Shampoo is a hair care product in the form of a viscous liquid, used for cleaning hair. Less shampoo is available in bar form, like a bar of soap. Shampoo is used by applying it to wet hair, massaging the product into the scalp, rinsing it out; some users may follow a shampooing with the use of hair conditioner. The typical reason of using shampoo is to remove the unwanted build-up of sebum in the hair without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable. Shampoo is made by combining a surfactant, most sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most cocamidopropyl betaine in water; the sulphate ingredient acts as a surfactant heavy duty soap that makes it easier to trap oil and grease. Specialty shampoos are marketed to people with dandruff, color-treated hair, gluten or wheat allergies, an interest in using an organic product, infants and young children. There are shampoos intended for animals that may contain insecticides or other medications to treat skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas.
The word shampoo entered the English language from the Indian subcontinent during the colonial era. It dates to 1762 and is derived from Hindi chāmpo, itself derived from the Sanskrit root chapati, which means to press, soothe. In the Indian subcontinent, a variety of herbs and their extracts have been used as shampoos since ancient times. A effective early shampoo was made by boiling Sapindus with dried Indian gooseberry and a selection of other herbs, using the strained extract. Sapindus known as soapberries or soapnuts, a tropical tree widespread in India, is called ksuna in ancient Indian texts and its fruit pulp contains saponins which are a natural surfactant; the extract of soapberries creates a lather. It leaves the hair soft and manageable. Other products used for hair cleansing were shikakai, hibiscus flowers and arappu. Guru Nanak, the founder and the first Guru of Sikhism, made references to soapberry tree and soap in the 16th century. Cleansing with hair and body massage during one's daily bath was an indulgence of early colonial traders in India.
When they returned to Europe, they introduced the newly learned habits, including the hair treatment they called shampoo. Sake Dean Mahomed, an Indian traveller and entrepreneur, is credited with introducing the practice of champooi or "shampooing" to Britain. In 1814, with his Irish wife Jane Daly, opened the first commercial "shampooing" vapour masseur bath in England, in Brighton, he described the treatment in a local paper as "The Indian Medicated Vapour Bath, a cure to many diseases and giving full relief when everything fails. During the early stages of shampoo in Europe, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 advertisement for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake. In 1927, liquid shampoo was invented by German inventor Hans Schwarzkopf in Berlin, whose name created a shampoo brand sold in Europe.
Soap and shampoo were similar products. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo using synthetic surfactants instead of soap. Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the straw of rice; the husks and straws were burned into ash, the ashes are mixed with water to form lather. The ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but dry. Afterwards, coconut oil was applied to the hair in order to moisturize it. Certain Native American tribes used extracts from North American plants as hair shampoo. Pre-Columbian Andean civilizations used this soapy by-product as a shampoo. Shampoo is made by combining a surfactant, most sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium laureth sulfate, with a co-surfactant, most cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt, used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities: pleasing foam ease of rinsing minimal skin and eye irritation thick or creamy feeling pleasant fragrance low toxicity good biodegradability slight acidity no damage to hair repair of damage done to hairMany shampoos are pearlescent.
This effect is achieved by the addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos include silicone to provide conditioning benefits. Ammonium chloride Ammonium lauryl sulfate Glycol Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 as evidence suggeste
The West Florida Argonauts are composed of 16 NCAA sports teams which make up the athletic program for the University of West Florida. UWF intercollegiate athletics compete in the NCAA Division II Gulf South Conference. Men's intercollegiate sports: Baseball, Basketball, Cross country and Football. Women's intercollegiate sports: Basketball, Cross country, Softball, Soccer and Diving, Volleyball. UWF made the decision to add a football program; the Argos signed their first recruiting class in February 2015 and Fall of 2015 featured practice and intrasquad scrimmages. The first year of varsity competition was the 2016 season; the Argos first home game was on September 10, 2016 at Blue Wahoos Stadium against Missouri S&T Miners. In 2017, the Argonauts advanced to the national championship game, where they lost to Texas A&M–Commerce, they got their national title in 2019 when they won against Minnesota State. Official record against all current GSC opponents: West Florida has had 18 Major League Baseball Draft selections since the draft began in 1965.
