International Military Tribunal for the Far East
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war, conventional war crimes and crimes against humanity. Eleven countries provided prosecutors for the court; the defense comprised American lawyers. Twenty-eight Japanese military and political leaders were charged with 55 separate counts encompassing the waging of aggressive war and conventional war crimes committed against prisoners-of-war, civilian internees and the inhabitants of occupied territories; the defendants included former prime ministers, former foreign ministers and former military commanders. In the course of the proceedings, the court ruled that 45 of the counts, including all the murder charges, were either redundant or not authorized under the IMTFE Charter. Two defendants died during the proceedings and one was ruled unfit to stand trial.
Chief of the Navy General Staff Admiral Soemu Toyoda was acquitted. All remaining defendants were found guilty of at least one count. Sentences ranged from seven years' imprisonment to execution; the tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948. The Tribunal was established to implement the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam Declaration, the Instrument of Surrender, the Moscow Conference; the Potsdam Declaration had stated, "stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners," though it did not foreshadow trials. The terms of reference for the Tribunal were set out in the IMTFE Charter, issued on January 19, 1946. There was major disagreement, both among the Allies and within their administrations, about whom to try and how to try them. Despite the lack of consensus, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, decided to initiate arrests. On September 11, a week after the surrender, he ordered the arrest of 39 suspects—most of them members of General Hideki Tōjō's war cabinet.
Tōjō tried to commit suicide, but was resuscitated with the help of U. S. doctors. On January 19, 1946, MacArthur issued a special proclamation ordering the establishment of an International Military Tribunal for the Far East. On the same day, he approved the Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, which prescribed how it was to be formed, the crimes that it was to consider, how the tribunal was to function; the charter followed the model set by the Nuremberg trials. On April 25, in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 of the CIMTFE, the original Rules of Procedure of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East with amendments were promulgated. Following months of preparation, the IMTFE convened on April 29, 1946; the trials were held in the War Ministry office in Tokyo. On May 3 the prosecution opened its case, charging the defendants with crimes against peace, conventional war crimes, crimes against humanity; the trial continued for more than two and a half years, hearing testimony from 419 witnesses and admitting 4,336 exhibits of evidence, including depositions and affidavits from 779 other individuals.
Following the model used at the Nuremberg trials in Germany, the Allies established three broad categories. "Class A" charges, alleging crimes against peace, were to be brought against Japan's top leaders who had planned and directed the war. Class B and C charges, which could be leveled at Japanese of any rank, covered conventional war crimes and crimes against humanity, respectively. Unlike the Nuremberg trials, the charge of crimes against peace was a prerequisite to prosecution—only those individuals whose crimes included crimes against peace could be prosecuted by the Tribunal. In the event, no Class C charges were heard in Tokyo; the indictment accused the defendants of promoting a scheme of conquest that "contemplated and carried out... murdering and ill-treating prisoners of war civilian internees... forcing them to labor under inhumane conditions... plundering public and private property, wantonly destroying cities and villages beyond any justification of military necessity. Keenan issued a press statement along with the indictment: "War and treaty-breakers should be stripped of the glamour of national heroes and exposed as what they are—plain, ordinary murderers."
The prosecution began opening statements on May 3, 1946, took 192 days to present its case, finishing on January 24, 1947. It submitted its evidence in fifteen phases; the Tribunal embraced the best evidence rule. The best evidence rule dictates. Justice Pal, one of two justices to vote for acquittal on all counts, observed, "in a proceeding where we had to allow the prosecution to bring in any amount of hearsay evidence, it was somewhat misplaced caution to introduce this best evidence rule when it operated against the defense only."To prove their case, the prosecution team relied on the doctrine of "command responsibility." This doctrine was. The prosecution had to prove three things: t
Philosophy of religion
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy. The field is related to many other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics and ethics; the philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief system. It is designed such that it can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. Philosopher William L. Rowe characterized the philosophy of religion as: "the critical examination of basic religious beliefs and concepts." Philosophy of religion covers alternative beliefs about God, the varieties of religious experience, the interplay between science and religion, the nature and scope of good and evil, religious treatments of birth and death.
