An earring is a piece of jewelry attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear. Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, have been used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook and across the helix; the simple term "ear piercing" refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are referred to as "cartilage piercings". Cartilage piercings are more complex to take longer to heal. Earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, glass, precious stone, wood and other materials. Designs range from small studs to large plates and dangling items; the size is limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe and the piercing. Ear piercing is one of the oldest known forms of body modification, with artistic and written references from cultures around the world dating back to early history.
Gold and bronze hoop earrings were prevalent in the Minoan Civilization and examples can be seen on frescoes on the Aegean island of Santorini, Greece. During the late Minoan and early Mycenaean periods of Bronze Age Greece hoop earrings with conical pendants were fashionable. Early evidence of earrings worn by men can be seen in archeological evidence from Persepolis in ancient Persia; the carved images of soldiers of the Persian Empire, displayed on some of the surviving walls of the palace, show them wearing an earring. Howard Carter writes in his description of Tutankhamun's tomb that the Pharaoh's earlobes were perforated, but no earrings were inside the wrappings, although the tomb contained some; the burial mask's ears were perforated as well. That implies that at the time, earrings were only worn in Egypt by children, much like in Egypt of Carter's times. Other early evidence of earring-wearing is evident in the Biblical record. In Exodus 32:1–4, it is written that while Moses was up on Mount Sinai, the Israelites demanded that Aaron make a god for them.
It is written that he commanded them to bring their sons' and daughters' earrings to him in order that he might comply with their demand. By the classical period, including in the Middle East, as a general rule they were considered female ornaments. In Greece and Rome earrings were worn by women, the wearing of them by a man was spoken of as distinctively oriental. Earrings became fashionable among courtiers and gentlemen in the 1590s during the English Renaissance. A document published in 1577 by clergyman William Harrison, Description of England, states "Some lusty courtiers and gentlemen of courage do wear either rings of gold, stones or pearls in their ears." Among sailors, a pierced earlobe was a symbol that the wearer had sailed around the world or had crossed the equator. The practice of wearing earrings was a tradition for Ainu men and women, but the Government of Meiji Japan forbade Ainu men to wear earrings in the late-19th century. Earrings were commonplace among nomadic Turkic tribes.
By the late 1950s or early 1960s, the practice re-emerged, but since a large commercial market did not exist, most ear piercings were done at home. Teenage girls were known to hold ear piercing parties, where they performed the procedure on one another; such an event is depicted in the 1978 motion picture Grease, where Sandy, the leading lady, is pierced by her friends. By the mid-1960s, some physicians offered ear piercing as a service. Manhattan jewelry stores were some of the earliest commercial, non-medical locations for getting an ear piercing. In the late 1960s, ear piercing began to make inroads among men through the hippie and gay communities, although they had been popular among sailors for decades. Traditionally, a right-side piercing identified a man as left-side as straight. Both sides pierced is denoted as bisexual, though this has modified somewhat over the past decade. By the early 1970s, ear piercing was common among women, thus creating a broader market for the procedure. Department stores throughout the country would hold ear piercing events, sponsored by earring manufacturers.
At these events, a nurse or other trained person would perform the procedure, either pushing a sharpened and sterilized starter earring through the earlobe by hand, or using an ear-piercing instrument modified from the design used by physicians. In the late 1970s, amateur piercings, sometimes with safety pins or multiple piercings, became popular in the punk rock community. By the 1980s, the trend for male popular music performers to have pierced ears helped establish a fashion trend for men; this was adopted by many professional athletes. British men started piercing both ears in the 1980s; the jeweled Mr. T was an early example of an American celebrity wearing earrings in both ears, although this trend did not become popular with mainstream American men until the 1990s; as of 2018, it is common and acceptable for men of any sexuality to have both ears pierced and it is acceptable for teenage and pre-teen boys to have both ears pierced as well as a fashion statement. Multiple piercings in one or both ears first emerged in mainstream America in the 1970s.
