Indo-Scythians were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Saka and Scythian origin who migrated southward into western and northern South Asia from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. The first Saka king in South Asia was Maues/Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara, Indus Valley; the Indo-Scythians extended their supremacy over north-western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms. The Indo-Scythians were subjugated by the Kushan Empire, by either Kujula Kadphises or Kanishka, yet the Saka continued forming the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni. Indo-Scythian rule in the northwestern Indian subcontinent ceased when the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III was defeated by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II in 395 CE; the invasion of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent by Scythian tribes from Central Asia referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, played a significant part in the history of the Indian subcontinent as well as nearby countries.
In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu in the 2nd century AD, which had lasting effects on Bactria and the Indian subcontinent as well as far-off Rome in the west, more nearby to the west in Parthia. Ancient Roman historians including Arrian and Claudius Ptolemy have mentioned that the ancient Sakas were nomadic people. However, Italo Ronca, in his detailed study of Ptolemy's chapter vi, states: "The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests and caves" as spurious; the ancestors of the Indo-Scythians are thought to be Sakas tribes. "One group of Indo-European speakers that makes an early appearance on the Xinjiang stage is the Saka. Saka is more a generic term than a name for ethnic group. Like the Scythians whom Herodotus describes in book four of his History, Sakas were Iranian-speaking horse nomads who deployed chariots in battle, sacrificed horses, buried their dead in barrows or mound tombs called kurgans."
According to their own origin myths, they claimed descent from Kushtana Maurya, the exiled son of the Indian Emperor Ashokavardhana Maurya who established the Kingdom of Khotan at Tarim Basin. In the 2nd century BC, a fresh nomadic movement started among the Central Asian tribes, producing lasting effects on the history of Rome in Europe, Parthia in Western Asia, Bactria and India in the east in Southern Asia. Recorded in the annals of the Han dynasty and other Chinese records, this great tribal movement began after the Yuezhi tribe was defeated by the Xiongnu, fleeing westwards after their defeat and creating a domino effect as they displaced other central Asian tribes in their path. According to these ancient sources Modu Shanyu of the Xiongnu tribe of Mongolia attacked the Yuezhi and evicted them from their homeland between the Qilian Shan and Dunhuang around 175 BC. Leaving behind a remnant of their number, most of the population moved westwards into the Ili River area. There, they displaced the Sakas, who migrated south into Sogdiana.
According to the Chinese historical chronicles: " attacked the king of the Sai who moved a considerable distance to the south and the Yuezhi occupied his lands."Sometime after 155 BC, the Yuezhi were again defeated by an alliance of the Wusun and the Xiongnu, were forced to move south, again displacing the Scythians, who migrated south towards Bactria and present Afghanistan, south-west closer towards Parthia. The Sakas seem to have entered the territory of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom around 145 BC, where they burnt to the ground the Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus; the Yuezhi remained in Sogdiana on the northern bank of the Oxus, but they became suzerains of the Sakas in Bactrian territory, as described by the Chinese ambassador Zhang Qian who visited the region around 126 BC. In Parthia, between 138–124 BC, a tribe known to ancient Greek scholars as the Sacaraucae and an allied non-Saka/Scythian people, the Massagetae came into conflict with the Parthian Empire; the Sacaraucae-Massagetae alliance won several battles and killed, in succession, the Parthian kings Phraates II and Artabanus I.
The Parthian king Mithridates II retook control of parts of Central Asia, first by defeating the Yuezhi in Sogdiana in 115 BC, defeating the Scythians in Parthia and Seistan around 100 BC. After their defeat, the Yuezhi tribes migrated far to the east into Bactria, which they were to control for several centuries, from which they conquered northern India to found the Kushan Empire; the Sakas settled in Drangiana, an area of Southern Afghanistan, western Pakistan and south Iran, called after them as Sakastan or Sistan. From there, they progressively expanded into present day Iran as well as northern India, where they established various kingdoms, where they are known as "Saka"; the Arsacid emperor Mithridates II had scored many successes against the Scythia
Prithvi Narayan Shah
Maharajadhiraja Prithivi Narayan Shah was the last ruler of the Gorkha Kingdom in the Indian subcontinent, present-day Nepal, first monarch of Kingdom of Nepal on the Indian subcontinent. He claimed to be a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India. Majority of the people credit Prithvi Narayan Shah for starting the campaign for the unification of Nepal, while some feel contempt against him for colonization. Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah self-proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan due to much of North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers; the self-proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmashastra over his reign and refer to his country as being inhabitable for Hindus. He referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan and derided the region as being infiltrated by Muslim foreigners; the Gorkha dynasty was established by Dravya Shah. After them, Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah and Prithvipati Shah ruled over the state of Gorkha in succession.
