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Shahr-e Sukhteh

Shahr-e Sukhteh spelled as Shahr-e Sūkhté and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture. It is located in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, the southeastern part of Iran, on the bank of the Helmand River, near the Zahedan-Zabol road, it was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in June 2014. The reasons for the unexpected rise and fall of the city are still wrapped in mystery. Artifacts recovered from the city demonstrate a peculiar incongruity with nearby civilizations of the time and it has been speculated that Shahr-e-Sukhteh might provide concrete evidence of a civilization east of prehistoric Persia, independent of ancient Mesopotamia. Covering an area of 151 hectares, Shahr-e Sukhteh was one of the world’s largest cities at the dawn of the urban era. In the western part of the site is a vast graveyard, measuring 25 ha, it contains between 40,000 ancient graves. The settlement appeared around 3200 BCE; the city had four stages of civilization and was burnt down three times before being abandoned in 1800 BCE.

The site was investigated by Aurel Stein in the early 1900s. Beginning in 1967, the site was excavated by the Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente team led by Maurizio Tosi; that work continued until 1978. After a gap, work at the site was resumed by the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization team led by SMS Sajjadi. New discoveries are reported from time to time. Most of the material discovered is dated to the period of c. 2700-2300 BCE. The discoveries indicate that the city was a hub of trading routes that connected Mesopotamia and Iran with the Central Asian and Indian civilizations, as far away as China. During the Period I, Shahr-e Sukhteh shows close connections with the sites in southern Turkmenistan, with the Kandahar region of Afghanistan, the Quetta valley, the Bampur valley in Iran. There are the connections with the Proto-Elamite cities of Ḵuzestān and Fārs. During Period II, Shahr-e Sukhteh was in contact with the pre-Harappan centers of the Indus valley, the contacts with the Bampur valley continued.

Shahdad is another related big site, being excavated. Some 900 Bronze Age sites have been documented in the Sistan Basin, the desert area between Afghanistan and Pakistan; the Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BCE. Scholars link it with the Shahr-i Sokhta and Bampur sites; this civilization flourished between 2500 and 1900 BCE, may have coincided with the great flourishing of the Indus Valley Civilization. This was the final phase of Periods III and IV of Shahr-i Sokhta, the last part of Mundigak Period IV. Thus, the Jiroft and Helmand cultures are related; the Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan at the same time. In fact, they may represent the same cultural area; the Mehrgarh culture, on the other hand, is far earlier. A recent discovery is a unique marble cup, found on 29 December 2014. In January 2015, a Bronze Age piece of leather adorned with drawings was discovered In December 2006, archaeologists discovered the world's earliest known artificial eyeball.

It has a diameter of just over 2.5 cm. It consists of light material bitumen paste; the surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold, engraved with a central circle and gold lines patterned like sun rays. The female whose remains were found with the artificial eye was 1.82 m tall, much taller than ordinary women of her time. On both sides of the eye are drilled tiny holes, through which a golden thread could hold the eyeball in place. Since microscopic research has shown that the eye socket showed clear imprints of the golden thread, the eyeball must have been worn during her lifetime; the woman's skeleton has been dated to between 2900 and 2800 BCE. The oldest known backgammon and caraway seeds, together with numerous metallurgical finds, are among the finds which have been unearthed by archaeological excavations from this site. Other objects found at the site include a human skull which indicates the practice of brain surgery and an earthen goblet depicting what archaeologists consider to be the first animation.

Paleoparasitological studies suggest that inhabitants were infested by nematodes of the genus Physaloptera, a rare disease. Sistan Basin Cities of the Ancient Near East Mundigak F. H. Andrewa, Painted Neolithic Pottery in Sistan discovered by Sir Aurel Stein, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 47, pp. 304–308, 1925 Burnt City Video, part 1 of 4 - Youtube Burnt City Video, part 2 of 4 - Youtube Burnt City Video, part 3 of 4 - Youtube Burnt City Video, part 4 of 4 - Youtube Shahr-e Sukhteh, CHN Burnt City Inhabitants Used Teeth for Basket Weaving, CHN World's Oldest Backgammon Set found at the Burnt City

