click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shōnen manga

Shōnen, shonen, or shounen manga is manga aimed at a young teen male target-demographic. The age group varies with individual readers and different magazines, but it is intended for boys between the ages of 12 and 18; the kanji characters mean "boy", the characters means "comic". Thus, the complete phrase means "young person's comic", or "boys' comic". Shōnen manga is the most best-selling form of manga. Shōnen manga is characterized by high-action humorous plots featuring male protagonists. Commonly-found themes in shōnen manga include martial arts, science fiction, horror or mythological creatures; the camaraderie between boys or men on sports teams, fighting squads, the like are emphasized. Protagonists of such manga feature an ongoing desire to better themselves, and face challenges to their abilities and maturity, where self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrifice in the cause of duty and honorable service to society, community and friends are stressed. None of these listed characteristics are a requirement, as seen in shōnen manga like Yotsuba&!, which features a female lead and no fan service or action.

The art style of shōnen is less "flowery" than that of shōjo manga, although this varies from artist to artist, some artists draw both shōnen and shōjo manga. Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball is credited with setting the trend of popular shōnen manga from the 1980s onward, with manga critic Jason Thompson in 2011 calling it "by far the most influential shōnen manga of the last 30 years." Many successful shōnen authors such as Eiichiro Oda, Masashi Kishimoto, Tite Kubo, Hiro Mashima and Kentaro Yabuki cite him and Dragon Ball as an influence on their own now popular works. After the arrest and trial of serial killer Tsutomu Miyazaki, depictions of violence and sexual matters became more regulated in manga in general, but in shōnen manga. Manga has been said to have existed since the eighteenth century, but did not target a specific gender or age group. By 1905, however, a boom in publishing manga magazines occurred, began targeting genders as evidenced by their names, such as Shōnen Sekai, Shōjo Sekai, Shōnen Pakku.

Shōnen Sekai was one of the first shōnen manga magazines, was published from 1895 to 1914. The post-World War II occupation of Japan had a profound impact on its culture during the 1950s and beyond, including on manga. Modern manga developed during this period, including the modern format of shōnen manga we experience today, of which boys and young men were among the earliest readers. During this time, Shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and space travel, heroic action-adventure. Osamu Tezuka, creator of Astro Boy is said to have played an influential role in manga during this period. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls; the magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump began production in 1968, continues to be produced today as the best-selling manga magazine in Japan. Many of the most popular shōnen manga titles have been serialized in Jump, including Dragon Ball, Captain Tsubasa, Slam Dunk, One Piece, Naruto and others.

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, correspondingly occur in English translations. However, in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed the controversial Bill 156 to restrict harmful content despite opposition by many authors and publishers in the manga industry. In early shōnen manga and boys played all the major roles. Of the nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009, only one is female, she soon vanishes from the action; some more modern instances of shōnen manga omit women, e.g. the martial arts story Baki the Grappler by Itagaki Keisuke, the supernatural fantasy Sand Land by Akira Toriyama. By the 1980s, however and women began to play important roles in shōnen manga. For example, in Toriyama's 1980 Dr. Slump, the main character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale Norimaki. Discussing his character Lisa Lisa from Battle Tendency, the second story arc of the manga series Jojo’s Bizarre Adventure, author Hirohiko Araki stated that at the time female characters in shōnen manga were cute and designed to be "a man's ideal woman."