King Prithvipati Shah had gained a good reputation as an able King as he maintained good relations with the neighboring state kings with the King of Lalitpur. He had maintained a friendly relationship with Nripendra Malla, the King of the state named "Kantipur". Prithvipati had many sons among which the eldest son Birbhadra Shah had established himself as the heir-apparent and the prince, but on, the relationship started to worsen between Prithvipati Shah and Birbhadra Shah. The latter died on his way back to the capital of Gorkha after staying a while in the state "Bhaktapur". Prithvipati Shah's grandson and the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nara Bhupal Shah was born of Mallikavati. Nara Bhupal Shah married the princess of Khaachi state, Chandra Pravawati at around B. S. 1772. About a year he ascended to the throne of Gorkha after which he married Kausalyavati Devi, the daughter of Gundharva Sen, the King of Palpa. No children were born of Nara Bhupal Shah from either queen which prompted him to marry two royal princesses and Subhadramati.
Yet on, from Queen Kausalyavati Devi a child was born on the date B. S. 1779. The child was named Prithivi Narayan Shah, his complete care was taken by the eldest of Chandra Pravawati. Prince Prithivi Narayan Shah showed his greatness from a early age, his education began at the age of five through the appropriate ceremony. At that time, the responsibility to educate him was given to Mokchyeshwor Aryal and Bhanu Aryal, They were the Upadhyayas who worked in the palace as Astrologers, where they were known as Jyotish or Jaisi. Though his primary education was provided by the Gurus, the duty of developing his character was taken by the Queen Chandra Pravawati, it is said that seeing the Prince of neighboring states Tanahun and Kaski being indulged in excess pleasure, Chandra Pravawati kept Prithivi Narayan Shah away from pleasurable and wrong pursuits. That is; the result of which, from young age virtuous qualities such as courage and positive character developed in him. From a young age, he took interest in the affairs of his father's state and soon began to take on these responsibilities.
Prithivi Narayan Shah had an early dream of conquering Nuwakot as his father had lost it to the Mallas of Kathmandu in an earlier war. After the death of his father in 1743, Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha at the age of 20; as king, he enjoyed talking to his subjects about their general concerns. This practice helped him to build a rapport with his people and helped him to understand the requirements of the citizens of Gorkha. King Shah sealed his borders and maintained a peaceful environment except for distant relations with the British, who were refusing to trade with Nepal at the time. Before Prithivi Narayan Shah's unification movement, there were a total of 54 states in Nepal. In the South-Eastern Terai, there were three Sen states: Makawanpur and Chaudandi. In the West, from Gorkha to Gandaki Province, there were 24 states. In the province of Karnali, there were 22 states with Kalyan, Samaal and Chand dynasties. Along with Gorkha and Mustang, Bhaktapur and Lalipur made up the remaining five states.
When Prithivi Narayan Shah had ascended to the throne of Gorkha in the year 1743 A. D, it was yet a small state, he started to contemplate on the methods to turn Gorkha into a huge and strong state. He went to Varanasi to gain first-hand knowledge about the neighboring states and about India to the south. During those days, Varanasi was one of the large trade centers of India where people from different places gathered, he met with different types of people and gained valuable understandings regarding the Political and Social condition of the Indian Sub-Continent. In Varanasi, his father-in-law Abhiman Singh, a Rajput Chief, procured for him some firearms and a quantity of ammunition, his first attempt at invasion of Nuwakot in 1743 CE failed and his reign began with an immediate military defeat. Conquering Nuwakot was essential for the unification, as it lay between Kathmandu and the Gorkha District, making it a vital trading route to Tibet. On his return to Gorkha from Varanasi, Prithivi Narayan Shah first took steps to defeat Nuwakot in the diplomatic field.
He entered into friendly alliance with the chiefs of Lamjung and Palpa. This done, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent an army against Nuwakot from three directions; the Chief of Nuwakot knowing that Gorkha is going to attack them in near fut
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history. As the Indic scripts were introduced from India, people of Southeast Asia entered the historical period by producing their earliest inscriptions around the 1st to 5th century CE. Hindu civilization transformed and shaped the social construct and statehood of Southeast Asian regional polity. Through the formation of Indianized kingdoms, small indigenous polities led by petty chieftain were transformed into major kingdoms and empires led by a maharaja with statecraft concept akin to those in India, it gave birth to the former Champa civilisation in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Empire in Indochina, Langkasuka Kingdom and Old Kedah in the Malay Peninsula, the Sriwijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Medang Kingdom and the Majapahit Empire based in Java and parts of the Philippine archipelago. The civilisation of India influenced the languages, written tradition, calendars, beliefs system and artistic aspects of these peoples and nations.