The trend was for women to wear a second set of earrings in the earlobes, or for m
A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or "cheek-strap," as for a helmet. Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea and waist-belts. Belt buckles go back at least to the iron age and a gold "great buckle" was among the items interred at Sutton Hoo. Decorative "shield on tongue" buckles were common Anglo-Saxon grave goods at this time, elaborately decorated on the "shield" portion and associated only with men. One such buckle, found in a 7th-century grave at Finglesham, Kent in 1965 bears the image of a naked warrior standing between two spears wearing only a horned helmet and belt. Frame-style buckles are the oldest design. In a frame-and-prong buckle the prong attaches to one end of the frame and extends "away" from the wearer through a hole in the belt, where it anchors against the opposite side of the frame.
The oldest styles have a simple loop or "D" shaped frame, but "double-loop" or "center post" buckles whose prongs attach to a fixed center section appear in the 8th century. Small buckles with removable center pins and chapes were introduced and used on shoes, beginning in the 17th century, but not for waist-belts. A "chape" is the fixed cover or plate which attaches buckle to belt while the "mordant" or "bite" is the adjustable portion. Plate-style "buckles" are common on western military belts of the mid-19th century, which feature a three-hook clasp: two hooks fitting into one end of the belt and a third into the other. Officers might have a similar but more intricate clasp-style closure that featured two interlocking metal parts. In practice, the term "belt plate" refers to any flat, decorated surface on such a clasp; these precede development of modern "western-style" buckles, which feature a hinged frame affixed to one end of the belt and a simple hook clasp which enters the belt hole toward the wearer but leaves most of the buckle on the "outside" of the belt, providing an ample surface for decoration.
The distance between the fixed frame or chape of a plate buckle and its adjustment prong is called the "throw." Box-out "buckles" make the traditional belt seen today. Made with an enduring leather or other synthetic material as the band, these belt buckles are less functional but more fashionable; these belts became popular after Hollywood began using them in movies for their "fresh and new look." Now they dominate belt production, are viewed as a more attractive belt. Box-frame "buckles" are another, 20th-century style of military friction buckle, common on webbed belts; the box-frame buckle consists of three parts. An adjustable captive post sits perpendicular to the belt to press it against the outer "box," which surround the webbing and minimize accidental adjustments should part of the belt snag on something. There may not be a metal tip on the opposite "tongue" end of the belt for easier insertion. Earlier, military-style buckles use friction and are designed for use with cloth belts or straps.
Simple friction buckles are one-piece frames with no prong whatsoever, the strap or belt winding through a series of slots, may more technically be called "belt slides" or "belt trims." Although technically not buckles, other fasteners such as plastic "side-clasp" or seat belt latches are often used on belts, colloquially called buckles. Because of their strong association with military equipment, belt buckles were a masculine ornament well into the 19th century. Belt buckles became more popular as fashion accessories in the early 20th century, as the tops of trousers moved more toward the waist. "Western-style" belt buckles were popularized by cowboy movies in the United States and are awarded to winners in rodeo events as prize medals or trophies, a custom adopted by the Western States Endurance Run and a few other ultra-marathons. The large, flat surface of the western-style belt buckles make them a popular ornament or style of jewelry. Decorative "buckle sets" may contain a metal buckle, one or more matching loops which sit next to the buckle and a metal tip for the opposite, "tongue" end of the belt.
"Belt plates" may be decorative covers for a plain buckle or other decorative fittings affixed to the belt itself, similar to "conchos". Decorative belt loops are sometimes awarded in scouting for participation in or completion of activities. Roman Military Equipment: Cingulum and Balteus Retrieved 2010-07-17. Gold belt buckle from the ship-burial at Sutton Hoo, British Museum, Retrieved 2010-07-03. Belt buckle, Xiongnu type, 3rd–2nd century B. C. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2010-07-03. Michael J. O'Donnell and James Duncan Campbell. American Military Belt Plates, Third Edition. Alexanderia VA: O'Donnell Publications, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9670731-2-5. Chris Marshall. "Buckles Through the Ages", 2002. Retrieved 2010-07-20
A watch strap, watch band, or watch bracelet is a bracelet that straps a wrist watch onto the wrist. Watch straps may be made of leather, rubber, cloth, or metal, sometimes in combination, it can be regarded as a fashion item, serving both a decorative function. Some metal watch straps may be plated with, or in rare cases made of, precious metals. Watch straps may close with a folding clasp. Expanding watch straps are designed to expand elastically by the use of metal springs in a segmented design, may be slipped on like a bracelet. Attachment points for the strap to the watch are standardized, with a spring-loaded double-ended pin used to anchor the watch strap to holes in a bracket, integral to the watch case, allowing worn watch straps to be replaced or swapped with new straps for fashion purposes. Both metal watch cases and watch straps incorporating metal parts can sometimes cause contact dermatitis in susceptible individuals. Special anti-allergy watch straps, like a NATO style watch strap, which shield the skin from exposure to metal parts, are available for sufferers of this type of dermatitis.
