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Shades of blue

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Blue
 
Color icon blue.svg
Wavelength440–490 nm
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0000FF
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 100%, 100[1]%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Varieties of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness), or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Tints of blue[edit]

In this section, the term tint is used in its technical sense as used in color theory, meaning a blueish color mixed with white or light gray.

Baby blue[edit]

Baby blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#89CFF0
sRGBB  (rgb)(137, 207, 240)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(43, 14, 0, 6)
HSV       (h, s, v)(199°, 43%, 94%)
SourceMaerz and Paul[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Baby blue is known as one of the pastel colors. With a hue code of 199, this color is a tone of azure.

The first recorded use of baby blue as a color name in English was in 1892.[3]

Light blue[edit]

Light blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#ADD8E6
sRGBB  (rgb)(173, 216, 230)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(25, 6, 0, 10)
HSV       (h, s, v)(195°, 25%, 90%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color light blue is displayed in the color box at right. Variations of this color are known as sky blue, baby blue, or angel blue. Within the X11 color system, with a hue code of 194, this color is closer to cyan than to blue.

The first recorded use of "light blue" as a color term in English is in the year 1915.[4]

Periwinkle[edit]

Periwinkle
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#CCCCFF
sRGBB  (rgb)(204, 204, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(20, 20, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 20%, 100%)
SourceMaerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
A periwinkle flower

Shown in the right is the color periwinkle, or periwinkle blue. Another name for this color is lavender blue; the color is a mixture of white, blue, and red. It is named after the Periwinkle flower and is also commonly referred to as a tone of light blue.

Powder blue[edit]

Powder Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#B0E0E6
sRGBB  (rgb)(176, 224, 230)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(24, 3, 0, 10)
HSV       (h, s, v)(187°, 23%, 90%)
SourceX11[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color powder blue is shown on the right.

The first recorded use of powder blue as a color name in English was in 1774.[5]

Ice blue[edit]

Ice Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#99FFFF
sRGBB  (rgb)(153, 255, 255)
SourceCorel[6]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Arctic iceberg showing blue colouring
Arctic iceberg showing blue coloring

Displayed at right is the color ice blue.[clarification needed]

Morning blue[edit]

Morning Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#8da399
sRGBB  (rgb)(141, 163, 153)
HSV       (h, s, v)(153°, 14%, 64%)
SourceISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the color morning blue. It is a representation of the color of the morning sky.

The year the first recorded use of morning blue as a color name in English is unknown.

Early morning sky
Early morning sky

Source of color: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Morning Blue (color sample #149)

Computer web color blue[edit]

Blue (RGB) (X11 blue)[edit]

Blue (RGB) (X11 blue)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0000FF
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 100%, 100%)
SourceX11 color names[7]
HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Red, green, and blue lights, representing the three basic additive primary colors of the RGB color system, red, green, and blue

The color defined as blue in the RGB color model, X11 blue, is shown at right. This color is the brightest possible blue that can be reproduced on a computer screen, and is the color named blue in X11, it is one of the three primary colors used in the RGB color space, along with red and green. The three additive primaries in the RGB color system are the three colors of light chosen such as to provide the maximum gamut of colors that are capable of being represented on a computer or television set.

This color is also called color wheel blue, it is at precisely 240 degrees on the HSV color wheel, also known as the RGB color wheel. It is a spectral color which lies at, or near, the short-wave (violet) end of the traditional "blue" and possibly was classified as "indigo" by Newton,[8] its complementary color is yellow.

Additional definitions of blue[edit]

Blue (CMYK) (pigment blue)[edit]

Blue (CMYK) (pigment blue)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#333399
sRGBB  (rgb)(51, 51, 153)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(67, 67, 0, 40)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 67%, 60%)
SourceCMYK
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the three subtractive primary colors used in printing

The color defined as blue in the CMYK color system used in printing, also known as pigment blue, is the tone of blue that is achieved by mixing process (printer's) cyan and process (printer's) magenta in equal proportions. It is displayed at right.