Baseball: 2011 Men's Golf: 2001, 2008 Men's Tennis: 2004, 2005, 2014, 2017 Women's Soccer: 2012 Football: 2019 Softball: 1993 Men's: 8 Women's: 16 Overall: 6 Men's Golf – Orjan Larsen Men's Golf - Chandler Blanchet Women's Swimming & Diving - Monica Amaral Women's Swimming & Diving - Theresa Michalak Women's Swimming & Diving - Monica Amaral Women's Swimming & Diving - Theresa Michalak Men's Tennis – Jens Gerlach/Matt Wallhead Men's Tennis – Radovan Chrz Men's Tennis – Radovan Chrz Men's Tennis – Bruno Savi Men's Tennis - Alex Peyrot/Pedro Dumont Women's Tennis - Berta Bonardi Women's Tennis - Berta Bonardi Men's Cross Country – John Viitanen Men's Tennis – Eric Hochman Men's Tennis – Eric Hochman/Geoffrey Watts Men's Tennis – Sorin Cherebetiu/Andrej Tonejc Women's Tennis – Bronna Allison/Laura Cadena Women's Tennis – Bronna Allison Baseball: 1 Men's Basketball: 1 Men's Cross Country: 2 Men's Golf: 16 Men's Soccer: 9 Men's Tennis: 13 Softball: 4 Volleyball: 8 Women's Basketball: 1 Women's Cross Country: 3 Women's Golf: 10 Women's Soccer: 11 Women's Tennis: 19 Women's Swimming and Diving: 2015, 2016 Krissy Styrna - Softball Kevin Warrick - Men's Golf Lindsay Nemanich - Women's Soccer Suzana Cavalcante - Women's Tennis Courtney Jones - Women's Soccer Kevin Ducros - Men's Tennis Autumn Duyn - Women's Volleyball Chandler Blanchet - Men's Golf Richard Berg, Athletic Director - Class of 2014 Radovan Chrz, Men's Tennis - Class of 2017 Suzana Cavalcante, Women's Tennis - Class of 2018 Kevin Warrick, Men's Golf - Class of 2019 Official website
The final stages of the 2013 Copa Sudamericana were played from September 18 to December 11, 2013. A total of 16 teams competed in the final stages; the draw of the tournament was held on July 3, 2013, 12:00 UTC−3, at the Sheraton Hotel in Buenos Aires, Argentina. To determine the bracket starting from the round of 16, the defending champion and the 15 winners of the second stage were assigned a "seed" by draw; the defending champion and the winners from Argentina Zone and Brazil Zone were assigned even-numbered "seeds", the winners from ties between South Zone and North Zone were assigned odd-numbered "seeds". The following were the seeding of the 16 teams which qualified for the final stages, which included the defending champion and the 15 winners of the second stage: In the final stages, the 16 teams played a single-elimination tournament, with the following rules: Each tie was played on a home-and-away two-legged basis, with the higher-seeded team hosting the second leg. In the round of 16, semifinals, if tied on aggregate, the away goals rule was used.
If still tied, the penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner. In the finals, if tied on aggregate, the away goals rule was not used, 30 minutes of extra time was played. If still tied after extra time, the penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner. If there were two semifinalists from the same association, they must play each other; the bracket of the knockout stages was determined by the seeding as follows: Round of 16: Match A: Seed 1 vs. Seed 16 Match B: Seed 2 vs. Seed 15 Match C: Seed 3 vs. Seed 14 Match D: Seed 4 vs. Seed 13 Match E: Seed 5 vs. Seed 12 Match F: Seed 6 vs. Seed 11 Match G: Seed 7 vs. Seed 10 Match H: Seed 8 vs. Seed 9 Quarterfinals: Match S1: Winner A vs. Winner H Match S2: Winner B vs. Winner G Match S3: Winner C vs. Winner F Match S4: Winner D vs. Winner E Semifinals: Match F1: Winner S1 vs. Winner S4 Match F2: Winner S2 vs. Winner S3 Finals: Winner F1 vs. Winner F2Note: The bracket was changed according to the rules of the tournament so that the two semifinalists from Brazil would play each other.
The first legs were played on September 18–19 and 24–26, the second legs were played on September 25–26, October 2 and 22–24, 2013. São Paulo won 5–4 on aggregate. River Plate won 3–2 on aggregate. Ponte Preta won 2–1 on aggregate. Libertad won 4–1 on aggregate. Itagüí won 3–1 on aggregate. Vélez Sarsfield won 4–2 on aggregate. Lanús won 4–1 on aggregate. Tied 1–1 on aggregate, Atlético Nacional won on penalties; the first legs were played on October 29–31, the second legs were played on November 6–7, 2013. São Paulo won 3–2 on aggregate. Lanús won 3–1 on aggregate. Ponte Preta won 2–0 on aggregate. Libertad won 2–1 on aggregate; the first legs were played on November 20–21, the second legs were played on November 27–28, 2013. A minute of silence was held in honor to the passing of two-time World Cup-winning Brazilian player Nílton Santos at both second leg games of the semifinals. Ponte Preta won 4–2 on aggregate. Lanús won 4–2 on aggregate; the finals were played on a home-and-away two-legged basis, with the higher-seeded team hosting the second leg.
If tied on aggregate, the away goals rule was not used, 30 minutes of extra time was played. If still tied after extra time, the penalty shoot-out was used to determine the winner; the first leg was played on December 4, the second leg was played on December 11, 2013. Lanús won 3–1 on aggregate. Copa Total Sudamericana Copa Sudamericana, CONMEBOL.com