Indian scholars wrote about the Dwipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita, it was hence referred to in Indian by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Southeast Asia was frequented by traders from eastern India Kalinga, as well as from the kingdoms of South India; the Indianised Tarumanagara kingdom was established in West Java around 400s, produced among the earliest inscriptions in Indonesian history. There was a marked Buddhist influence starting about 425 in the region. Around the 6th century, Kalingga Indianized kingdom was established in norther coast of Central Java; the kingdom name was derived from Kalinga east coast of India. These Southeast Asian seafaring peoples engaged in extensive trade with China. Which attracted the attention of the Mongols and Japanese, as well as Islamic traders, who reached the Aceh area of Sumatra in the 12th century.
Examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Chola dynasty. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Chola rule is remembered in Malaysia today as many princes there have names ending with Cholan or Chulan,one such being Raja Chulan, the Raja of Perak; the Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. Some scholars have pointed out that the legends of Ikshvaku and Sumati may have their origin in the Southeast-Asian myth of the birth of humanity from a bitter gourd; the legend of Sumati, the wife of King Sagar, tells that she produced offspring with the aid of a bitter gourd. Today, vibrant Hindu communities remain in Malaysia, Thailand, Medan city of Indonesia and the Philippines due to the presence of Indians, such as Tamil people, who migrated from the Indian sub-continent to Southeast Asia in past centuries.
One notably Southeast Asian aspect of Tamil Hinduism is the festival of Thaipusam, while other Hindu religious festivals such as Diwali are well-observed by Hindus in the region. In Thailand and Cambodia and Khmer people practised Hindu rituals and traditions along with their Buddhist faith, Hindu gods such as Brahma are still revered. In Indonesia, it is not only people of Indian descent. Other than the Balinese, a small enclave of Javanese Hindu minorities are can be found in Java, such as around Tengger mountain ranges near Bromo and Semeru volcanoes, Karanganyar Regency in Central Java, near Prambanan, Yogyakarta. Hinduism is found among the Cham minority in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia: just like the Javanese, the majority of them are Muslims but a minority are Hindu. In other parts of Indonesia, the term Hindu Dharma is loosely used as umbrella category to identify native spiritual beliefs and indigenous religions such as Hindu Kaharingan professed by Dayak of Kalimantan; the resurgence of Hinduism in Indonesia is occurring in all parts of the country.
In the early 1970s, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980. In an unpublished report in 1999, the National Indonesian Bureau of Statistics admitted that around 100,000 people had converted or'reconverted' from Islam to Hinduism over the previous two decades; the Ministry of Religious Affairs, as of 2007 estimates there to be at least 10 million Hindus in Indonesia. The growth of Hinduism has been driven by the famous Javanese prophesies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, now support Megawati Sukarnoputri; this return to the'religion of Majapahit' is a matter of nationalist pride. Next to Indonesian Balinese, the Balamon Cham are the only surviving native Hindus in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam there are 160,000 members of the Cham ethnic minority, majority of them adheres Hinduism while some are Muslims.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Damasena was a Western Kshatrapa ruler, who reigned from 223 to 232 CE. From the reign of Rudrasimha I, the date of minting of each coin, reckoned in the Saka era, is written on the obverse behind the king's head in Brahmi numerals, allowing for a quite precise datation of the rule of each king; this is a rather uncommon case in Indian numismatics. Some, such as the numismat R. C Senior considered. Rapson, "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc..."
Vima Kadphises was a Kushan emperor from 90–100 CE. According to the Rabatak inscription, he was the father of Kanishka; the connection of Vima Kadphises with other Kushan rulers is described in the Rabatak inscription, which Kanishka wrote. Kanishka makes the list of the kings who ruled up to his time: Kujula Kadphises as his great-grandfather, Vima Taktu as his grandfather, Vima Kadphises as his father, himself Kanishka: "... for King Kujula Kadphises great grandfather, for King Vima Taktu grandfather, for King Vima Kadphises father, *also for himself, King Kanishka" Emperor Vima Kadphises expanded the Kushan territory in Afghanistan and north-west India, where he may have replaced the Indo-Scythian ruler Sodasa in Mathura. He was the Kushan emperor to first introduce gold coinage, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have been obtained through trade with the Roman Empire; the gold weight standard of eight grams corresponds to that of Roman coins of the 1st century.
Gold bullion from Rome would be melted and used for the Kushan mints, into three denominations: the double stater, the stater, the quarter starter. The usage of gold testifies to the prosperity of the Kushan Empire from the time of Vima, being the center of trade between the Han Dynasty of China, Central Asia and Alexandria and Antioch in the West; the Kushan were able to maintain and protect the Silk road, allowing silk, textiles or medicine to move between China and the West. In particular, many goods were sent by ship to the Roman empire, creating a return flow of gold coins, Greek wine and slaves. Works of arts were imported from all directions, as indicated by the variety and quality of the artefacts found in the Kushan summer capital of Bagram in Afghanistan. A strong artistic syncretism was stimulated. Roman history relates the visit of ambassadors from the Indian kings to the court of Trajan, bearing presents and letters in Greek, which were sent either by Vima Kadphises or his son Kanishka.