The purpose of the CMYK color system is to provide the maximum possible gamut of color reproducible in printing by the use of only three primaries.

The color indicated is only approximate as the colors of printing inks may vary.

Blue (NCS) (psychological primary blue)[edit]

Blue (NCS)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0087BD
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 135, 189)
HSV       (h, s, v)(197°, 100%, 74%)
SourcesRGB approximation to NCS 2060-B[9]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Approximations within the sRGB gamut to the primary colors of the Natural Color System, a model based on the opponent process theory of color vision

The color defined as blue in the NCS or Natural Color System is an azure-like color shown at right (NCS 2060-B); the Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow, green, and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision.

The “Natural Color System” is widely used in Scandinavia.

Blue (Munsell)[edit]

Blue (Munsell)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0093AF
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 147, 175)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 16, 0, 31)
HSV       (h, s, v)(190°, 100%, 69%)
SourceMunsell Color Wheel
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut

The color defined as blue in the Munsell color system (Munsell 5B) is shown at right; the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity), spaced uniformly (according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception) in three dimensions in the Munsell color solid, which is shaped like an elongated oval at an angle. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors: red, yellow, green, blue, and purple.

The Munsell color displayed is only approximate, as these spectral colors have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut. In the 21st century, this hue is classified as an intermediate between azure and cyan.

Blue (Pantone)[edit]

Blue (Pantone)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0018A8
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 24, 168)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 80, 0, 34)
HSV       (h, s, v)(231°, 100%, 66[10]%)
SourcePantone TPX[11]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Blue (Pantone) is the color that is called blue in Pantone.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color # Blue C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, or UP—Blue.[12]

Blue (Crayola)[edit]

Blue (Crayola)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#1F75FE
sRGBB  (rgb)(31, 117, 254)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(88, 54, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(217°, 88%, 100[13]%)
SourceCrayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Blue (Crayola) is the color called blue in Crayola crayons.

"Blue" was one of the original Crayola crayons formulated in 1903.

Uranian blue[edit]

Uranian Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#AFDBF5
sRGBB  (rgb)(175, 216, 245)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(29, 11, 0, 4)
HSV       (h, s, v)(202°, 29%, 96%)
SourceColor-Hex
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Uranus with clouds
Uranus with clouds

At right is displayed the color uranian blue of Uranus.

In this section, the term shade is used in its technical sense as used in color theory, meaning a blueish color mixed with black or dark gray; the colors arranged in order of their value (brightness) (V in the HSV code), the brighter colors toward the top and the darker colors toward the bottom.

Medium blue[edit]

Medium Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0000CD
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 0, 205)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 100, 0, 20)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 100%, 80%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color medium blue. It is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue.

Argentinian blue[edit]

Argentinian Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#6CB4EE
sRGBB  (rgb)(108, 180, 238)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(55, 24, 0, 7)
HSV       (h, s, v)(206°, 55%, 93%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Flag of Argentina
Flag of Argentina

Displayed at right is the web color Argentinian blue. It is a light azure color seen on the national flag of Argentina.

Ruddy blue[edit]

Ruddy Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#76ABDF
sRGBB  (rgb)(118, 171, 223)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(47, 23, 0, 12)
HSV       (h, s, v)(210°, 47%, 88%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Ruddy duck (male)
Ruddy duck (male)

Ruddy blue represents the coloring of the beak of the ruddy duck. It is a light shade of azure.

Savoy blue[edit]

Savoy blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#4B61D1
sRGBB  (rgb)(75, 97, 209)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(77, 66, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(230°, 64%, 82%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Savoy blue, or savoy azure, is a shade of saturation blue between peacock blue and periwinkle, lighter than peacock blue[14]. It owes its name to the fact of being the color of the House of Savoy, a ruling dynasty in Italy from 1861 to 1946.

