The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more known as the Shakers, is a millenarian nontrinitarian restorationist Christian sect founded circa 1747 in England and organized in the United States in the 1780s. They were known as "Shaking Quakers" because of their ecstatic behavior during worship services. Espousing egalitarian ideals, women took on spiritual leadership roles alongside men, including founding leaders such as Jane Wardley, Mother Ann Lee, Mother Lucy Wright; the Shakers emigrated from England and settled in Revolutionary colonial America, with an initial settlement at Watervliet, New York in 1774. They practice a celibate and communal lifestyle, uniform charismatic worship, their model of equality of the sexes, which they institutionalized in their society in the 1780s, they are known for their simple living, technological innovation, furniture. During the mid-19th century, an Era of Manifestations resulted in a period of dances, gift drawings, gift songs inspired by spiritual revelations.
At its peak in the mid-19th century, there were 4,000–6,000 Shaker believers living in 18 major communities and numerous smaller short-lived, communities. External and internal societal changes in the mid- and late-19th century resulted in the thinning of the Shaker community as members left or died with few converts to the faith to replace them. By 1920, there were only 12 Shaker communities remaining in the United States; as of 2019, there is only one active Shaker village: Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village, in Maine. Many of the other Shaker settlements are now museums; the Shakers were one of a few religious groups which were formed during the 18th century in the Northwest of England. James and Jane Wardley and others broke off from the Quakers in 1747 at a time when the Quakers were weaning themselves away from frenetic spiritual expression; the Wardleys formed the Wardley Society, known as the "Shaking Quakers". Future leader Ann Lee and her parents were early members of the sect; this group of "charismatic" Christians became the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, or the Shakers.
Their beliefs were based upon spiritualism and included the notion that they received messages from the spirit of God which were expressed during religious revivals. They experienced what they interpreted as messages from God during silent meditations and became known as "Shaking Quakers" because of the ecstatic nature of their worship services, they believed in the renunciation of sinful that the end of the world was near. Meetings were first held in Bolton, where the articulate preacher, Jane Wardley, urged her followers to: Repent. For the kingdom of God is at hand; the new heaven and new earth prophesied of old is about to come. The marriage of the Lamb, the first resurrection, the new Jerusalem descended from above, these are now at the door, and when Christ appears again, the true church rises in full and transcendent glory all anti-Christian denominations—the priests, the Church, the pope—will be swept away. Other meetings were held in Manchester, Meretown and other places near Manchester.
As their numbers grew, members began to be persecuted and stoned. The members looked to women for leadership, believing that the second coming of Christ would be through a woman. In 1770, Ann Lee was revealed in "manifestation of Divine light" to be the second coming of Christ and was called Mother Ann. Ann Lee joined the Shakers by 1758 became the leader of the small community. "Mother Ann", as her followers called her, claimed numerous revelations regarding the fall of Adam and Eve and its relationship to sexual intercourse. A powerful preacher, she called her followers to confess their sins, give up all their worldly goods, take up the cross of celibacy and forsake marriage, as part of the renunciation of all "lustful gratifications", she said: I saw in vision the Lord Jesus in his kingdom and glory. He revealed to me the depth of man's loss, what it was, the way of redemption therefrom. I was able to bear an open testimony against the sin, the root of all evil. From that day I have been able to take up a full cross against all the doleful works of the flesh.
Having received a revelation, on May 19, 1774, Ann Lee and eight of her followers sailed from Liverpool for colonial America. Ann and her husband Abraham Stanley, brother William Lee, niece Nancy Lee, James Whittaker and son John Hocknell and Richard Hocknell, James Shephard, Mary Partington traveled to colonial America and landed in New York City. Abraham Stanley remarried; the remaining Shakers settled in Watervliet, New York, in 1776. Mother Ann's hope for the Shakers in America was represented in a vision: "I saw a large tree, every leaf of which shone with such brightness as made it appear like a burning torch, representing the Church of Christ, which will yet be established in this land." Unable to swear an Oath of Allegiance, as it was against their faith, the members were imprisoned for about six months. Since they were only imprisoned because of their faith, this raised sympathy of citizens and thus helped to spread their religious beliefs. Mother Ann, revealed as the "second coming" of Christ, traveled throughout the eastern states, preaching her gospel views.