Specialist expanding watch straps exist for use with diving watches. With increasing depth and rising water pressure the wrist of a diver is exposed to compression effects that have a shrinking effect on the wrist circumference. Many watch straps intended for diving watches have rippled or vented sections near the attachment points on the watch case to facilitate the required flexibility to strap the watch exaggeratedly tight for normal wear at the surface whilst keeping the watch adequately tight in place on the diver's wrist at depth. Smart band Lanyard Wrist clasp
Cufflinks are items of jewelry that are used to secure the cuffs of dress shirts. Cufflinks can be manufactured from a variety of different materials, such as glass, leather, precious metal or combinations of these. Securing of the cufflinks is achieved via toggles or reverses based on the design of the front section, which can be folded into position. There are variants with chains or a rigid, bent rear section; the front sections of the cufflinks can be decorated with gemstones, inset material or enamel and designed in two or three-dimensional form. Cufflinks are designed only for use with shirts which have cuffs with buttonholes on both sides but no buttons; these may be either single or double-length cuffs, may be worn either "kissing", with both edges pointing outward, or "barrel-style", with one edge pointing outward and the other one inward so that its hem is overlapped. In the US, the "barrel-style" was popularized by a famous 19th-century entertainer and clown, Dan Rice. Cufflink designs vary with the most traditional the "double-panel", consisting of a short post or chain connecting two disc-shaped parts, both decorated.
Whale-back and toggle-back cufflinks have a flat decorated face for one side, while the other side shows only the swivel-bar and its post. The swivel bar is placed vertically to put the links on and off horizontally to hold them in place when worn; the decorated face on the most visible side is larger. Links of knotted brightly coloured silk enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1990s, joined by an elasticated section; the visible part of a cufflink is monogrammed or decorated in some way, such as with a birthstone or something which reflects a hobby or association. There are numerous styles including traditional, or contemporary. Cufflinks can and have been worn with casual wear, informal attire or business suits, all the way to dressy styles such as semi-formal, formal wear, where they become required and are matched with shirt studs. Colourful and whimsical cufflink designs are only suitable for casual and informal events, signals someone, fun-loving and friendly. However, formal wear has stricter expectations, with pearl cufflinks being preferred for white tie events Traditionally it was considered important to coordinate the metal of one's cufflinks with other jewelry such as watch case, belt buckle, tie bar or rings.
Sartorial experts prescribe gold to be worn during the daytime and silver for evening wear, but neither expectation is considered as critical as it once was. An alternative type of cufflink is the cheaper silk knot, two conjoined monkey's fist or Turk's head knots; the Paris shirtmaker Charvet is credited with their introduction in 1904. They became popular: "Charvet buttons of twisted braid are quite the style" noted The New York Times in 1908. French cuff shirts are accompanied with a set of colour-coordinated silk knots instead of double-button cufflinks, they are now not from silk, consist of a fabric over an elasticated core. Owing to the popularity of this fashion, metal cufflinks shaped to look like a silk knot are worn. Interchangeable cufflinks have started to come back in to the marketplace in recent years. Cartier introduced their type in the 1960's consisting of a bar with a loop at either end that would allow a motif to be inserted at either end perpendicular to the bar. Cartier referred to the interchangeable motifs as batons.
