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Shanghai French Concession

The Shanghai French Concession was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1943, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The concession came to an end in 1943 when the French State under German pressure signed it over to the pro-Japanese Reorganized National Government of China in Nanjing. For much of the 20th century, the area covered by the former French Concession remained the premier residential and retail district of Shanghai, was one of the centres of Catholicism in China. Despite re-development over the last few decades, the area retains a distinct character and is a popular tourist destination; the French Concession was established on 6 April 1849, when the French Consul to Shanghai, Charles de Montigny, obtained a proclamation from Lin Kouei, the Circuit Intendant of Shanghai, which conceded certain territory for a French settlement. The extent of the French Concession at the time of establishment extended south to the Old City's moat, north to the Yangjingbang canal, west to the Temple of Guan Yu and the Zhujia Bridge, east to the banks of the Huangpu River between the Guangdong-Chaozhou Union and the mouth of the Yangjingbang canal.

The French Concession occupied a narrow "collar" of land around the northern end of the Old City, south of the British settlement. At an area of 66 hectares, the French Concession was about a third of the size of the British settlement at that time. A further small strip of riverside land to the east of the Old City was added in 1861, to allow the construction of the quai de France, to service shipping between China and France; the French Concession's first significant expansion was agreed in 1899 and proclaimed in 1900, allowing the French Concession to double in size. The area newly added to the concession sat to the west of the original grant. In 1902, the French introduced from France London planes as a roadside tree on Avenue Joffre. Now popular as a roadside tree throughout China, because of its history it is known in Chinese as the "French plane". Meanwhile, from 1860s, the French Concession authorities had begun constructing "extra-settlement roads" outside the concession, under the supervision of the French diplomat Albert-Édouard Levieux de Caligny with a letter of support initiative and approval sealed by the Qing authorities.

The first such road was built to connect the west gate of the Old City to the Catholic stronghold at Zi-ka-wei, to allow French troops to move between the concession and the Catholic Church land located in the area. Controlled by concession authorities, extra-settlement roads gave France and the other treaty powers a form of control over land extending outside their formal concessions. In 1913, France requested police powers over its extra-settlement roads meaning a further expansion to the concession; the government of Yuan Shikai agreed, giving France police and taxation powers over the so-called extra-settlement roads area, in return for France agreeing to evict revolutionaries from the area under its jurisdiction. This agreement proclaimed in 1914, gave the French Concession control over a larger area between the Old City and Xujiahui, 15 times the size of the original grant; as a nod to the more numerous Chinese residents in the new territory, two seats were given to Chinese members on the Administration Council.

Encouraged by the successful expansion by the French, the International Settlement requested the grant of administrative powers over its own extra-settlement roads area in 1914, but this was refused. By the 1920s the French Concession was developed into the premier residential area of Shanghai. In particular, the expansive and sparsely populated "New French Concession" obtained under the second expansion of 1914 became popular for foreign nationals of all nationalities, well-to-do Chinese residents as well, to build houses on larger plots of land than they could obtain in the more crowded original concessions; as demand grew, numerous apartment buildings at varying levels of luxury were built, as well as some shikumen residences to meet demand from the increasing number of Chinese residents. Vibrant commercial areas developed, helped by the influx of White Russians after the Russian Revolution. During the Battle of Shanghai, the Chinese bombed the concession twice by mistake and killed several hundred people.

When the Japanese took Shanghai in battle, their troops crossed without opposition the International Concession, but at the entrance of the French Concession, Vice Admiral Jules Le Bigot commanding the Naval Forces in the Far East sat on a folding in the middle of the street in front of their vehicles and forced them to negotiate to let only an unarmed supply convoy pass. On 4 December 1937, Japanese unarmed convoys were allowed to cross the concession; as early as 1941, the occupation of Shanghai by the troops of the Japanese Empire forced tens of thousands of Chinese to take refuge in the concessions. In 1943, during World War II, the government of Vichy France announced that it would give up its concessions in Tianjin and Guangzhou; these were handed over to the Wang Jingwei Government on 5 June 1943, with the Shanghai Concession following on 30 July. After the war, neither Vichy France nor Wang's Nationalist Government were universally recognised as legitimate, but the new post-war government of France acknowledged that it was a fait a

Arthur J. Hubbard Sr.

Arthur J. Hubbard Sr. was an American state senator from Arizona, who served as a Navajo Code Talker instructor in World War II. Hubbard was born in 1912 on the Tohono O'odham Nation in Topawa, Arizona Territory, on January 23, 1912, about three weeks before Arizona became a state, he grew up in Ganado, part of the Navajo Nation, studied at the University of Arizona. He was the leader of a Navajo tribal band, as singer. From 1939 to 1945 Hubbard voluntarily served in the U. S. Marine Corps. During World War II, he was a Navajo Code Talker instructor training over 200 men to transmit coded messages using the Navajo language. After his military duties, the Governor Jack Williams appointed him Director of Indian Development District of Arizona. In 1972 he became state senator in Arizona, serving for 12 years until 1984; this made him the first Native American senator in the Arizona State Legislature. His other work includes serving as a water rights advisor to the Tohono O'odham Nation, as a Navajo culture and language instructor at Arizona State University.

He played an important part in the establishment of Diné College, the first college established within the Navajo Nation. Hubbard was inducted into the Arizona Veterans Hall of Fame and the Arizona Democratic Party Hall of Fame, he received the Navajo Code Talker Congressional Silver Medal in 2000. He died at age 102 on February 7, 2014, in Arizona. On his death, flags across the Navajo Nation were flown at half-staff in his honor

Chamaizi

Chamaizi is an ancient archaeological site in eastern Crete with a Middle Minoan IA oval-shaped building. Below this building is evidence of Early Minoan building foundations. Chamaizi was first excavated in 1903 by Stephanos Xanthoudides, again in 1971 by Costis Davaras; the MMIA building centers around a cistern. The cistern collected water from rainfall, as the hilltop on which the building is situated, Souvloto Mouri pointed hill, has no wells or springs. Finds excavated from Chamaizi are at the Agios Nikolaos, Crete Museum and the Heraklion Archaeological Museum. Myers, J. W. Myers, E. E. and Cadogan, G. "Chamaizi" The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete ISBN 978-0-520-07382-1 http://www.minoancrete.com/chamaizi.htm