Marie Key

Marie Key Kristiansen better known as Marie Key is a Danish pop singer and songwriter. Marie released a successful debut single "Se nu herhen" taken from her debut album I byen igen. With her second solo album De her dage, Marie became an bigger commercial success, reaching No. 1 on the Danish Album Charts. Since 2002, Marie has worked with a number of musicians, firstly with her band called the Marie Key Band. Based in Copenhagen, the band included Marie Key, Jakob Thorkild, Marie Louise von Bülow and Mads Andersen, their genre was considered'urban pop' and their biggest hit was "KarriereKanonen 2005". as Marie Key Band 2006: Udtales 2008: EP 2008: Hver sin vejSolo Featured in Official website YouTube

Ronald Findlay

Ronald Edsel Findlay is the Professor of Economics at Columbia University, New York. He joined Columbia in 1969 first as a visiting professor and was appointed a professor in 1970, his research focus has been on international trade and economic development, he takes what has been described as a political economy perspective. He has a BA from Rangoon University, Burma and a PhD from MIT, he worked at Rangoon University as an economist first as a tutor as a lecturer, as a research professor of. Selected publications include: with Kevin H. O'Rourke, 2007, "Power and Plenty: Trade and the World Economy in the Second Millennium", Princeton University Press with Ronald W. Jones, 2001, "Input Trade and the Location of Production", The American Economic Review 1996 "Modeling Global Interdependence: Centers and Frontiers", The American Economic Review with Richard Clarida, 1992, "Government and Comparative Advantage", The American Economic Review.

Grey-banded mannikin

The grey-banded mannikin or grey-banded munia, is a species of estrildid finch is known to be found in Anggi Gigi, Tamrau Mountains and Arfak Mountains in the Vogelkop Peninsula in north-west Papua, Indonesia. This species marshland, it can be found at abandoned agricultural plots, near human settlements. The grey-banded mannikin is 10 cm long; this species is a grey pale-headed munia with brownish-grey breast and grey lower breast-band, rufous-brown belly, dark brown mantle and wings, pale yellow rump and tail. Its natural habitat is reported to be destroyed by farmers for agricultural practices. However, it may be able to survive in this habitat, it was proposed to further identify its habitat requirements and threats at Anggi Gigi and conserve wet grassland and marshland sites in Anggi Gigi, into the protected-areas. It was proposed to establish whether the Pegunungan Arfak Nature Reserve supports the species and find suitable habitat in north-east Papua to conserve this species. BirdLife Species Factsheet

Ibn Bahdal

Hassan ibn Malik ibn Bahdal al-Kalbi (Arabic: حسان بن مالك بن بحدل الكلبي‎, romanized: Ḥassān ibn Mālik ibn Baḥdal al-Kalbī known as Ibn Bahdal, was the Umayyad governor of Palestine and Jordan during the reigns of Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, a senior figure in the caliph's court, a chieftain of the Banu Kalb tribe. He owed his position both to his leadership of the powerful Kalb, a major source of troops, his kinship with the Umayyads through his aunt Maysun bint Bahdal, the wife of Mu'awiya and mother of Yazid. Following Yazid's death, Ibn Bahdal served as the guardian of his son and successor, Mu'awiya II, until the latter's premature death in 684. Amid the political instability and rebellions that ensued in the caliphate, Ibn Bahdal attempted to secure the succession Mu'awiya II's brother Khalid, but threw his support behind Marwan I, who hailed from a different branch of the Umayyads. Ibn Bahdal and his tribal allies defeated Marwan's opponents at the Battle of Marj Rahit and secured for themselves the most prominent roles in the Umayyad administration and military.

Hassan ibn Malik was a grandson of Bahdal ibn Unayf, chieftain of the Banu Kalb, one of the largest Bedouin tribes in 7th-century Arabia and Syria. Though not a son of Bahdal, Hassan was referred to in medieval sources as "Ibn Bahdal", they belonged to the Kalb's princely house, known as the Banu Haritha ibn Janab, which gave Ibn Bahdal prestige and authority over his tribesmen. Moreover, through his aunt, Maysun bint Bahdal, Ibn Bahdal was a cousin of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I, which increased his influence with the ruling Umayyad dynasty, he became Yazid's brother-in-law as well. Prior to the establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate in 661, Ibn Bahdal fought for a member of the dynasty and governor of Syria, Mu'awiya I, against the partisans of Caliph Ali at the Battle of Siffin in 657. During that battle, Ibn Bahdal was in command of his Quda'a confederate tribesmen from Jund Dimashq. Ibn Bahdal was among three of Bahdal's grandchildren who dominated the Umayyad political scene during the Sufyanid period.