After Ann Lee and James Whittaker died, Joseph Meacham became the leader of the Shakers in 1787, establishing a headquarters in New Lebanon, New York. He had been a New Light Baptist mini
Alexandru Paleologu was a Romanian essayist, literary critic and politician. He is the father of historian Theodor Paleologu. Paleologu was born in Bucharest, into an ancient Romanian boyar family that claimed descent from the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, they had moved from Lesbos Island to the Danubian Principalities at the beginning of the 18th century. Paleologu was through various marriages, a descendant of the Wallachian Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu. Alexandru Paleologu's father, Mihail Paleologu was a lawyer and National Liberal Member of Parliament general secretary in the Ministries of Justice and of Finance, known for his association with Grigore Iunian, he graduated from the Spiru Haret High School in Bucharest and he studied Law at the University of Bucharest. In 1944, after the Royal Coup that overthrew Ion Antonescu's dictatorship and took Romania out of the Axis, Paleologu took part in the Romanian committee of the armistice with the Allies and, between 1946 and 1948, worked for the Romanian Royal Ministry of External Affairs.
After the Communists regime was established, he was under surveillance by the Securitate, he lived hidden and under a false name in Câmpulung until 1956, when he began working as a researcher at the Romanian Academy in the Institute of Ancient Art History. In 1959, Paleologu was sentenced to 14 years of forced labour. In prison, he met many other important people in Romanian culture such as Constantin Noica and Alexandru Ivasiuc, he was freed in 1964, he worked at the same Institute in the Theatre section. He was the literary secretary of the Constantin Nottara Theatre of Bucharest and, in 1967, he became a member of the Romanian Writers' Union. Between 1970 and 1976 he was a writer for the Cartea Românească publishing house. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, he was named ambassador of Romania to France, but he was replaced in June 1990 because he was a sympathiser of the Golaniad movement of University Square, as well due to his pro-monarchist views, he became a member of the Civic Alliance Party, founded by Nicolae Manolescu and he was elected a senator for Argeș during the 1992 election.
He was a National Liberal senator for Vrancea following the 1996 election, reelected for Bucharest during the 2000 suffrage. In the years after 1989 he admitted in a book of interviews with historian and novelist Stelian Tănase that during the communist period he ended up collaborating with the Securitate and asked Romanians to forgive him. Spiritul și litera. Eseuri critice, 1970 Bunul-simț ca paradox. Eseuri, 1972 Simțul practic. Eseuri și polemici, 1974 Treptele lumii sau calea către sine a lui Mihail Sadoveanu, 1978 Ipoteze de lucru. Studii și eseuri literare, 1980 Alchimia existenței. Eseuri și portrete, 1983. Second edition revised, 1997 Souvenirs merveilleux d'un ambassadeur des golans, Editura Ballard, 1992. Second edition 1998 Interlocuțiuni, 1997 Politețea ca armă. Convorbiri și articole mai mult sau mai puțin politice, 2000 L'Occident est à l'Est, 2001 Breviar pentru pastrarea clipelor. Convorbiri cu Filip-Lucian Iorga, 2005 "Alexandru Paleologu, o viața în slujba idealurilor", in Evenimentul Zilei, September 4, 2005
Puyoô is a railway station in Puyoô, Pyrénées-Atlantiques département of France. The station, opened in 1862, is located on the Toulouse - Puyoô - Dax railway lines. Puyoô was formerly served by the Puyoô to Mauléon railway line, which closed to passengers in 1968 and to freight in 1989, before being abandoned in 1991; this railway line had a branch to Saint-Palais, now closed. Today, the station is served by Intercités and TER services operated by the SNCF; the following services call at Puyoô: local service Bordeaux - Dax - Pau local service Bayonne - Pau - Tarbes Timetables TER Aquitaine