Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies is the 1623 published collection of William Shakespeare's plays. Modern scholars refer to it as the First Folio, it is considered one of the most influential books published in the English language. Printed in folio format and containing 36 plays, it was prepared by Shakespeare's colleagues John Heminges and Henry Condell, it was dedicated to the "incomparable pair of brethren" William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and his brother Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery. Although 18 of Shakespeare's plays had been published in quarto before 1623, the First Folio is arguably the only reliable text for about 20 of the plays, a valuable source text for many of those published; the Folio includes all of the plays accepted to be Shakespeare's, with the exception of Pericles, Prince of Tyre. On 23 April 1616, William Shakespeare died in Stratford-upon-Avon, was buried in the chancel of the Church of the Holy Trinity two days later. After a long career as an actor and sharer in the Lord Chamberlain's Men from c.
1585–90 until c. 1610–13, he was financially well off and among England's most popular dramatists, both on the stage and in print. But his reputation had not yet risen to the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. A funerary monument in Holy Trinity was commissioned by his oldest daughter, installed, most sometime before 1617–18, but a monument in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey was not realised until 1740. William Basse wrote an elegiac poem on him c. 1618–20, but no notices were taken of his death in diplomatic correspondence or newsletters on the continent, nor were any tributes published by European contemporaries. William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke—who at the time held the post of Lord Chamberlain, with authority over the King's Men, directly in charge of Shakespeare as a Groom of the Chamber—made no note of his passing. Shakespeare's works—both poetic and dramatic—had a rich history in print before the publication of the First Folio: from the first publications of Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, 78 individual printed editions of his works are known.
C. 30% of these editions are his poetry, the remaining c. 70% his plays. Counting by number of editions published before 1623, the best-selling works were Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece, Henry IV, Part 1. Of the 23 editions of the poems, 16 were published in octavo; the quarto format was made by folding a large sheet of printing paper twice, forming 4 leaves with 8 pages. The average quarto was made up of c. 9 sheets, giving 72 total pages. Octavos—made by folding a sheet of the same size three times, forming 8 leaves with 16 pages—were about half as large as a quarto. Since the cost of paper represented c. 50–75% of a book's total production costs, octavos were cheaper to manufacture than quartos, a common way to reduce publishing costs was to reduce the number of pages needed by compressing or abbreviating the text. Editions of individual plays were published in quarto and could be bought for 6d without a binding; these editions were intended to be cheap and convenient, read until worn out or repurposed as wrapping paper, rather than high quality objects kept in a library.
Customers who wanted to keep a particular play would have to have it bound, would bind several related or miscellany plays into one volume. Octavos, though nominally cheaper to produce, were somewhat different. From c. 1595–6 and 1598, Shakespeare's narrative poems were published in octavo. In The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare's First Folio, Tara L. Lyons argues that this was due to the publisher, John Harrison's, desire to capitalize on the poems' association with Ovid: the Greek classics were sold in octavo, so printing Shakespeare's poetry in the same format would strengthen the association; the octavo carried greater prestige, so the format itself would help to elevate their standing. However, the choice was a financial one: Venus and Adonis in octavo needed four sheets of paper, versus seven in quarto, the octavo The Rape of Lucrece needed five sheets, versus 12 in quarto. Whatever the motivation, the move seems to have had the intended effect: Francis Meres, the first known literary critic to comment on Shakespeare, in his Palladis Tamia, puts it thus: "the sweete wittie soule of Ouid liues in mellifluous & hony-tongued Shakespeare, witnes his Venus and Adonis, his Lucrece, his sugred Sonnets among his priuate friends".
Publishing literary works in folio was not unprecedented. Starting with the publication of Sir Philip Sidney's The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia and Astrophel and Stella, both published by William Ponsonby, there was a significant number of folios published, a significant number of them were published by the men who would be involved in publishing the First Folio, but quarto was the typical format for plays printed in the period: folio was a prestige format used, according to Fredson Bowers, for books of "superior merit or some permanent value". The contents of the First Folio were compiled by Henry Condell.