The field includes the ethical implications of religious commitments, the relation between faith, reason and tradition, concepts of the miraculous, the sacred revelation, mysticism and salvation. The term "Philosophy of Religion" did not come into general use in the West until the nineteenth century, most pre-modern and early modern philosophical works included a mixture of religious themes and "non-religious" philosophical questions. In Asia, examples include texts such as the Hindu Upanishads, the works of Daoism and Confucianism and Buddhist texts. Greek philosophies like Pythagoreanism and Stoicism included religious elements and theories about deities, Medieval philosophy was influenced by the big three Monotheistic Abrahamic religions. In the Western world, early modern philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, George Berkeley discussed religious topics alongside secular philosophical issues as well; the philosophy of religion has been distinguished from theology by pointing out that, for theology, "its critical reflections are based on religious convictions".
"theology is responsible to an authority that initiates its thinking and witnessing... philosophy bases its arguments on the ground of timeless evidence."Some aspects of philosophy of religion have classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, the prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. This, according to Aristotle, is the subject of study in theology. Today, philosophers have adopted the term "philosophy of religion" for the subject, it is regarded as a separate field of specialization, although it is still treated by some Catholic philosophers, as a part of metaphysics. Different religions have different ideas about Ultimate Reality, its source or ground and about what is the "Maximal Greatness". Paul Tillich's concept of'Ultimate Concern' and Rudolf Otto's'Idea of the Holy' are concepts which point to concerns about the ultimate or highest truth which most religious philosophies deal with in some way.
One of the main differences among religions is whether the Ultimate Reality is a personal God or an impersonal reality. In Western religions, various forms of Theism are the most common conceptions of the ultimate Good, while in Eastern Religions, there are theistic and various non-theistic conceptions of the Ultimate. Theistic vs non-theistic is a common way of sorting the different types of religions. There are several philosophical positions with regard to the existence of God that one might take including various forms of Theism and different forms of Atheism. Monotheism is the belief in a single deity or God, ontologically independent. There are many forms of monotheism. Keith Yandell outlines three kinds of historical monotheisms: Greek and Hindu. Greek monotheism holds that the world has always existed and does not believe in Creationism or divine providence, while Semitic monotheism believes the world is created by a God at a particular point in time and that this God acts in the world.
Indian monotheism meanwhile teaches that the world is beginningless, but that there is God's act of creation which sustains the world. The attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is one aspect of what is known as natural theology or the natural theistic project; this strand of natural theology attempts to justify belief in God by independent grounds. Most of philosophy of religion is predicated on natural theology's assumption that the existence of God can be justified or warranted on rational grounds. There has been considerable philosophical and theological debate about the kinds of proofs and arguments that are appropriate for this discourse. Common types of arguments for the existence of god include: Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument Teleological argument Argument from religious experience Argument from morality Wager arguments like Pascal's Wager attempts to rationally argue that one should believe in God. Skeptics and atheists have put forth various arguments against the existence of God including: The argument from inconsistent revelations The problem of evil, the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of a deity who is, in either absolute or relative terms, omnipotent and omnibenevolent.
Argument from poor design Argument from nonbelief or the argument from divine hiddenness Eastern Religions have included both theistic and other alternative positions about the ultimate nature of reality. One such v
Psychiatric hospitals known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric hospitals vary in their size and grading; some hospitals may specialize only in short outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment. Patients are admitted on a voluntary basis, but people whom psychiatrists believe may pose a significant danger to themselves or others may be subject to involuntary commitment. Psychiatric hospitals may be referred to as psychiatric wards or units when they are a subunit of a regular hospital. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
With successive waves of reform, the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, most modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment, attempt where possible to help patients control their own lives in the outside world, with the use of a combination of psychiatric drugs and psychotherapy. An exception is in Japan, where many psychiatric hospitals still use physical restraints on patients, tying them to their beds for days or months at a time. A crisis stabilization unit is in effect an emergency department for psychiatry dealing with suicidal, violent, or otherwise critical individuals. Open units are psychiatric units. Another type of psychiatric hospital is medium term. In the United Kingdom, both crisis admissions and medium term care are provided on acute admissions wards. Juvenile or adolescent wards are sections of psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards set aside for children or adolescents with mental illness. Long-term care facilities have the goal of treatment and rehabilitation back into society within a short time-frame.