A set including the bars would come with batons made from coral, lapis lazuli, rock crystal, tiger's eye and malachite. Bars would have been made from sterling silver or 18k gold. Cartier re-introduced these interchangeable cufflinks with batons made from striped chalcedony, silver obsidian, malachite and red tiger’s eye; the accompanying bars are made from 18k palladium plated sterling silver. The securing mechanism is the same for either series using a small screw inset in to the looped end of the bar; the pressure exerted a by the screw on the baton holds them in place. Another type of interchangeable system was created by co.. The patent-pending cufflink system comes apart allowing the motif, referred to as an anker, to slide on. Putting the cufflink back together secures the anker into the cufflink allowing it to be worn. Pranga & co's cufflink is simple and similar in concept to charm bracelet bead systems popularized by companies like Pandora Jewelry; the ankers used in the cufflinks are interchangeable with various charm bracelets systems and visa-versa.
Although the first cufflinks appeared in the 1600s, they did not become common until the end of the 18th century. Their development is related to that of the men's shirt. Men have been wearing shirt-like items of clothing since the invention of woven fabric 5,000 years BC. Although styles and methods of manufacturing changed, the underlying form remained the same: a tunic opened to the front with sleeves and collar; the shirt was worn directly next to the skin, it was washable and thereby protected the outer garments from contact with the body. Conversely, it protected the skin against the rougher and heavier fabrics of jackets and coats by
A ring is a round band of metal, worn as ornamental jewellery. The term "ring" by itself always denotes the finger ring, but when worn as an ornament elsewhere, the body part is always specified, e.g. earrings, neck rings, arm rings, toe rings. Rings always fit snugly around or in the part of the body they ornament, so bands worn loosely, like a bracelet, are not rings. Rings may be made of any hard material: wood, stone, glass, gemstone or plastic, they may be set with other types of stone or glass. Although people wear some rings as mere ornaments, or as conspicuous displays of wealth, rings have symbolic functions in relation to marriage, exceptional achievement, high status or authority, membership in an organization, the like. Rings can be made to sport insignia to be transferred in an impression in a wax seal, or outfitted with a small compartment in which to conceal things. In myth and fiction, rings are endowed with spiritual or supernatural significance. Finger rings have been found in tombs in Ur dating back to circa 2500BC.
The Hittite civilization produced rings, including signet rings, only a few of which have been discovered. People in Old Kingdom Egypt wore a variety of finger rings, of which a few examples have been found, including the famous scarab design. Rings became more common during the Egyptian middle kingdom, with complex designs. Egyptians made metal rings but made rings from faience some of which were used as new year gifts. Native styles were superseded by Roman fashions during the Ptolemaic dynasty. Archaic Greek rings were to some extent influenced by Egyptian rings, although they tended to be less substantial and were not for the most part used as working signet rings. A lack of locally available gold meant that rings made in the eastern colonies tended to be made from silver and bronze while Etruria used gold; the classical period showed a shift away from bronze to wider adoption of gold. The most typical design of the period involved a lozenge bezel mounting an intaglio device. Over time the bezel moved towards a more circular form.
During the early and middle imperial era the closest there is to a typical Roman ring consisted of a thick hoop that tapered directly into a wider bezel. An engraved oval gem would be embedded within the bezel with the top of the gem only rising above the surrounding ring material; such rings are referred to Henig II and III/Guiraud 2 in formal academic parlance or as Roman rings by modern jewellers. In general Roman rings became more elaborate in the third and fourth centuries AD. During this period the fashion was on each finger. Rings during this period were made from copper based alloys, silver or gold. Gems became common after 1150 along with the belief that certain gems had the power to help or protect the wearer in various ways. Engraved rings were produced using Lombardic script until around 1350 when it was replaced by Gothic script; some of the inscriptions were devotional, others romantic in nature. For romantic inscriptions French was the language of choice. An increasing use of contracts and other documents that needed to have formal seals meant that signet rings became more important from the 13th century onwards.