The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare written in 1610–1611, thought to be one of the last plays that Shakespeare wrote alone. After the first scene, which takes place on a ship at sea during a tempest, the rest of the story is set on a remote island, where the sorcerer Prospero, a complex and contradictory character, lives with his daughter Miranda, his two servants — Caliban, a savage monster figure, Ariel, an airy spirit; the play contains music and songs. It explores many themes including magic, betrayal and family. In act four, a wedding masque serves as a play-within-the play, contributes spectacle and elevated language. Though The Tempest is listed in the First Folio as the first of Shakespeare’s comedies, it deals with both tragic and comic themes, modern criticism has created a category of romance for this and others of Shakespeare’s late plays; the Tempest has been subjected to varied interpretations—from those that see it as a fable of art and creation, with Prospero representing Shakespeare, Prospero’s renunciation of magic signaling Shakespeare's farewell to the stage, to interpretations that consider it an allegory of European man colonizing foreign lands.
A ship is caught in a powerful storm, there is terror and confusion onboard, the ship is shipwrecked. But the storm is a magical creation carried out by the sprit and caused by the magic of Prospero, the Duke of Milan, before his dukedom was usurped and taken from him by his brother Antonio; that was twelve years ago, when he and his young daughter, were set adrift on the sea, stranded on an island. Among those onboard the shipwreck are Alonso. On the ship are Alonso's brother, "trusted counsellor", Gonzalo. Prospero plots to reverse what was done to him twelve years ago, regain his office. Using magic he separates the shipwreck survivors into groups on the island: Ferdinand, found by Prospero and Miranda, it is part of Prospero's plan to encourage a romantic relationship between Miranda. Trinculo, the king’s jester, Stephano, the king’s drunken butler; these three will raise a coup against Prospero. Alonso, Antonio and two attendant lords. Antonio and Sebastian conspire to kill Gonzalo so Sebastian can become King.
At Prospero's command Ariel thwarts this conspiracy, the three guilty nobles run off. The ship's captain and boatswain are asleep until the final act. Prospero betroths Miranda to marry Ferdinand, instructs Ariel to bring some other spirits and produce a masque; the masque will feature classical goddesses, Juno and Iris, will bless and celebrate the betrothal. The masque will instruct the young couple on marriage, on the value of chastity until then; the masque is interrupted when Prospero realizes he had forgotten the plot against his life. He orders Ariel to deal with this. Caliban and Stephano are chased off into the swamps by goblins in the shape of hounds. Prospero vows that once he achieves his goals, he will set Ariel free, abandon his magic, saying: I’ll break my staff, Bury it certain fathoms in the earth, And deeper than did plummet sound I’ll drown my book. Ariel brings on Alonso and Sebastian. Prospero forgives all three, raises the threat to Antonio and Sebastian that he could blackmail them, though he won’t.
Prospero’s former title, Duke of Milan, is restored. Ariel fetches the sailors from the ship. Caliban, filled with regret, promises to be good. Ariel is told to provide good weather to guide the king's ship back to the royal fleet and to Naples, where Ferdinand and Miranda will be married. After this, Ariel is set free. In the epilogue, Prospero requests -- with their applause; the Tempest begins with the spectacle of a storm-tossed ship at sea, there is a second spectacle—the masque. A masque in Renaissance England was a festive courtly entertainment that offered music, elaborate sets and drama. A masque would begin with an "anti-masque", that showed a disordered scene of satyrs, for example and dancing wildly; the anti-masque would be dispersed by the spectacular arrival of the masque proper in a demonstration of chaos and vice being swept away by glorious civilization. In Shakespeare’s play, the storm in scene one functions as the anti-masque for the masque proper in act four; the masque in The Tempest is not an actual masque, it is an analogous scene intended to mimic and evoke a masque, while serving the narrative of the drama that contains it.