Another institution for the mentally ill is a community-based halfway house. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the development of the modern psychiatric hospital is the story of the rise of organized, institutional psychiatry. Hospitals known as bimaristans were built in Persia beginning around the early 9th century, with the first in Baghdad under the leadership of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. While not devoted to patients with psychiatric disorders, they contained wards for patients exhibiting mania or other psychological distress; because of cultural taboos against refusing to care for one's family members, mentally ill patients would be surrendered to a bimaristan only if the patient demonstrated violence, incurable chronic illness, or some other debilitating ailment. Psychological wards were enclosed by iron bars owing to the aggression of some of the patients. Western Europe would adopt these views on with the advances of physicians like Philippe Pinel at the Bicêtre Hospital in France and William Tuke at the York Retreat in England.
They advocated the viewing of mental illness as a disorder that required compassionate treatment that would aid in the rehabilitation of the victim. The arrival in the Western world of institutionalisation as a solution to the problem of madness was much an advent of the nineteenth century; the first public mental asylums were established in Britain. Nine counties first applied. In 1828, the newly appointed Commissioners in Lunacy were empowered to license and supervise private asylums; the Lunacy Act 1845 made the construction of asylums in every country compulsory with regular inspections on behalf of the Home Secretary. The Act required asylums to have a resident physician. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there were a few thousand "sick people" housed in a variety of disparate institutions throughout England, but by 1900 that figure had grown to about 100,000; this growth coincided with the growth of alienism known as psychiatry, as a medical specialism. The treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, terms such as "madness," "lunacy" or "insanity"—all of which assumed a unitary psychosis—were split into numerous "mental diseases," of which catatonia and dementia praecox were the most common in psychiatric institutions. In 1961 sociologist Erving Goffman described a theory of the "total institution" and the process by which it takes efforts to maintain predictable and regular behavior on the part of both "guard" and "captor," suggesting that many of the features of such institutions serve the ritual function of ensuring that both classes of people know their function and social role, in other words of "institutionalizing" them. Asylums was a key text in the development of deinstitutionalization. With successive waves of reform and the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment.
Inukai Tsuyoshi was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, Prime Minister of Japan from 13 December 1931 to his assassination on 15 May 1932. Inukai was born to a samurai family of Niwase Domain, in Niwase village, Bizen Province, where his father had been a local official and magistrate under the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1876, Inukai travelled to Tokyo and subsequently graduated from the Keio Gijuku where he specialized in Chinese studies. In his early career, Inukai worked as a journalist for the Yūbin Hōchi Shimbun and Akita Sakigake Shimpō, he went with the Imperial Japanese Army to the front during the Satsuma Rebellion as a reporter. Ōkuma Shigenobu invited Inukai to help form the Rikken Kaishintō political party in 1882, which supported liberal political causes opposed the domination of the government by members of the former Chōshū and Satsuma domains, called for a British-style constitutional monarchy within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. Inukai was first elected to the Lower House of the Imperial Diet in 1890, was subsequently reelected 17 times, holding the same seat for 42 years until his death.
