The Durotriges were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. The tribe lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria and Lindinis, their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii. Durotriges were more a tribal confederation than a tribe, they were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest, part of the cultural "periphery", as Barry Cunliffe characterised them, round the "core group" of Britons in the south. These coins were rather simple and had no inscriptions, thus no names of coin-issuers can be known, let alone evidence about monarchs or rulers; the Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded and controlled by strong hill forts that were still in use in 43 AD.
Maiden Castle is a preserved example of one of these hill forts. The area of the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds: few Durotrigan coins are found in the "core" area, where they were unacceptable and were reminted. To their north and east were the Belgae, beyond the Avon and its tributary Wylye: "the ancient division is today reflected in the county division between Wiltshire and Somerset." Their main outlet for the trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC, when the potter's wheel was introduced drying up in the decades before the advent of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. Numismatic evidence shows progressive debasing of the coinage, suggesting economic retrenchment accompanying the increased cultural isolation. Analysis of the body of Durotrigan ceramics suggests to Cunliffe that the production was centralised, at Poole Harbour. Burial of Durotriges was by inhumation, with a last ritual meal provided under exiguous circumstances, as in the eight burials at Maiden Castle, carried out after the Roman attack.
Not the Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia. In the tribe's area, the Romans explored some supported a local pottery industry; the Durotriges, their relationship with the Roman Empire, form the basis for an ongoing archaeological research project directed by Paul Cheetham, Ellen Hambleton and Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. The Durotriges Project has, since 2009, been reconsidering the Iron Age to Roman transition through a detailed programme of field survey, geophysical investigation and targeted excavation. To date the programme of work has concentrated upon an enclosed late Iron Age banjo enclosure containing round houses, work surfaces and storage pits, a Late Iron Age cemetery and two Roman villas. Abbotsbury Castle Castle Rings, Wiltshire List of Celtic tribes Martin Papworth, The Search for the Durotriges: Dorset and the West Country in the Late Iron Age.
The History Press. ISBN 0752457373 Paul Cheetham Ellen Hambleton, Miles Russell and Martin Smith, Digging the Durotriges: Life and Death in Late Iron Age Dorset. Current Archaeology 281, 36-41. Durotriges Big Dig Durotriges at Roman-Britain.org Durotriges at Romans in Britain Durotriges Project
Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue Service
Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the Isle of Wight off the south coast of England. In March 2007, the Isle of Wight Council voted to maintain the independence of the Isle of Wight Fire and Rescue service, instead of a merger with the Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service. In February 2009, plans were announced for a three-year £8 million replacement programme changing part-time stations to full-time; the move would be done in an attempt to reduce response times to 999 alerts. It could see Ryde's fire station change to full-time, Sandown's, but part-time stations would continue to operate as normal in rural areas; the extra investment would minimise chances of a future merger with Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service on the mainland. On a 2009 assessment by a government watchdog, the service was found to be performing well, getting a three star rating out of four, after a poor rating in 2005; the Isle of Wight has a total of ten fire stations, one wholetime/retained, one day crew/retained and eight retained.
Water Rescue Ladder: P1 / P2 /P3 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Command Unit: C1 Heavy Rescue Tender: R1 Water Rescue Unit: R2 Breathing Apparatus Support Unit S1 Foam Salvage Tender: S1 General Purpose Vehicle: S1/S2 Light 4x4 Vehicle: T1/T2 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Unit: T8 Co-Responder Vehicle: V1 Water Carrier: W1 Station Officer Vehicle: O1/O2 List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official website
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t
Freshwater, Isle of Wight
Freshwater is a large village and civil parish at the western end of the Isle of Wight, England. Freshwater Bay is a small cove on the south coast of the Island which gives its name to the nearby part of Freshwater. Freshwater sits at the western end of the region known as the Back of the Wight or the West Wight, a popular tourist area. Freshwater is close to steep chalk cliffs, it was the birthplace of physicist Robert Hooke and was the home of Poet Laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson. Freshwater is famous for its geology and coastal rock formations that have resulted from centuries worth of coastal erosion; the "Arch Rock" was a well-known local landmark that collapsed on 25 October 1992. The neighbouring "Stag Rock" is so named because a stag leaped to the rock from the cliff to escape during a hunt. Another huge slab fell off the cliff face in 1968, is now known as the "Mermaid Rock". Behind Mermaid Rock lies a small Sea cave that cuts several metres into the new cliff. Freshwater's beach is popular.