The masque is a culmination of the primary action in The Tempest: Prospero’s intention to not only seek revenge on his usurpers, but to regain his rightful position as Duke of Milan. Most important to his plot to regain his power and position is to marry Miranda to Ferdinand, heir to the King of Naples; this marriage will secure Prospero’s position by securing his legacy. The chastity of the bride is considered essential and valued in royal lineages; this is true not only in Prospero’s plot, but notably in the court of the virgin queen, Elizabeth. Sir Walter Raleigh had in fact named one of the new world colonies "Virginia" after his monarch’s chastity, it was understood by James, king when The Tempest was first produced, as he arranged political marriages for his grandchildren. What could possible go wrong with Pro
Penn Dayton Badgley is an American actor and musician. He is best known for his role as Dan Humphrey on The CW's series Gossip Girl and as Joe Goldberg in the Netflix thriller series You. Badgley has starred in a number of films, including John Tucker Must Die, The Stepfather, Easy A, Margin Call, Greetings from Tim Buckley, he is the lead singer for Brooklyn-based indie band MOTHXR. Their studio album Centerfold was released in 2016. Badgley was born in Baltimore, the son of Lynne Murphy and Duff Badgley, who worked as a newspaper reporter and a carpenter, his parents divorced when he was 12. Badgley split his childhood years between Woodlake and Seattle, Washington, he attended Woolridge Elementary, where his mother became PTA president before he transferred to St. Christopher's School, he enjoyed playing youth soccer. He attended Charles Wright Academy in Tacoma and was involved with the Seattle Children's Theatre, he soon began doing voice-overs for children's radio stations. At age 11, Badgley began pursuing an acting career.
He sought a singing career during this time, recorded a pop single in 1998. At the age of 14, Badgley completed his California High School Proficiency Exam and began attending Santa Monica College, he was accepted to the University of Southern California, where he deferred admission due to contractual obligations, but later enrolled at Lewis & Clark College in Portland, for two years. Badgley's first credit was voice work for the video games Mario Golf 64 and Mario Tennis 64 in 1999 and 2000, his first screen acting credit was on an episode of Will & Grace and he subsequently appeared on shows such as Daddio, The Brothers García, What I Like About You. His first noticeable role was as Phillip Chancellor IV on the soap opera The Young and the Restless, from 2000 to 2001, he was nominated for a 2001 Young Artist Award for Best Performance in a Daytime Series for his work. In 2002, he starred in The WB's comedy-drama series Do Over as Joel Larsen, a 34-year-old man who gets a second chance to get his life right, thanks to a freakish accident that catapults him back to 1980, as a 14-year-old.
Badgley went on to star in two other WB series: The Bedford Diaries. Badgley's first major film credit was 2006's John Tucker Must Die, playing the role of Scott Tucker. In its opening weekend, the film grossed a total of $14.3 million, ranking third in the US box office results for that weekend. Badgley appeared in Drive-Thru, co-starring future castmate Leighton Meester. In 2007, Badgley was cast in The CW's teen drama series Gossip Girl as Dan Humphrey, based on the book series of the same name by Cecily von Ziegesar, he turned down the role, but accepted after the producers struggled finding someone to fill the role. In 2009, he starred in thriller film The Stepfather, a remake of the 1987 film, as the stepson of the serial killer. Badgley played Todd, the romantic interest of main character Olive, in the 2010 teen romantic comedy Easy A. In 2011, he was named one of People's "25 Beauties at 25" and BuddyTV ranked him number 75 on its "TV's 100 Sexiest Men of 2011" list, he appeared in the financial thriller drama Margin Call.
In late June of that year, Badgley would portray Jeff Buckley in Greetings from Tim Buckley. The movie follows the journey Jeff Buckley took in grappling with the legacy of his late musician father, leading up to and culminating with his legendary 1991 performance of his father's songs. For the role, Badgley said he took vocal lessons. Badgley joined the cast of Parts per Billion in December 2012, opposite Alexis Bledel and Teresa Palmer; the film was released in 2014. Badgley joined the cast of the 2013 adaptation of Cymbeline as the orphan Posthumus. In early 2014, Badgley and bandmates released a song titled "Easy" on SoundCloud under the name M O T H E R. Months the band changed the spelling to MOTHXR, citing a cease-and-desist from another band with a similar name. In 2015, the band signed with the labels Kitsuné and Washington Square Music, the New York City-based subdivision of the Razor & Tie label; the band has supported acts such as Streets of Laredo, San Cisco, Sir Sly, Har Mar Superstar, The Neighbourhood, Miami Horror.