Inukai's first cabinet post was as Minister of Education in the first Ōkuma Shigenobu administration of 1898, succeeding Ozaki Yukio, forced to resign due to a speech that conservative elements in the Diet charged promoted republicanism. However, Ozaki's resignation did not end the crisis, which culminated with the fall of the Ōkuma administration, so Inukai's term lasted only eleven days. Inukai was a leading figure in the successors to the Rikken Kaishintō, the Shimpotō, Kenseitō and the Rikken Kokumintō, which toppled the government of Katsura Tarō in 1913. During this time, his politics became increasing conservative and he was associated with both leading figures from the Pan-Asian movement and with nationalists such as Tōyama Mitsuru, he was a strong supporter of the Chinese republican movement, visiting China in 1907, subsequently lending aid to Sun Yat-sen during the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 which overthrew the Qing dynasty. He assisted Sun when Sun had to flee to Japan after his attempt to overthrow Yuan Shikai failed.
Inukai has a deep respect for Chinese culture, felt that Sino-Japanese cooperation was the cornerstone of Asian solidarity. Although in years his vision of Sino-Japanese cooperation diverged from Sun's, Inukai maintained close personal ties with many leading Chinese politicians. Inukai supported the Vietnamese independence leader, Prince Cường Để, invited him to Japan in 1915. Inukai returned to the cabinet as Minister of Communications in the second Yamamoto Gonnohyōe administration from 1923 to 1924, he was concurrently Education Minister again for a four-day period in September 1923 In 1922 the Rikken Kokumintō became the Kakushin Club, joined forces with other minor parties to form the cabinet during the premiership of Katō Takaaki in 1924. During his time, Inukai served on the cabinet again as Minister of Communications; the Kakushin Club merged with the Rikken Seiyūkai, Inukai continued as a senior member. In July 1929, Inukai travelled to Nanjing, with several other Japanese delegates at the invitation of Chinese government to a memorial service for Sun Yat-sen.
The delegates travelled to numerous other cities, noted with concern the growing anti-Japanese sentiment. In 1929, after the sudden death of Tanaka Giichi, Inukai became president of the Rikken Seiyūkai. Inukai was an outspoken critic of Japan's signing of the London Naval Treaty, which reduced military spending, supported the actions of the Imperial Japanese Army in invading Manchuria in 1931, rejected criticism from the League of Nations over the Mukden Incident. Following the resignation of the Wakatsuki administration over its failure to control the military and the failure of its economic policies, the genrō turned to Inukai to form a new government in 1931. Saionji Kinmochi charged Inukai with avoiding drastic changes in economics. Inukai, at a disadvantage in that his Seiyukai was not the majority party in the Diet, was saddled with a cabinet composed of competing factions, ranging from his ultra-rightist Army Minister Sadao Araki to the liberal Finance Minister Takahashi Korekiyo. With a divided cabinet and a hostile Diet, Inukai governed with the assistance of the Privy Council, which passed emergency imperial edicts and budgetary measures to circumvent the normal Diet budgetary process.
Inukai took steps to inflate the economy and to take Japan off the gold standard, implementing protectionist trade policies and attempting to stem Japan's trade deficit. These actions devaluated the yen, thus lowering the price of Japanese goods in world markets, increasing exports. However, Inukai was forced to accede to a request by the Imperial Japanese Army to dispatch additional troops to Manchuria and to Tianjin, despite instructions as late as 23 December 1931 from Emperor Hirohito to maintain international trust per the Nine-Power Treaty in not attacking China, on 27 December 1931 not to authorize any moves by the Kwantung Army to occupy Jinzhou. However, by now the Imperial Japanese Army was beyond any civilian control and from January to March 1932 the conflict had spread to Shanghai with the 1st Shanghai Incident. During the 1932 General Election, buoyed by an upsurge in public opinion due to Japanese military successes in China, the Rikken Seiyukai won an overwhelming majority.
