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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty historically known as the Yin dynasty, was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the Lower Yellow River Valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the semi-mythical Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC; the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC based on the carbon 14 dates of the Erligang site. The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. Excavation at the Ruins of Yin, identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices.

Tens of thousands of bronze, stone and ceramic artifacts have been found. The Anyang site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing divinations inscribed on oracle bones – turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones. More than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations during the 1920s and 1930s, over four times as many have been found since; the inscriptions provide critical insight into many topics from the politics and religious practices to the art and medicine of this early stage of Chinese civilization. Many events concerning the Shang dynasty are mentioned in various Chinese classics, including the Book of Documents, the Mencius and the Zuo Zhuan. Working from all the available documents, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian assembled a sequential account of the Shang dynasty as part of his Records of the Grand Historian, his history describes some events in detail. A related, but different, account is given by the Bamboo Annals; the Annals were interred in 296 BC, but the text has a complex history and the authenticity of the surviving versions is controversial.

The name Yīn is used by Sima Qian for the dynasty, in the "current text" version of the Bamboo Annals for both the dynasty and its final capital. It has been a popular name for the Shang throughout history. Since the Records of Emperors and Kings by Huangfu Mi, it has been used to describe the half of the Shang dynasty. In Japan and Korea, the Shang are still referred to exclusively as the Yin dynasty. However, it seems to have been a Zhou name for the earlier dynasty; the word does not appear in the oracle bones, which refer to the state as Shāng, the capital as Dàyì Shāng. It does not appear in securely-dated Western Zhou bronze inscriptions; the founding myth of the Shang dynasty is described by Sima Qian in the Annals of the Yin. In the text, a woman named Jiandi, the second wife of Emperor Ku, swallowed an egg dropped by a black bird and subsequently gave birth miraculously to Xie — appearing as Qi. Xie is said to have helped Yu the Great to control the Great Flood and for his service to have been granted a place called Shang as a fief.

In the Annals of the Yin, Sima Qian writes that the dynasty was founded 13 generations after Xie, when Xie's descendant Tang overthrew the impious and cruel final Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao. The Records recount events from the reigns of Tang, Tai Jia, Tai Wu, Pan Geng, Wu Ding, Wu Yi and the depraved final king Di Xin, but the rest of the Shang rulers are mentioned by name. According to the Records, the Shang moved their capital five times, with the final move to Yin in the reign of Pan Geng inaugurating the golden age of the dynasty. Di Xin, the last Shang king, is said to have committed suicide after his army was defeated by Wu of Zhou. Legends say that his army and his equipped slaves betrayed him by joining the Zhou rebels in the decisive Battle of Muye. According to the Yi Zhou Shu and Mencius the battle was bloody; the classic, Ming-era novel Fengshen Yanyi retells the story of the war between Shang and Zhou as a conflict with rival factions of gods supporting different sides in the war.

After the Shang were defeated, King Wu allowed Di Xin's son Wu Geng to rule the Shang as a vassal kingdom. However, Zhou Wu sent an army to ensure that Wu Geng would not rebel. After Zhou Wu's death, the Shang joined the Rebellion of the Three Guards against the Duke of Zhou, but the rebellion collapsed after three years, leaving Zhou in control of Shang territory. After Shang's collapse, Zhou's rulers forcibly relocated "Yin diehards" and scattered them throughout Zhou territory; some surviving members of the Shang royal family collectively changed their surname from the ancestral name Zi to the name of their fallen dynasty, Yin. The family retained an aristocratic standing and provided needed administrative services to the succeeding Zhou dynasty; the Records of the Grand Historian states that King Cheng of Zhou, with the support of his regent and uncle, the Duke of Zhou, enfeoffed Weiziqi, a brother of Di Xin, as the Duke of Song, with its capital at Shangqiu. This practice was known as 二王三恪.