He said readers were not interested in realistic portrayals of women, but rather the type of girl "that giggles during a conversation" with heart marks next to her. He believes this made the warrior-type Lisa Lisa feel fresh and "unheard of" in both manga and society in general and said it was exciting to challenge people's expectations with her. Araki said that the supernatural basis of the fights in his series evened the battlefield for women and children to match up against strong men; the role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved since Arale. One class is the bishōjo or "beautiful young girl." Sometimes the woman is unattainable, she is always an object of the hero's emotional and/or sexual interest, like Shao-lin from Guardian Angel Getten by Minene Sakurano or Belldandy from the seinen manga Oh My Goddess! by Kōsuke Fujishima. In other stories, the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negi

Malka Mari

Malka Mari is a settlement in Kenya's Mandera County. Owed to its high concentration of wildlife, Malka Mari National Park was gazetted in the year 1989; the park is situated along the Kenya-Ethiopia border along the Daua River. The river is in the extreme north eastern part of the country on the Mandera plateau; the climate in Malka Mari National Park is hot and dry, implying that the area scrubby and semi arid grassland is dominant. The Daua River is surrounded by palms and riparian woodland; the major attractions of the Malka Mari National Park include Malkamari fort and hills. These physical features provide beautiful and attractive scenery, a worthwhile experience for tourists and visitors. Malka Mari National Park can be considered as the most remote national park in Kenya. There has been no permanent human settlements owing to the arid and inhospitable climate of the region; the common inhabitants of the park are nomadic herders of the Gurreh community, though they are few in number and dispersed over a wide region.

Karache Urane is located at the southern end of Malka Mari National Park. The Southern part on the other hand hosts the Awara Plains; the boundary of the park to the north terminates on the Kenya-Ethiopia border. Therefore the extreme ends of Malka Mari National Park can serve as major tourist attraction sites. Visitors should be informed that it is difficult and such a long journey to get to Malka Mari National Park by road; the first step is to take the A2 route of the Northern Road to Isiolo and proceed to Moyale found on the Ethiopian border. From Moyale, you take the D504 road on the eastern side through the Yabdus and Sara hills for around 160 kilometers before reaching Banissa, a semi-permanent village that hosts an airstrip. Another alternative route that drivers may opt to take is that of Wajir. There are two roads leading to Wajir; the first one is along B9 from Mado Gashi while the second route is from Dadaab at the north eastern part of Garissa, proceeds along the B9 route to Tarba.

A visitor should proceed further north for about 200 kilometers along d500 prior to reaching Banissa. Owed to the long distance as well as the poor road conditions at the north eastern part of the country, visitors should consider another alternative means to reach Malka Mari National Park; the best option that a visitor should consider is to charter a plane. There are two airstrips; the first airstrip is located at Bannissa while the second one is a small airstrip, situated in the park. Visitors should not worry about their stay at Malka Mari National Park; the park hosts a exclusive hotel De L Horloge. The hotel offers a wide range of amenities that are attractive to visitors touring Malka Mari National Park; some of the notable amenities include accessibility to wheelchair, shower or private bath, pets are allowed, air conditioning, exercise facility, handicap rooms and business services. In addition to De L Horloge, there are other comfortable hotels that tourists can stay in the course of their visit.

The attractive scenery as well as a wide range of species of wild animals that Malka Mari National Park hosts is a good reason for tourist to make a point of visiting the place while in Kenya

Lázaro Chacón González

Lázaro Chacón González was the acting President of Guatemala from 26 September 1926 to 18 December 1926 and President of Guatemala from 19 December 1926 to 2 January 1931. Born in Teculután, Zacapa he was the son of Juan José Chacón Paiz and Soledad González Paiz who died during his birth, he is grandson of José Deciderio Chacón and María del Rosario Paiz, grandson of Vicente González Chacón and Josefa Paiz Cordón. Chacón's aunt, Cleta Chacón became his adopted mother, he married Josefina Pazos. On 25 May 1926, El Imparcial -a private newspaper- had published a news flash: Martial law enacted which referred to executive decree 916, in which President Orellana had suspended the individual guarantees contained in the Constitution. Although El Imparcial was not circulating in the previous days -due to a government boycott-, after May 26 it ceased publication indefinitely. Thereafter, only the official news outlets, such as Diario de Centro América and El Guatemalteco, could circulate, carrying irrelevant information.