It is sandy but it is covered in chalk from the nearby cliffs, gathered by tourists as souvenirs. Freshwater features an excellent example of The Albion; the Albion was built around the time Freshwater became popularised as a coastal resort, is still popular today. However, heavy storms which lift rocks and other debris from the beach means that the building's exterior walls have to be repainted, with cracks and dents in the walls being repaired too; the hills above Freshwater are named after Tennyson. On the nearby Tennyson Down is a Cornish granite cross erected in 1897 in tribute to Tennyson, "by the people of Freshwater, other friends in England and America." There is a hill in the area called'Hooke Hill', named for Robert Hooke. All Saints' Church, Freshwater is one of the oldest churches on the Isle of Wight, was listed in the Domesday survey of 1086. Mark Whatson is the pastor of All Saints, an Anglican church in the Anglican Diocese of Portsmouth. A primary school associated with the church is nearby.
There is a marble memorial commemorating Tennyson in All Saints Church. Tennyson's wife Emily and other family members are buried in the church cemetery; the church is the site of a memorial to Tennyson's son, Lionel Tennyson, who died of malaria in 1886. Dimbola Lodge, the home of Julia Margaret Cameron and now a photographic museum, is in the village of Freshwater Bay, part of Freshwater. There is a tearoom and bookstore. Tennyson's son, Hallam donated land for a new church in Freshwater Bay. Hallam's wife Audrey suggested. St. Agnes' Church, Freshwater was consecrated on 12 August 1908, it is the only thatched church on the Isle of Wight. Freshwater was the site of the largest station on the Freshwater and Newport Railway that operated from 20 July 1889 to 21 September 1953; the station location is now occupied by a garden centre. Freshwater is near the source of the Western Yar. Freshwater Marshes are a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a large part of the Marshes are a Local Nature Reserve called Afton Marshes.
At the western end of Freshwater Bay on a bluff are the remains of Fort Redoubt known as Fort Freshwater or Freshwater Redoubt, a Palmerston Fort. Fort Redoubt was built in 1855-1856 to protect Freshwater Bay, was in use until the early 20th century, it was sold by the military in 1928. Presently, part of it is a private residence, other portions are being developed as holiday flats. A doorway carved into the cliff below the fort was the main access to the building from the beach, although most of the iron stairway that gave access has broken up due to the repeated actions of rust and the tide. Two unusual structures that have been described as ice houses, pottery kilns or crematoria are found on Moons Hill in Freshwater. Robert Walker was the first to excavate these features in the 1890s, he thought they were evidence of a Phoenician settlement in Freshwater. Chemical analyses suggest that they were most lime kilns; the renowned scientist Robert Hooke was born in Freshwater in 1635. His father John Hooke was the curate of All Saints Church in Freshwater.
When Hooke's father died in 1648, Hooke left Freshwater for London to be apprenticed to portrait painter Peter Lely. After that, he went to Westminster School and Oxford. Painter George Morland lived in Freshwater in a structure known as the "Cabin" around 1800. British Poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson lived at nearby Farringford House. Tennyson lived at Farringford from 1853 until the end of his life in 1892. Tennyson wrote of Farringford: “Where, far from noise and smoke of townI watch the twilight falling brown,All round a careless-ordered garden,Close to the ridge of a noble down.” Tennyson rented Farringford in 1853, bought it in 1856. He found that there were too many starstruck tourists who pestered him in Farringford, so he moved to "Aldworth", a stately home on a hill known as Blackdown between Lurgashall and Fernhurst, about 2 km south of Haslemere in West Sussex in 1869. However, he returned to Farringford to spend the winters. Pioneering photographer Julia Margaret Cameron lived in Freshwater at Dimbola Lodge from 1860 to 1875.
In 1960, Dekyi Tseri, mother of the current Dalai Lama, stayed at the guest house of Sir Basil Gould's widow Cecily in Freshwater for six weeks. Tseri, known to Tibetans as "Amala", meaning "The Great Mother", was recuperating after a throat operation to remove a benign polyp performed at St. Mary's Hospital in London. Freshwater was the birthplace of Sir Vivian Ernest Fuchs FRS (1
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
River Caul Bourne
The Caul Bourne is a stream on the Isle of Wight, England. The stream is 3 miles long from source to the start of the Newtown River Estuary just below Shalfleet, its source is in an ornamental lake, near Winkle Street in Calbourne, from which it runs to the north through Newbridge and Shalfleet. It is joined by several tributaries before flowing into the Solent via Newtown estuary, a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the river was subject to flooding in December 1993 when a longer than normal period of precipitation led to four houses in Shalfleet suffering £36,000 of damage between them
Newport, Isle of Wight
Newport is a civil parish and the county town of the Isle of Wight, an island off the south coast of England. The civil parish had a population of 23,957 at the time of the 2001 census, which rose to 25,496 at the 2011 census; the town lies to the north of the centre of the Island. It has a quay at the head of the navigable section of the River Medina, which flows northward to Cowes and the Solent. Mousterian remains, featuring tools made by Neanderthals at least 40,000 years ago, were found at Great Pan Farm in the 1970s. There are signs of Roman settlement in the area, known as Medina, including two known Roman villas, one of which, Newport Roman Villa, has been excavated and is open to the public. Information about the area resumes after the Norman Conquest; the first charter was granted in the late 12th century. In 1377 an invading French force burnt down much of the town while attempting to take Carisbrooke Castle under the command of Sir Hugh Tyrill. A group of Frenchmen were captured and killed buried in a tumulus nicknamed Noddies Hill, a "noddy" being medieval slang for a body.