The fourth digit or ring finger of the left hand has become the customary place to wear a wedding ring in much of the world, though in certain countries the right hand finger is used. This custom was established as the norm during World War II; the use of the fourth finger of the left hand is associated with an old belief that the left hand's ring finger is connected by a vein directly to the heart: the vena amoris or vein of love. This idea was known in 16th and 17th century England, when Henry Swinburne referred to it in his book about marriage, it can be traced back to ancient Rome, when Aulus Gellius cited Appianus as saying the ancient Egyptians had found a fine nerve linking that particular finger to the heart. Rings have been re-purposed to hang from bracelets or necklaces. While the ISO standard defines ring size in terms of the inner circumference in millimeters various countries have traditional sizing systems that are still used. After several thousand years of ring manufacture the total number of styles produced is vast.
Cataloging the rings of a single civilization such as the Romans presents a major challenge. As a result, the following list should be considered to be limited. Iffland-Ring, held by a series of German-language actors since the 18th century, presently held by Swiss actor Bruno Ganz Hans-Reinhart-Ring, a Swiss theatre award Ring of the Fisherman, the signet ring of the Pope Chequers Ring Ring that belonged to Elizabeth I of England Ring of Gyges, a legendary ring of invisibility, mentioned by Plato Andvaranaut, in Norse mythology, a cursed ring that can make gold Magic ring, a ring that has magical properties Draupnir, a self-multiplying gold ring depicted in Norse mythology The One Ring, from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit Arm rings Neck rings Toe rings are smaller rings worn on any of the toes Earring Pinky ring Birthstones Ring of O Smart ring Seal of Solomon Titanium ring Jewellery cleaning Metal casting
A pocket watch is a watch, made to be carried in a pocket, as opposed to a wristwatch, strapped to the wrist. They were the most common type of watch from their development in the 16th century until wristwatches became popular after World War I during which a transitional design, trench watches, were used by the military. Pocket watches have an attached chain to allow them to be secured to a waistcoat, lapel, or belt loop, to prevent them from being dropped. Watches were mounted on a short leather strap or fob, when a long chain would have been cumbersome or to catch on things; this fob could provide a protective flap over their face and crystal. Women's watches were of this form, with a watch fob, more decorative than protective. Chains were decorated with a silver or enamel pendant carrying the arms of some club or society, which by association became known as a fob. Ostensibly practical gadgets such as a watch winding key, vesta case, or a cigar cutter appeared on watch chains, although in an overly decorated style.
Common are fasteners designed to be put through a buttonhole and worn in a jacket or waistcoat, this sort being associated with and named after train conductors. An early reference to the pocket watch is in a letter in November 1462 from the Italian clockmaker Bartholomew Manfredi to the Marchese di Mantova Federico Gonzaga, where he offers him a "pocket clock" better than that belonging to the Duke of Modena. By the end of the 15th century, spring-driven clocks appeared in Italy, in Germany. Peter Henlein, a master locksmith of Nuremberg, was manufacturing pocket watches by 1524. Thereafter, pocket watch manufacture spread throughout the rest of Europe as the 16th century progressed. Early watches only had the minute hand appearing in the late 17th century; the first American pocket watches with machine made parts were manufactured by Henry Pitkin with his brother in the 1830s. The first timepieces to be worn, made in 16th-century Europe, were transitional in size between clocks and watches.
These ` clock-watches' were worn on a chain around the neck. They were heavy drum shaped brass cylinders several inches in diameter and ornamented, they had only an hour hand. The face was not covered with glass, but had a hinged brass cover decoratively pierced with grillwork so the time could be read without opening; the movement was made of iron or steel and held together with tapered pins and wedges, until screws began to be used after 1550. Many of the movements included striking or alarm mechanisms; the shape evolved into a rounded form. Still in the century there was a trend for unusually shaped watches, clock-watches shaped like books, fruit, flowers, insects and skulls were made. Styles changed in the 17th century and men began to wear watches in pockets instead of as pendants; this is said to have occurred in 1675. To fit in pockets, their shape evolved into the typical pocket watch shape and flattened with no sharp edges. Glass was used to cover the face beginning around 1610. Watch fobs began to be used, the name originating from a small pocket.