The story took a sudden turn on Sunday September 26, when, at 0:15 pm, Orellana died during a vacation trip to Antigua Guatemala. "A violent angina attack ended the life of our illustrious president," explained Diario de Centro America in a special edition that day. These strange circumstances led to the suspicion. General Lázaro Chacón assumed as interim President and lifted Martial Law and allowed private newspaper to be published again. Chacón was first appointed to the position of Chairman and interim president following the death of General José María Orellana, he called for elections in which his main opponent was general Jorge Ubico. Chacón defeated Ubico thanks in part to the strong campaign that journalist Clemente Marroquín Rojas made against the latter in his column called Desnudando al ídolo. Chacón government took some liberties such as creating the National Mortgage Bank as well as constructing the Faculty of Medicine building for the Faculty of Natural Sciences. During his tenure the Legislative Palace and the national railroad were completed.

During his presidency, the Guatemalan currency was stabilized, but Guatemala suffered the effects of the Great Depression in 1929. In December, 1930 the following events occurred in a rapid succession: On 12 December, General Chacón suffers a stroke that forces him to resign. General Mauro de León, first designated successor to the Presidency resigns. Lawyer and cabinet member Baudilio Palma, second designated successor, is appointed interim President. On 17 December 1930 a coup d'etat led by general Manuel María Orellana Contreras forces Palma to resign after a short battle inside the Presidential Palace. During the fight, that lasted no more than an hour, both Palma and Mauro de León died; the Liberal Progresista party places general Roderico Anzueto in the key position of Chief of Police. On 2 January 1931 José María Reina Andrade is appointed interim President, after the foreign nations representatives refuse to deal with Orellana Contreras and calls for presidential elections. On 7 February 1931, general Jorge Ubico Castañeda is sworn as President.

The Liberal Party joined with the Progressives to nominate Ubico as Andrade's successor, although he was the only candidate on the ballot, he received 305,841 votes on February, 1931. In his inaugural address, he pledged a "march toward civilization". Once in office, he began a campaign of efficiency. Chacón died in New Orleans, United States on April 9, 1931 at age 57 as a consequence of his stroke, his granddaughter Josefina Chacon de Machado was a magistrate and President of the Guatemalan Supreme Court. His grandson Carlos Gilberto Chacon Torrebiarte was magistrate and President of the Guatemalan Supreme Court

Planet 24

Planet 24 was a television production company, which produced The Big Breakfast and The Word for Channel 4. It had an animation division called Impossible TV, founded in 1997. Bob Geldof and Tony Boland founded Planet Pictures which merged with 24 Hour Productions, headed by Charlie Parsons and Waheed Lord Alli; the company was bought by Carlton Communications in March 1999 for £15 million and merged with Carlton Productions, of which Lord Alli became managing director. ITV Studios now own Planet 24, the company has closed as all Planet 24 productions, have ceased. Planet 24 developed the original concept for Survivor, called Castaway. Geldof and Parsons met with the BBC to pitch the programme as a reality competition show. However, the BBC, intrigued by the concept, instead developed its own competing documentary-style show, Castaway 2000; as a result, Planet 24 had to change the title, the show was produced as Expedition Robinson in Sweden in 1997 before its U. S. success in 2000. When Geldof and Lord Alli sold Planet 24 to Carlton, they retained the rights to this program by transferring them to a new company named Castaway Television Productions.

In July 2017, Banijay Group acquired Castaway Television Productions. Can You Pull…? The Richard Taylor Interviews Survivor The Richard Blackwood Show Take 2 Watercolour Challenge Totally California American Visions Hotel Babylon Surf Potatoes The Wednesday Weepie The Word: Access All Areas The Big Breakfast The Word Planet 24 on IMDb