The Dukes of Song would maintain rites honoring the Shang kings until Qi conquered Song in 286 BC. Confucius was a descendant of the Shang Kings through the Dukes of Song; the Eastern Han dynasty bestowed the title of Duke of Song and "Duk

Riviera Maya

The Riviera Maya is a tourism and resort district south of Cancun, Mexico. It straddles the coastal Federal Highway 307, along the Caribbean coastline of the state of Quintana Roo, located in the eastern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula; this district started at the city of Playa del Carmen and ended at the village of Tulum, although the towns of Puerto Morelos, situated to the north of Playa del Carmen, as well as the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto, situated 40 kilometres to the south of Tulum, are both being promoted as part of the Riviera Maya tourist corridor. The Riviera Maya was called the "Cancun–Tulum corridor", but in 1999, it was renamed as the Riviera Maya with the aid of Lic. Miguel Ramón Martín Azueta. At the time, he was the municipal president of Quintana Roo; the Riviera Maya includes the municipalities of Solidaridad in the north and Tulum in the south, extends 40 kilometres inland, to the border with the state of Yucatán. The Riviera Maya is famous for its large scale all-inclusive resorts and a historical tourism base of smaller boutique hotels as well as the many fine-dining restaurants available along the Fed 307 and on or near the beaches.

Luxury travel entities have been instrumental in increasing luxury villa rentals and yacht charters in the area however these only represent a small fraction of the total tourism accommodation available. Government development plans include establishing a number of medium-sized cities of ~200,000 inhabitants within the Riviera Maya with initial planning spanning 20 years. Target areas for urbanization include the towns and villages of: Puerto Morelos, the Riviera Maya), Puerto Aventuras, Akumal and Tulum. A major attraction throughout the Riviera Maya are coastal and reef aquatic activities dependent on the coastal water and the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System which begins near Cancun and continues along the whole length of the Riviera Maya continuing southward to Guatemala; this barrier reef system is the second longest in the world. Activities at the most visited locations include jet-skiing, scuba diving, swimming in cenotes, swimming with dolphins, zip-lining, horse riding and guided jungle tours.

Archeology is a big tourist draw in the area, including the popular archeological sites operated by the Instituto Nacional de Archeological such as Tulum on the coast, Chichen Itza and Coba located some distance inland. The self-named ecoparks of Xcaret and Xel-Ha include some smaller archeological ruins as part of their attractions, but these natural water theme parks operated by private business consortia attract much larger crowds due to the diversity and range of activities provided, such as swimming with captive dolphins; the mean annual temperature is 24–25 °C. The climate is dominated by a rainy season from May through November, within the dry season there is a period dominated by northerly winds, called El Norte, which occurs in the months of January and February; the maximum mean annual precipitation throughout the Yucatán Peninsula occurs along the coast of the Riviera Maya with 1.5 metres of rainfall with a general decline to the NW with only 400 millimetres per year or less on the opposite side of the Peninsula.

While the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán experiences a large number of tropical storms and hurricanes, the storm tracks and therefore landfalls of these are divergent to both the north and the south striking outside the Riviera Maya. Groundwater and therefore cenote water temperatures are 25 °C year round. Coastal waters range from 26 °C in January to 29 °C in August; the Riviera Maya is within the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. The terrain is flat and covered by low tropical jungle; the geology is high purity carbonates down to a depth of 0.5 - 1.5 km below the surface. Mean annual rainfall is 1.5 m per year and the efficient infiltration results in the complete absence of any surface rivers. As is common in karst, underground river networks have formed by dissolution, these have been explored and mapped by cave diving through sinkhole collapses, locally called cenotes; the whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is underlain by a density-stratified coastal aquifer system with a lens-shaped freshwater body floating on top of intruding saline water.