Their debut album, was released February 26, 2016. Badgley had a recurring role in NBC's 2015 miniseries The Slap, based upon the Australian series of the same name, he had a minor role in Adam Green's Aladdin and starred in Lifetime's former television adaptation of You as Joe Goldberg, which premiered on September 9, 2018. On December 3, 2018, it was announced that You would move to Netflix as a "Netflix Original" title, ahead of the premiere of the second season. During the 2008 United States presidential election, Badgley expressed his support for Barack Obama over John McCain. Badgley and Blake Lively appeared in a pro-Barack Obama commercial, as part of MoveOn's Youth Vote program; the commercial, directed by Doug Liman, aired during Gossip Girl on The CW, MTV, Comedy Central. In March 2010, the American Red Cross announced Penn Badgley as a member in National Celebrity Cabinet, a group of celebrity supporters who promote Red Cross services. A "huge soccer fan", Badgley joined forces with Brad Pitt to bring the FIFA World Cup to the United States in 2018 or 2022.
Badgley is a friend of Baltimore activist DeRay McKesson, whom he met during the Occupy Wall Street movement, considers himself an ally of the Black L
Henry VIII (play)
Henry VIII is a collaborative history play, written by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, based on the life of King Henry VIII of England. An alternative title, All Is True, is recorded in contemporary documents, the title Henry VIII not appearing until the play's publication in the First Folio of 1623. Stylistic evidence indicates that individual scenes were written by either Shakespeare or his collaborator and successor, John Fletcher, it is somewhat characteristic of the late romances in its structure. It is noted for having more stage directions than any of Shakespeare's other plays. During a performance of Henry VIII at the Globe Theatre in 1613, a cannon shot employed for special effects ignited the theatre's thatched roof, burning the original Globe building to the ground; the play opens with a Prologue, who stresses that the audience will see a serious play, appeals to the audience members: "The first and happiest hearers of the town," to "Be sad, as we would make ye." Act I opens with a conversation between the Dukes of Lord Abergavenny.
Their speeches express their mutual resentment over the ruthless power and overweening pride of Cardinal Wolsey. Wolsey passes over the stage with his attendants, expresses his own hostility toward Buckingham. Buckingham is arrested on treason charges—Wolsey's doing; the play's second scene introduces King Henry VIII, shows his reliance on Wolsey as his favourite. Queen Katherine enters to protest about Wolsey's abuse of the tax system for his own purposes. Katherine challenges the arrest of Buckingham, but Wolsey defends the arrest by producing the Duke's Surveyor, the primary accuser. After hearing the Surveyor, the King orders Buckingham's trial to occur. At a banquet thrown by Wolsey, the King and his attendants enter in disguise as masquers; the King dances with Anne Boleyn. Two anonymous Gentlemen open Act one giving the other an account of Buckingham's treason trial. Buckingham himself enters in custody after his conviction, makes his farewells to his followers and to the public. After his exit, the two Gentlemen talk about court gossip Wolsey's hostility toward Katherine.
The next scene shows Wolsey beginning to move against the Queen, while the nobles Norfolk and Suffolk look on critically. Wolsey introduces Cardinal Gardiner to the King. Anne Boleyn is shown conversing with the Old Lady, her attendant. Anne expresses her sympathy at the Queen's troubles. Once the Lord Chamberlain leaves, the Old Lady jokes about Anne's sudden advancement in the King's favour. A lavishly-staged trial scene portrays Katherine's hearing before his courtiers. Katherine reproaches Wolsey for his machinations against her, refuses to stay for the proceedings, but the King defends Wolsey, states that it was his own doubts about the legitimacy of their marriage that led to the trial. Campeius protests that the hearing cannot continue in the Queen's absence, the King grudgingly adjourns the proceeding. Wolsey and Campeius confront Katherine among her ladies-in-waiting. Norfolk, Suffolk and the Lord Chamberlain are shown plotting against Wolsey. A packet of Wolsey's letters to the Pope have been re-directed to the King.
The King shows Wolsey his displeasure, Wolsey for the first time realises that he has lost Henry's favour. The noblemen mock Wolsey, the Cardinal sends his follower Cromwell away so that Cromwell will not be brought down in Wolsey's fall from grace; the two Gentlemen return to observe and comment upon the lavish procession for Anne Boleyn's coronation as Queen, which passes over the stage in their presence. Afterward they are joined by a third Gentleman, who updates them on more court gossip – the rise of Thomas Cromwell in royal favour, plots against Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Katherine is shown, ill. Caputius visits her; the King summons a nervous Cranmer to his presence, expresses his support. Anne Boleyn gives birth to the future Queen Elizabeth. In the play's closing scenes, the Porter and his Man complain about trying to control the massive and enthusiastic crowds that attend the infant Elizabeth's christening; the Epilogue, acknowledging that the play is unlikely to please everyone, asks nonetheless for the audience's approval.