Chronic airway-digestive inflammatory disease

Sinus disease and asthma have been shown to be intimately related through recent research. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease and/or snoring or sleep apnea are present as well. “Chronic Airway-Digestive Inflammatory Disease” is a phrase, coined by Dr. Jordan S. Josephson, M. D. F. A. C. S. and Dr. Jens Ponikeau, M. D. to describe this complex set of problems which are caused by inflammation. This term was first described in a book entitled Sinus Relief Now. CAID directly affects the upper respiratory system, the lower airway and the GI tract and these areas are intimately connected. CAID begins when bacteria, fungus, pollutants or other irritants, or an allergen initiate an inflammatory response in the airway. Inflammatory responses may lead to a number of related reactions. For example, allergies worsen sinus problems, sinus problems and allergies can trigger or worsen asthma. Reflux can be set off by sinus problems and reflux can send acids up to the upper airway and worsen the inflammation occurring secondary to infection.

Inflammation in these different areas are all related and the reaction can cause the symptoms to worsen in a vicious cycle. CAID can impact organs beyond the respiratory and digestive systems. Heart disease, infertility, painful headaches and chronic fatigue syndrome may be linked to CAID. CAID must first be diagnosed. Available treatment options include over the counter remedies, holistic medicines and allopathic treatments, prescription medications and lifestyle changes. CAID is a chronic disease, not cured by medicines and/or surgery but can be controlled with good comprehensive care. However, symptoms may be controlled and unnecessary pain alleviated. One treatment option is the so-called Five Part Plan for treatment described in the book Sinus Relief Now which includes: Using irrigation to care for sinuses, Managing the level of mould and other pollutants in homes and cars, by cleaning up your environment Knowing which foods trigger CAID symptoms, removing them from your diet Being compliant with your treatment.

Both Eastern Alternative and Western Traditional Medicine Treatments complement each other and should be investigated to provide a comprehensive holistic approach. Embracing life-altering changes to enjoy your health

Transport vessels for the British Government's importation of rice from Bengal (1800–1802)

Weather-induced crop failures in Britain in 1799 and 1800 forced the British Government to import rice from Bengal to counter popular unrest. The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively; the price of bread rose leading to bread riots. Because the British East India Company had a legal monopoly on all trade between Britain and India, the Government had to have the EIC engage the transport vessels; the EIC chartered 28 vessels, comprising 14,785 tons, to sail from England between December 1800 and February 1801 to bring back the rice. The decision to import rice from Bengal repeated a similar program in 1795–1796; that time the program involved at least 14 vessels, one of which the French captured and three of which were lost at sea. In the 1800–1802 program most of the vessels returned between late 1801 and early 1802. One vessel was lost with all her cargo, another was damaged and lost much of her cargo. Emperor Paul I of Russia, in the context of the Second League of Armed Neutrality and the British Mediterranean campaign of 1798, on 18 November 1800 placed an embargo on all British shipping to Russia.

The Russians seized some 200 British vessels in Russian ports, imprisoned some 4000–5000 crew members, sequestrated some £1,500,000 in British property. The embargo lasted until 28 May 1801, disrupted the grain trade with the Baltic; this in turn led to the British Government's decision in November 1800 to send a naval force to the Baltic once ice and weather conditions permitted. In addition to the 28 vessels chartered for the purpose of bringing rice from Bengal, other vessels subsequently brought back rice; the "United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies" offered 28,966 bags of rice for sale on 25 March. The rice had come in on Travers, Melville Castle, Skelton Castle, Mornington. On 30 March 1802 the Court of Directors of the United Company of Merchants trading with the East Indies, announced that on 22 April they would offer for sale 37,000 bags of rice brought by Hind, Minerva and Bellona. Hope had been launched at Calcutta early in 1801 and was engaged there to carry rice to Britain on what would have been her maiden voyage.

Notes Citations References Hardy, Charles A Register of Ships, Employed in the Service of the Hon. the United East India Company, from the Union of the Two Companies, in 1707, to the Year 1760: Specifying the Number of Voyages, Tonnage and Stations. To, Added, from the Latter Period to the Present Time, the Managing Owners, Principal Officers and Pursers. Neumann, J. and J. Kington "Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1800", in Bulletin American Meteorological Society, pp.187-199