The formation of caves within this coastal carbonate aquifer is principally associated with carbonate dissolution at the fresh-saline water contact within the aquifer. By 2008, the Quintana Roo Speleological Society reported more than 700 kilometres of flooded cave passages within the limits of the Riviera Maya including the two longest underwater cave systems in the world of Sac Actun and Ox Bel Ha; these groundwater resources, accessed via the thousands of cenotes throughout the landscape, once supported the Maya civilizations and today remain the only natural sources of potable water in the area. The Caribbean coastline is a series of crescent shaped white sand beaches interrupted every 1 – 10 km by rocky headlands and inlets, called caletas, through which groundwater discharges into the coastal water. Large sections of the extensive mangrove swamps that lie behind the beaches and headlands are included in the areas scheduled for tourism development. Most tourists to the Riviera Maya arrive through Cancún International Airport 50 km north of Playa del Carmen.

About 20 kilometres north of Tulum, a new international airport was announced. In March 2011, the bidding for construction contracts was to be concluded; as of April 2014, all projects relate

Oh! Darling

"Oh! Darling" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, composed by Paul McCartney, appearing as the fourth song on the 1969 album Abbey Road, its working title was "Oh! Darling". Although not issued as a single in either the United Kingdom or the United States, a regional subsidiary of Capitol edited it as a single in Central America, having "Maxwell's Silver Hammer" as its B-side, it was issued as a single in Portugal. Apple Records released "Oh! Darling" in Japan with "Here Comes the Sun" in June 1970. McCartney said of recording the track, "When we were recording'Oh! Darling' I came into the studios early every day for a week to sing it by myself because at first my voice was too clear. I wanted it to sound as though I'd been performing it on stage all week." He would only try the song once each day. According to sound engineer Alan Parsons, McCartney once lamented that "five years ago I could have done this in a flash". In a 1980 interview with Playboy magazine, John Lennon said, "'Oh! Darling' was a great one of Paul's.

I always thought I could have done it better – it was more my style than his. He wrote it, so what the hell, he's going to sing it."George Harrison described the song as "a typical 1950s–'60s-period song because of its chord structure". After an early attempt at this song on 27 January 1969 during the Let It Be sessions, Lennon announced, "Just heard that Yoko's divorce has just gone through", after which he and the band burst into an improvised version of the song, substituting "I'm free at last" for a part of the lyric; the song and the following improvisation are included on the Anthology 3 CD. This version features a keyboard part played by Billy Preston; the basic track was recorded on 20 April 1969. There were many overdub sessions, including McCartney's attempts at the lead vocal. According to Ian MacDonald, the backing vocals were "exquisite", but "sadly underplayed in the mix". Engineer Geoff Emerick recalled that McCartney sang while the backing track played over speakers, instead of headphones, because he wanted to feel as though he was singing to a live audience.

The song is one of several tracks on Abbey Road that have never been performed onstage by McCartney or any other of the Beatles to date. Paul McCartney – lead and backing vocals, bass John Lennon – backing vocals, piano George Harrison – backing vocals, electric guitar Ringo Starrdrums Billy Preston – Fender Rhodes. Lennon plays electric guitar on the Anthology 3 version. Personnel per Ian MacDonaldHowever, according to the book accompanying the 2019 box set Abbey Road: Super Deluxe Version, the personnel listed offers an alternative line-up. Paul McCartney – lead and backing vocals, piano John Lennon – backing vocals, guitar George Harrison – backing vocals, bass Ringo Starr – drums "Oh! Darling" appears to have drawn on the New Orleans rhythm and blues sound popularised during the 1950s and early 1960s by African-American musicians such as Fats Domino. Furthermore, it may have drawn on the related Louisiana genre known today as swamp pop, whose distinctive sound bears an uncanny resemblance to the basic structure of "Oh!

Darling" – so much so that some in Louisiana thought the song had been recorded by a local musician. Fittingly, swamp pop musician Jay Randall covered "Oh! Darling" for the Lanor label of Church Point, Louisiana. In 1978, "Oh! Darling" was released on the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band soundtrack, it was released as Robin Gibb's fourth solo single. It reached number 15 on the Billboard pop chart and number 22 in the US Adult Contemporary Charts on 7 October 1978, it was Gibb's highest charting single in the United States. Alan W. Pollack's Notes on "Oh! Darling"