As usual in his history plays, Shakespeare relied on Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles to achieve his dramatic ends and to accommodate official sensitivities over the materials involved. Shakespeare not only telescoped events that occurred over a span of two decades, but jumbled their actual order; the play implies, without stating it directly, that the treason charges against the Duke of Buckingham were false and trumped up. The disgrace and beheading of Anne Boleyn (here spelled Bullen
Sir Henry Irving, born John Henry Brodribb, sometimes known as J. H. Irving, was an English stage actor in the Victorian era, known as an actor-manager because he took complete responsibility for season after season at the Lyceum Theatre, establishing himself and his company as representative of English classical theatre. In 1895 he became the first actor to be awarded a knighthood, indicating full acceptance into the higher circles of British society. Irving is acknowledged to be one of the inspirations for Count Dracula, the title character of the 1897 novel Dracula whose author, Bram Stoker, was business manager of the theatre. Irving was born to a working-class family in Keinton Mandeville in the county of Somerset. W. H. Davies, the celebrated poet, was a cousin. Irving spent his childhood living with Mrs Penberthy, at Halsetown in Cornwall, he competed in a recitation contest at a local Methodist chapel where he was bested by William Curnow the editor of The Sydney Morning Herald. He attended City Commercial School for two years before going to work in the office of a law firm at age 13.
When he saw Samuel Phelps play Hamlet soon after this, he sought lessons, letters of introduction, work in a theatre in Sunderland in 1856, labouring against great odds until his 1871 success in The Bells in London set him apart from all the rest. He married Florence O'Callaghan on 15 July 1869 at St. Marylebone, but his personal life took second place to his professional life. On opening night of The Bells, 25 November 1871, pregnant with their second child, criticised his profession: "Are you going on making a fool of yourself like this all your life?" Irving exited their carriage at Hyde Park Corner, walked off into the night, chose never to see her again. He maintained a discreet distance from his children as well, but became closer to them as they grew older. Florence Irving never divorced Irving, once he had been knighted she styled herself "Lady Irving", his elder son, Harry Brodribb Irving known as "H B Irving", became a famous actor and a theatre manager. His younger son, Laurence Irving, became a dramatist and drowned, with his wife, in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland.
H B married Dorothea Baird and they had a son, Laurence Irving, who became a well-known Hollywood art director and his grandfather's biographer. In November 1882 Irving became a Freemason, being initiated into the prestigious Jerusalem Lodge No 197 in London. In 1887 he became a founder member and first Treasurer of the Savage Club Lodge No 2190, a Lodge associated with London's Savage Club, he took over the management of the Lyceum Theatre and brought actress Ellen Terry into partnership with him as Ophelia to his Hamlet, Lady Macbeth to his Macbeth, Portia to his Shylock, Beatrice to his Benedick, etc. Before joining the Lyceum, Terry had fled her first marriage and conceived two out-of-wedlock children with bohemian artist Godwin, but regardless of how much and how her behavior defied the strict morality expected by her Victorian audiences, she somehow remained popular, it could be said that Irving found his family in his professional company, which included his ardent supporter and manager Bram Stoker and Terry's two illegitimate children and Edy.
Whether Irving's long, spectacularly successful relationship with leading lady Ellen Terry was romantic as well as professional has been the subject of much historical speculation. Most of their correspondence was burned by her descendants. According to Michael Holroyd's book about Irving and Terry, A Strange Eventful History: Years when Irving was dead, Marguerite Steen asked Ellen whether she had been Irving's lover, she promptly answered:'Of course I was. We were in love for a while.' But at earlier periods in her life, when there were more people around to be offended, she said contradictory things. Terry's son Teddy known as Edward Gordon Craig, spent much of his childhood indulged by Irving backstage at the Lyceum. Craig, who came to be regarded as something of a visionary for the theatre of the future, wrote an vivid, book-length tribute to Irving. George Bernard Shaw, at the time a theatre critic, jealous of Irving's connection to Ellen Terry, conceded Irving's genius after Irving died.