Owing to the power of the Banu Kalb and his marital relations with the Sufyanids, Ibn Bahdal was appointed governor over Jund Filastin and Jund al-Urdunn by Mu'awiya I and Yazid I. Ibn Bahdal accompanied Yazid to Damascus, where the latter came to assume the caliphate following Mu'awiya's death, he went on to be an influential voice in Yazid's court. Yazid appointed Ibn Bahdal's brother, Sa'id ibn Malik, as governor of Jund Qinnasrin; this district was dominated by Qaysi tribes resentful of the Kalb's privileged position in the Umayyad court. Sa'id's authority in Qinnasrin was "beyond the endurance of the Qais", according to historian Julius Wellhausen. Under their main leader in the district, Zufar ibn al-Harith al-Kilabi, the Qays ousted Sa'id. Meanwhile, Yazid died in 683 and Ibn Bahdal became the guardian of his young sons, Mu'awiya II, Khalid and Abd Allah; as a result of Ibn Bahdal's influence, Mu'awiya II succeeded his father as caliph, but died of illness in 684, sparking a leadership crisis in the Caliphate at a time when the Mecca-based Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was recognized as caliph in the Hejaz and Iraq.

Ibn Bahdal supported Mu'awiya's younger half brothers' claims to succession, though their youth and inexperience precluded either of them from being accepted as caliphs by the ashraf of Syria. In Syria, the governor of Damascus, al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri, leaned toward Ibn al-Zubayr, while the governors of Jund Hims and Qinnasrin, Nu'man ibn Bashir al-Ansari and Zufar ibn al-Harith al-Kilabi the Qaysi tribes in general, members of the extended Umayyad family offered their full-fledged recognition of Ibn al-Zubayr's sovereignty. Ibn Bahdal fervently sought to maintain Umayyad rule, by extension, the administrative and courtly privileges of his household and the Banu Kalb, he left his home in Palestine for Jordan to keep a closer eye on developments in Damascus. He assigned Rawh ibn Zinba', a chieftain of the Judham, as his replacement in Palestine, but Rawh was soon after expelled by his rival in the Judham, Natil ibn Qays, who rebelled and gave allegiance to Ibn al-Zubayr. Meanwhile, the expelled Umayyad governor of Iraq, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, arrived in Damascus and strove to uphold Umayyad rule.

However, instead of Yazid's young children, Ubayd Allah turned to Marwan I, a non-Sufyanid member of the Umayyad clan. Ibn Bahdal still favored Khalid ibn Yazid and presided over a meeting of the Umayyad family and the Syrian ashraf, excluding Ubayd Allah, to settle the matter of Mu'awiya II's succession; the meeting was not held in the capital Damascus where al-Dahhak, whose allegiance was still under suspicion, but in Jabiya, a major town in the Jordan district. Al-Dahhak did not attend the meeting, having been convinced by the ashraf of Qays to boycott and mobilize for war. At the Jabiya summit, Ibn Bahdal declared Ibn al-Zubayr to be a munafiq who betrayed the Umayyad cause; the attending ashraf agreed, but rejected both Khalid and Abd Allah, saying "we dislike the idea that the others should come to us with a shaykh while we bring them a youngster". After forty days of talks, the Jabiya summit conclud

2000 Africa Cup of Nations qualification

This page details the process of qualifying for the 2000 African Cup of Nations. Note: both games were played in Kenya. Gambia withdrew, Senegal advanced automatically. Mauritania withdrew, Sierra Leone advanced automatically. Ethiopia withdrew due to Eritrean–Ethiopian War, Eritrea advanced automatically. Group round took place between October 2, 1998, June 20, 1999. Ghana qualified as hosts as of 15 their results where annulled. Eritrea qualified for Playoff. Sierra Leone withdrew due to the Sierra Leone Civil War on 22 March 1999, their result was annulled. Nigeria qualified as hosts as of 15 March 1999, their results were annulled. Senegal qualified for Playoff. Eritrea and Senegal join Zimbabwe in a playoff for one place in the final tournament. 1st leg 2nd leg Details at RSSSF