Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian
Abraham "Bram" Stoker was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula. During his lifetime, he was better known as the personal assistant of actor Sir Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned. Stoker was born on 8 November 1847 at 15 Marino Crescent, Clontarf, on the northside of Dublin, Ireland, his parents were Abraham Stoker from Dublin and Charlotte Mathilda Blake Thornley, raised in County Sligo. Stoker was the third of seven children, the eldest of whom was Sir Thornley Stoker, 1st Bt.. Abraham and Charlotte were members of the Church of Ireland Parish of Clontarf and attended the parish church with their children, who were baptised there, Abraham was a senior civil servant. Stoker was bedridden with an unknown illness until he started school at the age of seven, when he made a complete recovery. Of this time, Stoker wrote, "I was thoughtful, the leisure of long illness gave opportunity for many thoughts which were fruitful according to their kind in years."
He was educated in a private school run by the Rev. William Woods. After his recovery, he grew up without further serious illnesses excelling as an athlete at Trinity College, which he attended from 1864 to 1870, he graduated with a BA in 1870, purchased his MA in 1875. Though he in life recalled graduating "with honours in mathematics," this appears to have been a mistake, he was auditor of the College Historical Society and president of the University Philosophical Society, where his first paper was on Sensationalism in Fiction and Society. Stoker became interested in the theatre while a student through his friend Dr. Maunsell. While working for the Irish Civil Service, he became the theatre critic for the Dublin Evening Mail, co-owned by Sheridan Le Fanu, an author of Gothic tales. Theatre critics were held in low esteem. In December 1876, he gave a favourable review of Henry Irving's Hamlet at the Theatre Royal in Dublin. Irving invited Stoker for dinner at the Shelbourne Hotel where he was staying, they became friends.
Stoker wrote stories, "The Crystal Cup" was published by the London Society in 1872, followed by "The Chain of Destiny" in four parts in The Shamrock. In 1876 while a civil servant in Dublin, Stoker wrote the non-fiction book The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland which remained a standard work. Furthermore, he possessed an interest in art, was a founder of the Dublin Sketching Club in 1879. In 1878 Stoker married Florence Balcombe, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel James Balcombe of 1 Marino Crescent, she was a celebrated beauty. Stoker had known Wilde from his student days, having proposed him for membership of the university's Philosophical Society while he was president. Wilde was upset at Florence's decision, but Stoker resumed the acquaintanceship, after Wilde's fall visited him on the Continent; the Stokers moved to London, where Stoker became acting manager and business manager of Irving's Lyceum Theatre, London, a post he held for 27 years. On 31 December 1879, Bram and Florence's only child was born, a son whom they christened Irving Noel Thornley Stoker.
The collaboration with Henry Irving was important for Stoker and through him he became involved in London's high society, where he met James Abbott McNeill Whistler and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Working for Irving, the most famous actor of his time, managing one of the most successful theatres in London made Stoker a notable if busy man, he was dedicated to Irving and his memoirs show he idolised him. In London Stoker met Hall Caine, who became one of his closest friends – he dedicated Dracula to him. In the course of Irving's tours, Stoker travelled the world, although he never visited Eastern Europe, a setting for his most famous novel. Stoker enjoyed the United States. With Irving he was invited twice to the White House, knew William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. Stoker set two of his novels there, using Americans as characters, the most notable being Quincey Morris, he met one of his literary idols, Walt Whitman. Stoker visited the English coastal town of Whitby in 1890, that visit was said to be part of the inspiration for Dracula.
He began writing novels while working as manager for Henry Irving and secretary and director of London's Lyceum Theatre, beginning with The Snake's Pass in 1890 and Dracula in 1897. During this period, Stoker was part of the literary staff of The Daily Telegraph in London, he wrote other fiction, including the horror novels The Lady of the Shroud and The Lair of the White Worm, he published his Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving in 1906, after Irving's death, which proved successful, managed productions at the Prince of Wales Theatre. Before writing Dracula, Stoker met a Hungarian writer and traveller. Dracula emerged from Vámbéry's dark stories of the Carpathian mountains. Stoker spent several years researching European folklore and mythological stories of vampires; the 1972 book In Search of Dracula by Radu Florescu and Raymond McNally claimed that the Count in Stoker's novel was based on Vlad III Dracula. At most however, Stoker borrowed only the name and "scraps of miscellaneous information" about Romanian history, according to one expert, Elizabeth Miller.