This was corrupted to Nodehill, the present-day name for a part of central Newport – a name confusing to many as the area is flat. In 1648 Charles I and a group of Parliamentary Commissioners concluded the Treaty of Newport, an attempt at reaching a compromise in the Civil War, undermined by Charles's negotiations with the French and Scots to intervene on his behalf; the Treaty was repudiated by Oliver Cromwell upon returning from defeating the Scots at the Battle of Preston. This led to Charles's execution; the town had been incorporated as a borough in 1608. The town's position as an area of trade accessible to the sea meant it took over from nearby Carisbrooke as the main central settlement absorbing the latter as a suburb; the borough ceased to exist in 1974 when it was incorporated into the larger Borough of Medina, itself superseded in 1995 by a single unitary authority covering the whole of the Isle of Wight. The Drill hall in Newport opened as the headquarters of the Isle of Wight Rifle Volunteers in 1860.
Newport since the 1960s has acquired new shopping facilities, a pedestrianised central square, through road traffic redirected off many of the narrow streets. Newport Quay has been redeveloped with art galleries such as the Quay Arts Centre and new flats converted from old warehouses; the Queen Victoria Memorial was designed by local architect Percy Stone. Geographically located in the centre of the Island at 50.701°N, 1.2883°W, Newport is the principal town in the Isle of Wight, to which there are transport connections from all the island's major towns. It is the island's main shopping location for public services; the main A3020 and A3054 roads converge as Medina Way between the busy roundabouts at Coppins Bridge and St Mary's Hospital. Newport railway station was the hub of the Island's rail network until the mid-20th century, but it closed in 1966 and the site is now occupied by the A3020 Medina Way dual carriageway; the nearest city to the town is Portsmouth, about 13 miles north-east on Portsea Island, adjoining the mainland.
More locally, the island's largest town, is to the north-east. The River Medina runs through Newport. North of its confluence with the Lukely Brook at the town's quay it becomes a navigable tidal estuary. Distance from surrounding settlements Cowes – 4.5 miles, 7 km East Cowes – 5 miles, 8 km Ryde – 7 miles, 11 km Shanklin – 9 miles, 15 km Sandown – 10 miles, 16 km Ventnor – 11 miles, 18 km Yarmouth, Isle of Wight – 10 miles, 16 km The town's suburb of Parkhurst is home to two prisons: the notorious Parkhurst Prison and Albany. Parkhurst and Albany were once among the few top-security prisons in the United Kingdom. Camp Hill was another prison in the area, but closed in 2013. Seaclose Park in Newport, on the east bank of the River Medina, has since 2002 been the location for the revived Isle of Wight Music Festival, held once a year. Newport is home to the Postal Museum the largest private collection of vintage postal equipment and post boxes in the world. Newport bus station is the town's central bus terminus and acts as the hub of the Southern Vectis network, with routes from across the Island terminating there.
St George's Park is the home of Newport Football Club, the most successful of the Island's football teams playing in the Wessex League. The stadium has a capacity of 3,000; the town is represented by Newport Cricket Club, which plays at Victoria recreational ground. Newport CC have two teams which compete in Harwoods Renault Divisions 1 and 2; the Isle of Wight County Cricket Ground is located on the outskirts of the town. The town of Newport and adjoining village of Carisbrooke together have seven primary schools, three secondary schools, a sixth-form campus, a further education college and two special schools; the primary schools located close to the town centre are Newport C of E Primary and Nine Acres Community Primary. Barton Primary is located on Pan estate, whilst Summerfields Primary is nearby on the Staplers estate, both to the east of the town. Hunnyhill Primary is situated on Forest Road to the north of the town, there are two primary schools in Carisbrooke: Carisbrooke C of E Primary on Wellington Road and St Thomas of Canterbury Catholic Primary in the High Street in the village centre.
The three secondary schools are Medina College and Christ the King College. Carisbrooke College is located on a large site on the outskirts of Carisbrooke village, whilst Christ the King is just down the road occupying two former middle school sites on