Having become a national color with the unification of Italy (1861), its use continued even after the birth of the Italian Republic (1946) with the name "Italian blue". An Italian-blue border was in fact inserted on the edge of the Presidential Standard of Italy and the use of the blue scarf for the Italian Armed Forces' officers, for the presidents of the Italian provinces during the official ceremonies and of the blue jersey for Italian national sports teams it was also maintained in the Republican era.

Spanish blue[edit]

Spanish Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0070BB
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 112, 184)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 45, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(203°, 100%, 72%)
SourceGallego and Sanz[15]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Spanish blue is the color that is called Azul (the Spanish word for "blue") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colorations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm. It is a shade of azure.

Liberty[edit]

Liberty
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#545AA7
sRGBB  (rgb)(84, 90, 167)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(50, 46, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v)(236°, 50%, 66[16]%)
SourceISCC-NBS[17]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color liberty.

The first recorded use of liberty as a color name in English was in 1918.[18]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Liberty (color sample #196)

Egyptian blue[edit]

Egyptian Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#1034A6
sRGBB  (rgb)(16, 52, 166)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(90, 69, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v)(226°, 90%, 65%)
SourceInternet[not specific enough to verify]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Egyptian blue is a pigment that was used in Ancient Egypt.

Ultramarine[edit]

Ultramarine
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#4000FF
sRGBB  (rgb)(64, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 75, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(255°, 100%, 100%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Ultramarine is a blue pigment in use since medieval times. It was originally derived from lapis lazuli, a bright blue mineral.

Neon blue[edit]

Neon Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#4D4DFF
sRGBB  (rgb)(77, 77, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(70, 70, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 69.8%, 100%)
SourceHtml Css Color
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color neon blue.

Delft blue[edit]

Delft Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#1F305E
sRGBB  (rgb)(31, 48, 94)
Source[1]Derwent
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the color delft blue. The name is derived from the Dutch pottery Delftware, also known simply as "Delft Blue".

Duck blue[edit]

Duck Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#007791
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 119, 145)
SourceISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the color duck blue.

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Duck Blue (color sample #169)

Dark blue[edit]

Dark Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#00008B
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 0, 139)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 100, 0, 46)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 100%, 55%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Dark blue is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue.

Resolution blue[edit]

Resolution Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#002387
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 35, 185)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 74, 0, 47)
HSV       (h, s, v)(224°, 100%, 53%)
SourceXona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color resolution blue.

This color name first came into use in 2001 when it was formulated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.

Polynesian blue[edit]

Polynesian Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#224C98
sRGBB  (rgb)(34, 76, 152)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(78, 50, 0, 40)
HSV       (h, s, v)(218°, 78%, 60%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Polynesian blue is a dark blue color, almost navy.

Navy blue[edit]

Navy Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#000080
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 0, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 100, 0, 50)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 100%, 50%)
SourceHTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Navy blue is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue. Navy blue got its name from the dark blue (contrasted with white) worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since 1748 (originally called marine blue before 1840) and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world.

The first recorded use of navy blue as a color name in English was in 1840.[19]

Midnight blue[edit]

Midnight Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#191970
sRGBB  (rgb)(25, 25, 112)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(97, 78, 39, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v)(240°, 78%, 44%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color midnight blue.

This is the X11 web color midnight blue.

This color was originally called midnight; the first recorded use of midnight as a color name in English was in 1915.[20]

Sapphire[edit]

Sapphire
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#082567
sRGBB  (rgb)(8, 37, 103)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(92, 64, 0, 60)
HSV       (h, s, v)(222°, 86%, 22%)
Source99Colors
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color sapphire. This deep shade of navy blue is based on the color of an average sapphire gemstone; however, sapphires can also be pink, yellow, or orange. Sapphire is the birthstone for those born in September.

Picotee blue[edit]

Picotee Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#2E2787
sRGBB  (rgb)(146, 39, 1135 l46, 39, 135)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(66, 71, 0, 47 65.93%,)
HSV       (h, s, v)(244°, 71%, 54%)
SourceX11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Picotee blue represents the color of the picotee flower. It is a deep shade of indigo, almost resembling St. Patrick's Blue.

