and that contemporaries such as Ben Jonson praised it at the time of the publication. Since the man in the Chandos portrait resembles the one in the Droeshout engraving, the similarity lends an indirect legitimacy to the oil painting. A further indication of legitimacy is the fact that the Chandos portrait was the inspiration for two posthumous portraits of Shakespeare, one by Gerard Soest and another, grander one, known as the "Chesterfield portrait" after a former owner of that painting; these were painted in the 1660s or 1670s, within living memory of Shakespeare. The Chesterfield portrait is held by the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust in Stratford-upon-Avon. In 2006, Tarnya Cooper of the National Portrait Gallery completed a three-and-a-half-year study of portraits purported to be of Shakespeare and concluded that the Chandos portrait was most a representation of Shakespeare.
Cooper points to the loose shirt-ties of the sitter, which were emblematic of poets. However, she acknowledges that the painting's authenticity cannot be proven. Cooper notes that the painting has been badly damaged by over-cleaning and retouching. Parts are abraded and some parts have been altered; the hair has been extended and the beard is longer and more pointed than when painted. In addition to the Chesterfield portrait, a copy was made at least as early as 1689, by an unknown artist. Many 18th century images used it as a model for portrayals of Shakespeare; the painting was engraved by Gerard Vandergucht for Nicholas Rowe's 1709 edition of Shakespeare's works. Another print was made by Jacobus Houbraken in 1747; the Chandos portrait of Shakespeare is the only painting to have been done of Shakespeare from life. William Davenant, who claimed to be Shakespeare's illegitimate son, asserted that the portrait depicted Shakespeare; some scholars are troubled by the man in the Chandos portrait displaying Semitic features.
The dusky features have caused repeated comment of a racist nature. George Steevens said that the picture gave Shakespeare "the complexion of a Jew, or rather that of a chimney sweeper in the jaundice". According to Ben Macintyre, "Some Victorians recoiled at the idea that the Chandos portrait represented Shakespeare. One critic, J. Hain Friswell, insisted'one cannot imagine our English Shakespeare to have been a dark, heavy man, with a foreign expression'." Friswell agreed with Steevens that the portrait had "a decidedly Jewish physiognomy" adding that it displayed "a somewhat lubricious mouth, red-edged eyes" and "wanton lips, with a coarse expression." According to Ernest Jones, the portrait convinced Sigmund Freud. The Iraqi writer Safa Khulusi argued that its "un-English" look and "Islamic beard" was evidence for his theory that Shakespeare was an Arab; as of late, many Elizabethan portraits have surfaced in a trend to find more Anglo-looking candidates for Shakespeare, ignoring the fact that the features of the man depicted in the Chandos portrait are not only Semitic but
Carol Ann Duffy
Dame Carol Ann Duffy is a Scottish poet and playwright. She is a professor of contemporary poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University, was appointed Britain's Poet Laureate in May 2009, she is the first woman, the first Scot, the first gay or bisexual poet to hold the position. Her collections include winner of a Scottish Arts Council Award, her poems address issues such as oppression and violence in an accessible language that has made them popular in schools. Carol Ann Duffy was born to a Roman Catholic family in a poor part of Glasgow, she was Frank Duffy, an electrical fitter. Her mother was Irish, her father had Irish grandparents; the eldest of five siblings, she has four brothers. The family moved to Stafford, when Duffy was six years old, her father worked for English Electric. He was a trade unionist, stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for the Labour Party in 1983 in addition to managing the Stafford Rangers football club. Duffy was educated in Stafford at Saint Austin's RC Primary School, St. Joseph's Convent School, Stafford Girls' High School, her literary talent encouraged by two English teachers, June Scriven at St Joseph's, Jim Walker at Stafford Girls' High.
She was a passionate reader from an early age, always wanted to be a writer, producing poems from the age of 11. When one of her English teachers died, she wrote: When Duffy was 15, June Scriven sent her poems to Outposts, a publisher of pamphlets, where it was read by the bookseller Bernard Stone, who published some of them; when she was 16, she met Adrian Henri, one of the Liverpool poets, decided she wanted to be with him. "He gave me confidence," she said, "he was great. It was all poetry heady, he was never faithful, he thought poets had a duty to be unfaithful."She applied to the University of Liverpool to be near him, began a philosophy degree there in 1974. She had two plays performed at the Liverpool Playhouse, wrote a pamphlet, Fifth Last Song, received an honours degree in philosophy in 1977, she won the National Poetry Competition in 1983. She worked as poetry critic for The Guardian from 1988–1989, was editor of the poetry magazine, Ambit. In 1996, she was appointed as a lecturer in poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University, became creative director of its Writing School.
Duffy was appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom in 1999 after the death of Ted Hughes, but lost out on the position to Andrew Motion. Duffy said she would not have accepted the position at that time anyway, because she was in a relationship with Scottish poet Jackie Kay, had a young daughter, would not have welcomed the public attention. In the same year, she was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, she was appointed as Poet Laureate on 1 May 2009. Duffy was featured on the South Bank Show with Melvyn Bragg in December 2009 and on 7 December she presented the Turner Prize to artist Richard Wright. Duffy received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 2009. In 2015, Duffy was elected as an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy. In her first poem as poet laureate, Duffy tackled the scandal over British MPs expenses in the format of a sonnet, her second, "Last Post", was commissioned by the BBC to mark the deaths of Henry Allingham and Harry Patch, the last remaining British soldiers to fight in World War I.
Her third, "The Twelve Days of Christmas 2009", addresses current events such as species extinction, the climate change conference in Copenhagen, the banking crisis, the war in Afghanistan. In March 2010, she wrote "Achilles" about the Achilles tendon injury that left David Beckham out of the English football team at the 2010 FIFA World Cup. "Silver Lining", written in April 2010, acknowledges the grounding of flights caused by the ash of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. On 30 August 2010 she premièred her poem "Vigil" for the Manchester Pride Candlelight Vigil in memory of LGBTQ people who have lost their lives to HIV/AIDS. Duffy wrote a 46 line poem Rings for the 2011 wedding of Catherine Middleton; the poem celebrates the rings found in nature and does not mention the couple's names. It begins for both to say and continues "I might have raised your hand to the sky / to give you the ring surrounding the moon / or looked to twin the rings of your eyes / with mine / or added a ring to the rings of a tree / by forming a handheld circle with you, thee, /...".
She wrote the verse with Stephen Raw, a textual artist, a signed print of the work was sent to the couple as a wedding gift. Duffy wrote the poem The Throne, which she composed for the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation. In a Stylist magazine, Duffy said. I do get asked to do things and so far I've been happy to do them." She spoke about being appointed to the role by Queen Elizabeth II, saying, "She's lovely! I met her before I became poet laureate but when I was appointed I had an'audience' with her which meant we were alone, at the palace, for the first time. We chatted about poetry, her mother was friends with Ted Hughes. We spoke about his influence on me."As of October 2018, she is preparing to step down as laureate in May 2019. Duffy's work