Dracula is an epistolary novel, written as a collection of realistic but fictional diary entries, letters, ship
BBC Films is the feature film-making arm of the BBC. It was founded on 18 June 1990, has produced or co-produced some of the most successful British films of recent years, including Truly, Deeply, Alan Partridge: Alpha Papa, Chef, Salmon Fishing in the Yemen, Saving Mr. Banks, My Week with Marilyn, Jane Eyre, In the Loop, An Education, StreetDance 3D, Fish Tank, Nativity!, Notes on a Scandal, Man Up, Billy Elliot and Brooklyn. BBC Films co-produces around eight films a year, working in partnership with major international and UK distributors. Christine Langan is of BBC Films, responsible for the development and production slate and business operations. BBC Films has been based at Broadcasting House in London since 2013. Prior to 2007, it was based nearby in Mortimer Street, while still under full control of the BBC. A restructuring of the division integrated it into the main BBC Fiction department of BBC Vision; as a result, it moved out of its independent offices into BBC Television Centre, its head David M. Thompson left to start his own film production company.
Stan and Ollie The Aftermath On Chesil Beach Viceroy's House City of Tiny Lights The Sense of an Ending Their Finest Lady Macbeth Victoria & Abdul David Brent: Life on the Road Absolutely Fabulous: The Movie Florence Foster Jenkins Sully Swallows and Amazons Denial My Scientology Movie A United Kingdom Far from the Madding Crowd The Falling Woman in Gold Suite Française Testament of Youth Mr. Holmes X+Y Bill Brooklyn The Lady in the Van Chef Mrs. Brown's Boys D'Movie A Little Chaos A Long Way Down The Invisible Woman What We Did on Our Holiday Philomena Saving Mr. Banks Dom Hemingway Alan Partridge: Alpha Papa Walking with Dinosaurs Quartet Shadow Dancer Spike Island Blood Good Vibrations Great Expectations In the Dark Half A Running Jump The Awakening Brighton Rock West Is West Jane Eyre Coriolanus My Week with Marilyn Project Nim Perfect Sense Salmon Fishing in the Yemen We Need to Talk about Kevin Made in Dagenham Tamara Drewe Edge of Darkness StreetDance 3D Freestyle Nativity! The Men Who Stare at Goats Tormented Frequently Asked Questions About Time Travel The Damned United In the Loop Bright Star The Boys Are Back An Education Churchill at War Revolutionary Road Death Defying Acts The Duchess Brideshead Revisited The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas The Other Boleyn Girl The Edge of Love The Meerkats Joe's Palace The Restraint of Beasts Four Last Songs The First Grader Capturing Mary Eastern Promises Becoming Jane Mr. Bean's Holiday Notes on a Scandal Starter for Ten Scoop Shiny Shiny Bright New Hole in My Heart Fast Food Nation Confetti Shoot the Messenger Miss Potter As You Like It The Undertaker Opal Dream Imagine Me & You Mrs Henderson Presents A Cock and Bull Story Match Point Shooting Dogs Love + Hate Undone The Accidental Perfectionist Bullet Boy Millions Red Dust My Summer of Love The Life and Death of Peter Sellers Stage Beauty Trauma The Statement Kiss of Life The Mother Skagerrak Masked and Anonymous Code 46 I Capture the Castle Iris Born Romantic Wonder Boys Wild About Harry Saltwater Maybe Baby Billy Elliot Shadow of the Vampire 1997 – Twenty Four Seven 1997 – I Went Down 1996 – Jude 1996 – Twelfth Night: Or What You Will 1995 – ID 1994 – Captives 1990 – Truly, Deeply BBC BBC Films at BBC Online
Edward John Izzard is a British stand-up comedian, actor and political activist. His comedic style takes the form of rambling self-referential pantomime, he had a starring role in the television series The Riches as Wayne Malloy and has appeared in films such as Ocean's Twelve, Ocean's Thirteen, Mystery Men, Shadow of the Vampire, The Cat's Meow, Across the Universe and Victoria & Abdul. He has worked as a voice actor in The Wild, The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, Cars 2 and The Lego Batman Movie. Izzard has cited his main comedy role model as Monty Python, John Cleese once referred to him as the "Lost Python". In 2009, he completed 43 marathons in 51 days for Sport Relief despite having no prior history of long-distance running, he has won numerous awards including a Primetime Emmy Award for Individual Performance in a Variety or Music Program for his comedy special Dress to Kill, in 2000. Izzard's website earned the Webby Award. Izzard is "straight transvestite" having cross-dressed both on and offstage.