Independence[edit]

Independence
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#4C516D
sRGBB  (rgb)(76, 81, 109)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(30, 26, 0, 57)
HSV       (h, s, v)(231°, 30%, 43[21]%)
SourceISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color independence.

The first recorded use of independence as a color name in English was in 1927.[22]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Independence (color sample #204).

Space cadet[edit]

Space Cadet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#1D2951
sRGBB  (rgb)(29, 41, 81)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(64, 49, 0, 68)
HSV       (h, s, v)(226°, 64%, 32%)
SourceResene
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color space cadet.

Space cadet is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list widely popular in Australia and New Zealand; the color "space cadet" was formulated in 2007.

Fluorescent blue[edit]

Fluorescent blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#15F4EE
sRGBB  (rgb)(21, 244, 238)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(91, 0, 2, 4)
HSV       (h, s, v)(178°, 91%, 96%)
Source[Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Fluorescent blue is a shade of blue that is radiant based on fluorescence. This is the main color on the Indian 50-rupee note.

Teal[edit]

Teal
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#008080
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 128, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(100, 0, 0, 50)
HSV       (h, s, v)(180°, 100%, 50%)
SourceHTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Teal is displayed at right, it is a dark cyan color that is a representation of the color of the neck coloring of a duck called the common teal.

Teal blue[edit]

Teal blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#367588
sRGBB  (rgb)(54, 117, 136)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k)(60, 14, 0, 47)
HSV       (h, s, v)(194°, 60%, 53%)
SourceKelly, Kenneth L. and Judd, Deanne B. (December 1976) "Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names", National Bureau of Standards, Spec. Publ. 440
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Teal blue is a medium tone of teal with more blue. The first recorded use of teal blue as a color name in English was in 1927.[23]

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel[edit]

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, blue (additive primary) appears midway between green and violet:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join cyan and magenta in an additive mixture of blue

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords". W3C. May 2003. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  2. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called baby blue in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color baby blue is displayed on page 93, Plate 35, Color Sample E2.
  3. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Baby Blue: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample E2
  4. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190
  5. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 202. See color sample of powder blue, Page 95--Plate 36 Color Sample H2
  6. ^ The color in the color box above matches the color called ice blue in the software Corel Photo-Paint 8
  7. ^ "X11 rgb.txt". Archived from the original on 2015-11-07. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  8. ^ Waldman, Gary (2002). Introduction to light : the physics of light, vision, and color (Dover ed.). Mineola: Dover Publications. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-486-42118-6.
  9. ^ The sRGB values are taken by converting the NCS color 2060-B using the “NCS Navigator” tool at the NCS website.
  10. ^ web.Forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #0018A8 (Blue (Pantone)):
  11. ^ Type the word "Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear. There are seven versions, all with the same color codes—C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, and UP.
  12. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the word "Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear. There are seven versions, all with the same color codes—C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, and UP.:
  13. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #1F75FE (Blue (Crayola)):
  14. ^ Grossmann 1911.
  15. ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8
  16. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #545AA7 (Liberty):
  17. ^ Color sample #196 on the ISCC-NBS color list is the color sample that matches the color in the book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill--Color Sample of Liberty: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C12
  18. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197; Color Sample of Liberty: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C12
  19. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 103; Color Sample of Navy blue: Page 131 Plate 40 Color Sample E11
  20. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 199; Color Sample of Midnight: Page 103 Plate 40 Color Sample A8
  21. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #4C516D (Independence):
  22. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; color sample of Independence: Page 117 Plate 47 Color Sample H12
  23. ^ Maerz, Aloys John and M. Rea Paul (1930) A Dictionary of Color, New York, McGraw-Hill, p. 205; color sample of Teal Blue: p. 101 Plate 39 Color Sample L6