The watch was wound and set by opening the back and fitting a key to a square arbor, turning it. Until the second half of the 18th century, watches were luxury items. By the end of the 18th century, watches were becoming more common. Up to the 1720s all watch movements were based on the verge escapement, developed for large public clocks in the 14th century; this type of escapement involved a high degree of friction and did not include any kind of jewelling to protect the contacting surfaces from wear. As a result, a verge watch could achieve any high standard of accuracy; the first used improvement was the cylinder escapement, developed by the Abbé de Hautefeuille early in the 18th century and applied by the English maker George Graham. Towards the end of the 18th century, the lever escapement was put into limited production by a handful of makers including Josiah Emery and Abraham-Louis Breguet. With this, a domestic watch could keep time to within a minute a day. Lever watches became common after about 1820, this type is still used in most mechanical watches today.
In 1857 the American Watch Company in Waltham, Massachusetts introduced the Waltham Model 57, the first to use interchangeable parts. This cut the cost of repair. Most Model 57 pocket watches were in a coin silver, a 90% pure silver alloy used in dollar coinage less pure than the British sterling silver, both of which avoided the higher purity of other types of silver to make circulating coins and other utilitarian silver objects last longer with heavy use. Watch manufacture was becoming streamlined.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths have made silverware, goblets and serviceable utensils, ceremonial or religious items, using Kintsugi, but the rising prices of precious metals have curtailed the making of such items to a large degree. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, forging and polishing metal; the trade has often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the similar skills of the silversmith. Traditionally, these skills had been passed along through apprenticeships, more jewellery arts schools specializing in teaching goldsmithing and a multitude of skills falling under the jewellery arts umbrella are available. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing and metal arts fabrication as a part of their fine arts curriculum. At least in Europe, goldsmiths performed many of the functions now regarded as part of banking providing custody of valuable items and currency exchange, though they were restrained from lending at interest, regarded as usury.
Compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other metals such as bronzes, for example, it is easy to "pressure weld", wherein to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal --, it is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, the history of these activities is extensive. Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America and South America grace museums and collections throughout the world; some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a skill level, lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed to modern times.
Researchers attempting to uncover the chemical techniques used by ancient artisans have remarked that their findings confirm that "the high level of competence reached by the artists and craftsmen of these ancient periods who produced objects of an artistic quality that could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modern ones."In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and were one of the most important and wealthiest of the guilds in a city. The guild kept records of the marks they used on their products; these records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the safe storage of valuable items. In the Middle Ages, goldsmithing included silversmithing as well, but the brass workers and workers in other base metals were members of a separate guild, since the trades were not allowed to overlap. Many jewelers were goldsmiths; the Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, whose superb gold artworks were displayed at The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.
In India,'Vishwakarma' are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, who had long used the technique on their metal pieces; the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have a wide array of skills and knowledge at their disposal. Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers unique opportunities for the worker. In today's world a wide variety of other metals platinum alloys may be used frequently. 24 karat is pure gold and was known as fine gold. Because it is so soft, however, 24 karat gold is used, it is alloyed to make it stronger and to create different colors. The gold may be cast into some item usually with the lost wax casting process, or it may be used to fabricate the work directly in metal. In the latter case, the goldsmith will use a variety of tools and machinery, including the rolling mill, the drawplate, swage blocks and other forming tools to make the metal into shapes needed to build the intended piece.
Parts are fabricated through a wide variety of processes and assembled by soldering. It is a testament to the history and evolution of the trade that those skills have reached an high level of attainment and skill over time. A fine goldsmith can and will work to a tolerance approaching that of precision machinery, but using only his eyes and hand tools. Quite the goldsmith's job involves the making of mountings for gemstones, in which case they are referred to as jewelers.'Jeweller', however, is a term reserved for a person who deals in jewellery and not to be confused with a goldsmith, gemologist, diamond cutter, diamond setters. A'jobbing jeweller' is the term for a jeweller who undertakes a small basic amount of jewellery repair and alteration. Paul de Lamerie Paul Storr Lorenzo Ghiberti Benvenuto Cellini Johannes Gutenberg House of Fabergé Jean-Valentin Morel Adrien Vachette Gaspard van der Heyden Jocelyn Burton Lois Etherington Betteridge Andrea Cagnetti - Akelo William Claude Harper Mary Lee Hu Linda M