On 8 January 1932, a Korean independence activist named Lee Bong Chang attempted to assassinate Emperor Hirohito in the Sakuradamon Incident. Inukai and his c
Anagārika Dharmapāla was a Sri Lankan Buddhist revivalist and writer. He was the first global Buddhist missionary, he was one of the founding contributors of Buddhism. He was a pioneer in the revival of Buddhism in India after it had been extinct there for several centuries, he was the first Buddhist in modern times to preach the Dharma in three continents: Asia, North America, Europe. Along with Henry Steel Olcott and Helena Blavatsky, the creators of the Theosophical Society, he was a major reformer and revivalist of Sinhala Buddhism and an important figure in its western transmission, he inspired a mass movement of South Indian Dalits including Tamils to embrace Buddhism, half a century before B. R. Ambedkar. At the latter stages of his life, he entered the order of Buddhist monks as Venerable Sri Devamitta Dharmapala. Anagarika Dharmapala was born on 17 September 1864 in Matara, Ceylon to Don Carolis Hewavitharana of Hiththetiya and Mallika Dharmagunawardhana, who were among the richest merchants of Ceylon at the time.
He was named Don David Hewavitharane. His younger brothers were Edmund Hewavitarne, he attended Kotte. This was a time of Buddhist revival. In 1875 in New York City, Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott had founded the Theosophical Society, they were both sympathetic to what they understood of Buddhism, in 1880 they arrived in Ceylon, declared themselves to be Buddhists, publicly took the Refuges and Precepts from a prominent Sinhalese bhikkhu. Colonel Olcott kept coming back to Ceylon and devoted himself there to the cause of Buddhist education setting up more than 300 Buddhist schools, some of which are still in existence, it was in this period that Hewavitarne changed his name to Anagarika Dharmapala.'Dharmapāla' means'protector of the dharma'.'Anagārika' in Pāli means "homeless one". It is a midway status between layperson; as such, he took the eight precepts for life. These eight precepts were taken by Ceylonese laypeople on observance days, but for a person to take them for life was unusual.
Dharmapala was the first anagarika – that is, a celibate, full-time worker for Buddhism – in modern times. It seems that he took a vow of celibacy at the age of eight and remained faithful to it all his life. Although he wore a yellow robe, it was not of the traditional bhikkhu pattern, he did not shave his head, he felt that the observance of all the vinaya rules would get in the way of his work as he flew around the world. Neither the title nor the office became popular, but in this role, he "was the model for lay activism in modernist Buddhism." He is considered a bodhisattva in Sri Lanka. His trip to Bodh-Gaya was inspired by an 1885 visit there by Sir Edwin Arnold, author of The Light of Asia, who soon started advocating for the renovation of the site and its return to Buddhist care. Arnold was directed towards this endeavour by Weligama Sri Sumangala Thera. At the invitation of Paul Carus, he returned to the U. S. in 1896, again in 1902–04, where he traveled and taught widely. Dharmapala broke with Olcott and the Theosophists because of Olcott's stance on universal religion.
"One of the important factors in his rejection of theosophy centered on this issue of universalism. Dharmapala stated that Theosophy was "only consolidating Krishna worship." "To say that all religions have a common foundation only shows the ignorance of the speaker. The young Dharmapala helped Colonel Olcott in his work by acting as his translator. Dharmapala became quite close to Madame Blavatsky, who advised him to study Pāli and to work for the good of humanity –, what he did, it was at this time. In 1891 Anagarika Dharmapala was on a pilgrimage to the restored Mahabodhi Temple, where Siddhartha Gautama – the Buddha – attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, India. Here he experienced a shock to find the temple in the hands of a Saivite priest, the Buddha image transformed into a Hindu icon and Buddhists barred from worship; as a result, he began an agitation movement. The Maha Bodhi Society at Colombo was founded in 1891 but its offices were soon moved to Calcutta the following year in 1892. One of its primary aims was the restoration to Buddhist control of the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya, the chief of the four ancient Buddhist holy sites.