Most of Vima's coins feature the Buddhist symbol of the Triratana on the reverse, together with Hindu representations of Shiva, with or without his bull. Time, a Trishul is depicted along with Shiva. Hill, John E. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Tarn, W. W.. The Greeks in Bactria and India. 3rd Edition 1984. Ares Publishers, Chicago. ISBN 0-89005-524-6 Coins of Vima Kadphises Catalogue of coins of Vima Kadphises
Vārāhamihira called Vārāha or Mihira, was a Hindu polymath who lived in Ujjain. He was born in the Avanti region corresponding to modern-day Malwa, to Adityadasa, himself an astronomer. According to one of his own works, he was educated at Kapitthaka; the Indian tradition believes him to be one of the "Nine Jewels" of the court of legendary ruler Yashodharman Vikramaditya of Malwa. However, this claim appears for the first time in a much text and scholars consider this claim to be doubtful because neither Vihiramihira and Vikramaditya lived in the same century nor did Varahamihira live in the same century as some of the other names in the "nine jewels" list such as the much older Kalidasa. Varahamihira's most notable work was Brhat Samhita, an encyclopedic work on architecture, planetary motions, timekeeping, seasons, cloud formation, agriculture, gemology and many other topics. According to Varahamihira, in many verses he explained that he was summarizing centuries old and earlier existing literature on astronomy, Shilpa Sastra and temple architecture, his presentation of different theories and models of design are among the earliest texts that have survived.
The chapters of the Brihat Samhita and verses of Varahamihira were quoted by the Persian traveler and scholar Al Biruni. Varahamihira is credited with writing several authoritative texts on astronomy and astrology, he praised the in his text for being "well trained in the sciences". Some scholars consider him to be the strong candidate as the one who understood and introduced the zodiac signs, predictive calculations for auspicious ceremonies and astrological computations to the Indian subcontinent from the Greek literature. Varahamihira's main work is the book Pañcasiddhāntikā dated ca. 575 CE gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost. The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta, it is a compendium of Vedanga Jyotisha as well as Hellenistic astronomy. Varahamihira was the first one to mention that the ayanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox is 50.32 seconds.
They have 5 Siddhāntas: Sūrya-Siddhānta, ie. the Siddhānta of the Sun, thought to be composed by Lāṭadeva, but composed by Mayasura known as Mamuni Mayan as stated in the text itself. Vasishtha-siddhānta, so called from one of the stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra, Paulisa-siddhānta, so called from Pulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, supposed to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa. Romaka-siddhānta, so called from the Rūm, ie. the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by Śrīsheṇa. Paitahama-siddhānta. Another important contribution of Varahamihira is the encyclopedic Brihat-Samhita. Although the book is about divination, it includes a wide range of subjects other than divination, it covers wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astronomy, planetary movements, rainfall, architecture, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, domestic relations, gems and rituals. The volume expounds on gemstone evaluation criterion found in the Garuda Purana, elaborates on the sacred Nine Pearls from the same text.
It contains 106 chapters and is known as the "great compilation". He was an astrologer, his son Prithuyasas contributed to Hindu astrology. Khana, the medieval Bengali poet astrologer, is believed to be the daughter-in-law of Varahamihira; the Romaka Siddhanta and the Paulisa Siddhanta were two works of Western origin which influenced Varahamihira's thought, though this view is controversial as there is much evidence to suggest that it was Vedic thought indigenous to India which first influenced Western astrologers and subsequently came back to India reformulated. Paulisa Siddhanta is mistakenly thought to be a single work and attributed to Paul of Alexandria. However, this notion has been rejected by other scholars in the field, notably by David Pingree who stated that "...the identification of Paulus Alexandrinus with the author of the Pauliśa Siddhānta is false". Number of his writings share similarities with the earlier texts like Vedanga Jyotisha. A comment in the Brihat-Samhita by Varahamihira says: "The Greeks, though impure.
Must be honored since they have shown tremendous interest in our science.....". Varahamihira improved the accuracy of the sine tables of Aryabhata, he was among the first mathematicians to discover a version of what is now known as the Pascal's triangle. He used it to calculate the binomial coefficients, he records the first known 4×4 magic square. Among Varahamihira's contribution to physics is his statement that reflection is caused by the back-scattering of particles and refraction by the ability of the particles to penetrate inner spaces of the material, much like fluids that move through porous objects.1. ^ "the Pañca-siddhāntikā, a compendium of Indian astronomy. Varāhamihira's knowledge of Indian astronomy was thorough. In 5 sections, his monumental work progresses through native Indian astronomy and culminates in 2 treatises on western astronomy, which he says orig