Izzard has been a Labour Party activist for most of his life. He twice attempted to be elected for a seat on Labour's National Executive Committee; when Christine Shawcroft resigned in March 2018, he automatically took her place. Edward John Izzard was born on 7 February 1962 in the Colony of Aden, the younger son of British parents Dorothy Ella and Harold John Michael Izzard; the family name is of French Huguenot origin. His mother was a midwife and nurse, while his father was an accountant, working in Aden with British Petroleum at the time of Izzard's birth; when Izzard was one year old, the family moved to Northern Ireland, settling in Bangor, County Down and living there until Izzard was five. The family moved to Wales, where they lived in Skewen, West Glamorgan. Izzard's mother died of cancer when Izzard was six and his brother, was eight, he and his brother built a model railway to occupy their time. Following his mother's death, Izzard attended boarding schools such as St John's School in Porthcawl, Mid Glamorgan, as well as St Bede's Prep School and Eastbourne College.
He said that he knew he was a transgender person at the age of four, after watching another boy being forced to wear a dress by his sisters, knew he wanted to be an actor at the age of seven. Izzard began to toy with comedy with student friend Rob Ballard. After leaving his accountancy degree course, he and Ballard took their act to the streets in Covent Garden. After his split with Ballard, Izzard spent a great deal of the early 1980s working as a street performer in Europe and the United States. Izzard says that he developed his comedic voice by talking to his audience while doing solo escape acts after splitting with Ballard, he moved his act into the stand-up comedy venues of Britain. His first gig was at the Banana Cabaret in London. In 1987, he made his first stage appearance at the Comedy Store in London, he refined his material throughout the 1980s, in the early 1990s he began earning some measure of recognition through his improvisation, in part at his own club "Raging Bull" in Soho. Izzard's big break came in 1991 when he performed his'Raised by Wolves' sketch on the televised'Hysteria 3' AIDS benefit.
Izzard has performed stand-up shows in the language. In 1994, Izzard made his West End drama debut as the lead in the world premiere of David Mamet's The Cryptogram with Lindsay Duncan, in the production at London's Comedy Theatre; the success of that role led to his second starring role in David Beaird's black comedy 900 Oneonta. In 1995, he portrayed the title character in Christopher Marlowe's Edward II. In 1998 Izzard appeared on stage with the Monty Python team in The American Film Institute's Tribute to Monty Python, he walked on stage with the five surviving Pythons and he was summarily escorted off by Eric Idle and Michael Palin as he attempted to participate in a discussion about how the group got together. He has appeared in a number of episodes of BBC 1. Izzard portrayed comedian Lenny Bruce in the 1999 production of Julian Barry's 1971 play Lenny. In 2001, he replaced Clive Owen in Peter Nichols' 1967 play A Day in the Death of Joe Egg at the Comedy Theatre. Izzard and Victoria Hamilton repeated their lead roles when the show was brought to Broadway in 2003, with the Roundabout Theatre Company production.
The revival received four Tony Award nominations including Best Revival of a Play, Best Leading Actor and Actress for its stars Izzard and Hamilton in their Broadway debuts, Best Direction for Laurence Boswell. In June 2010, Izzard replaced James Spader in the role of Jack Lawson in David Mamet's play Race on Broadway. Izzard has appeared starting with 1996's The Secret Agent, he has appeared as several real-life individuals, including Charlie Chaplin in The Cat's Meow, actor Gustav von Wangenheim in Shadow of the Vampire and General Erich Fellgiebel in Valkyrie. Other roles have included Mr. Kite in Across the Universe, Lussurioso in Revengers Tragedy and criminal expert Roman Nagel in Ocean's Twelve and Ocean's Thirteen. Voice work has included the titular It in Five Children and It, Nigel in The Wild and the mouse warrior Reepicheep in The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, he said in 2009 that he would not be reprising his role as Reepicheep and the role was played by Simon Pegg in The Chronicles of Narnia
Nicolas Cage filmography
The filmography of American actor and producer, Nicolas Cage includes the year the film was or will be released, the name of his character, the director, other related notes. There is a list of films he has produced and his appearances in television. Cage has appeared in over 90 films throughout his career. Note: Films notated with † additionally have a'produced by' credit for Cage through his company, Saturn Films. Nicolas Cage filmography on IMDb