To accomplish this, Dharmapala initiated a lawsuit against the Brahmin priests who had held control of the site for centuries. After a protracted struggle, this was successful only after Indian independence and sixteen years after Dharmapala's own death, with the partial restoration of the site to the management of the Maha Bodhi Society in 1949, it was the temple management of Bodh Gaya was entrusted to a committee comprised in equal numbers of Hindus and Buddhists. A statue of Anagarika Dharmapala was established in College Square near Kolkata Maha Bodhi Society. Maha Bodhi Society centers were set up in
Takushoku University is a private university in Japan. It was founded in 1900 by Duke Taro Katsura, it is in Tokyo and has two campuses: the main campus in the Bunkyō district and a satellite campus in Hachiōji city. Takushoku University has five faculties: Commerce, Political Science and Economics, Foreign Languages, International Studies, Engineering. Takushoku University is a leading university of security studies in Japan; the current chancellor is a former Minister of Satoshi Morimoto. Past chancellors include former prime ministers, such as Yasuhiro Nakasone. Takushoku University was named the Taiwan Association School, was founded to produce graduates to contribute to the development of Taiwan. In 1907, it was renamed as the Oriental Association Vocational School. In 1918, it adopted its present name of Takushoku University. "Takushoku" means "development and industrialization" as well as "colonization", because Japan had overseas colonies like Taiwan, South Sakhalin, Korea to industrialize at that time.
Takashoku University was the second best university in Japan, after Tokyo University, until the end of World War II. After the war, the university was dissolved by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers due to its strong support for militarism, it was renamed as Kōryō University but has managed to change it back to its original name. Takushoku University is a leading university of national security in Japan; the current chancellor is a former Minister of Satoshi Morimoto. Past chancellors include former prime ministers, such as Yasuhiro Nakasone. Takushoku University is the only university in Japan consisting of a think tank for international relations and security. Margaret Thatcher received her honorary doctorate degree at this university; the faculty of political science and economics is the third oldest in the country after Waseda and Meiji universities. Takushoku University was responsible for training many of Japanese local and colonial administrators as well as overseas merchants. Several of these people who were karateka took up administrative positions in the Japan Karate Association when it was founded in 1949.
The university's karate club was founded around 1924 and has produced many prominent karate instructors and competitors. The university has a judo program, which produced a second-place result in a 1967 Japanese collegiate competition. Takushoku University Karate Club Commemorative Photo-book 拓殖大学創立百周年記念写真集「雄飛」（2002年 3月30日発行）
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, normal, or desirable supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies; the term right-wing can refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime; the original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the "Left" and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy and clericalism. The use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists.
The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms "right" and "left" to their own politics until the 20th century. Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has been applied to movements including fascism and racial supremacy. From the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism; this general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism. In the United States, the Right includes both social conservatives. In Europe, economic conservatives are considered liberal and the Right includes nationalists, nativist opposition to immigration, religious conservatives, a significant presence of right-wing movements with anti-capitalist sentiments including conservatives and fascists who opposed what they saw as the selfishness and excessive materialism inherent in contemporary capitalism.
The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolution, when liberal deputies of the Third Estate sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of 1789. The nobility, members of the Second Estate sat to the right. In the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Old Regime were referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side. A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. On the right, the Legitimists and Ultra-royalists held counter-revolutionary views, while the Orléanists hoped to create a constitutional monarchy under their preferred branch of the royal family, a brief reality after the 1830 July Revolution; the centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.
In British politics, the terms "right" and "left" came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The Right has gone through five distinct historical stages: the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; the meaning of right-wing "varies across societies, historical epochs, political systems and ideologies". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right. Roger Eatwell and Neal O'Sullivan divide the right into five types: reactionary, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these "styles of thought" are "responses to the left", including liberalism and socialism, which have arisen since the 1789 French Revolution; the reactionary right looks toward the past and is "aristocratic and authoritarian".
The moderate right, typified by the writings of Edmund Burke, is tolerant of change, provided it is gradual and accepts some aspects of liberalism, including the rule of law and capitalism, although it sees radical laissez-faire and individualism as harmful to society. The moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies. Radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has been applied to democratic developments"; the radical right includes various other subtypes. Eatwell argues that the extreme right' has four traits: "1) anti-democracy; the New Right consists of the liberal conservatives, who stress small government, free markets and individual initiative. Other authors make a distinction between the cent