After a few years' schooling while living at Halsetown, near St Ives, Irving became a clerk to a firm of East India merchants in London, but he soon gave up a commercial career for acting. On 29 September 1856 he made his first appearance at Sunderland as Gaston, Duke of Orleans, in Bulwer Lytton's play, billed as Henry Irving; this name he assumed by royal licence. When the inexperienced Irving got stage fright and was hissed off the stage the actor Samuel Johnson was among those who supported him with practical advice. In life Irving gave them all regular work when he formed his own Company at the Lyceum Theatre. For 10 years, he went through an arduous training in various stock companies in Scotland and the north of England, taking more than 500 parts, his delineations of the various characters were admirably graphic, met with repeated rounds of applause. Possesed of a fine voice, which he modulated with great taste and judgment, he was able to mark the depth or frivolity of the character he was representing with remarkable facility.
He gained recognition by degr
Edward Dowden, was an Irish critic and poet. He was the son of John Wheeler Dowden, a merchant and landowner, was born at Cork, three years after his brother John, who became Bishop of Edinburgh in 1886. Edward's literary tastes emerged early, in a series of essays written at the age of twelve, his home education continued at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1867 he was elected professor of English literature in Dublin University. Dowden's first book, his Mind and Art, resulted from a revision of a course of lectures, made him known as a critic: translations appeared in German and Russian, his Shakespeare Primer was translated into German. In 1878 the Royal Irish Academy awarded him the Cunningham gold medal "for his literary writings in the field of Shakespearian criticism."Later works by him in this field included an edition of The Sonnets of William Shakespeare, Passionate Pilgrim, Introduction to Shakespeare, Hamlet and Juliet, an article entitled "Shakespeare as a Man of Science", which criticized T.
E. Webb's Mystery of William Shakespeare, his critical essays "Studies in Literature", "Transcripts and Studies", "New Studies in Literature" showed a profound knowledge of the currents and tendencies of thought in various ages and countries. In 1900 he edited an edition of Shelley's works. Other books by him which indicate his interests in literature include: Robert Southey, his edition of Southey's Correspondence with Caroline Bowles, Select Poems of Southey, his Correspondence of Sir Henry Taylor, his edition of Wordsworth's Poetical Works and of his Lyrical Ballads, his French Revolution and English Literature, History of French Literature and Anglican, Robert Browning and Michel de Montaigne, his devotion to Goethe led to his succeeding Max Müller in 1888 as president of the English Goethe Society. In 1889 he gave the first annual Taylorian Lecture at the University of Oxford, from 1892 to 1896 served as Clark lecturer at Trinity College, Cambridge. To his research are due, among other matters of literary interest, the first account of Thomas Carlyle's Lectures on periods of European culture.
He discovered a Narrative of a Prisoner of War under Napoleon, an unknown pamphlet by Bishop Berkeley, some unpublished writings of William Hayley relating to Cowper, a unique copy of the Tales of Terror. His wide interests and scholarly methods made his influence on criticism both sound and stimulating, his own ideals are well described in his essay on The Interpretation of Literature in his Transcripts and Studies; as commissioner of education in Ireland, trustee of the National Library of Ireland, secretary of the Irish Liberal Union and vice-president of the Irish Unionist Alliance, he enforced his view that literature should not be divorced from practical life. His biographical/critical concepts in connection with Shakespeare, are played with by Stephen Dedalus in the library chapter of James Joyce's Ulysses. Leslie Fiedler was to play with them again in The Stranger in Shakespeare. Dowden married twice, first Mary Clerke, secondly Elizabeth Dickinson West, daughter of the dean of St Patrick's.
His daughter by his first wife, Hester Dowden, was a well-known spiritualist medium. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Dowden, Edward". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Dowden, Edward.. Shakespeare: A Critical Study of his Mind and Art. Henry S. King & Co. William M. Murphy. "Prodigal Father: the Life of John Butler Yeats" William M. Murphy,'Yeats and Edward Dowden,' in "John Quinn: Selected Irish Writers from His Library," ed. Janis and Richard Londraville. Works by Edward Dowden at Project Gutenberg In Defense of Harriet Shelley – comments on Dowden's Life of Shelley by Mark Twain Works by or about Edward Dowden at Internet Archive Works by Edward Dowden at LibriVox "Archival material relating to Edward Dowden". UK National Archives
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of