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Shanghai Museum

The Shanghai Museum is a museum of ancient Chinese art, situated on the People's Square in the Huangpu District of Shanghai, China. Rebuilt at its current location in 1996, it is considered one of China's first world-class modern museums; the museum was founded in 1952 and was first open to the public in the former Shanghai Racecourse club house, now at 325 West Nanjing Road. The founding collections came principally from three sources: a batch of artifacts gathered by the Communist 3rd Field Army during the civil war from accidental finds and confiscations of private property and brought to Shanghai upon the Communists' conquest of the city; the former Shanghai Municipal Museum was merged into the new Shanghai Museum. In the next few years, the museum's collections were further enriched from other private and institutional collections in Shanghai, including the collection of the former Shanghai Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society, which were moved to the museum as "foreign" institutions left the city in the 1950s.

In 1959 the museum moved into the Zhonghui Building at 16 South Henan Road, which housed insurance companies and bank offices. During the metal-gathering campaign of the Great Leap Forward, the Shanghai Museum participated in rescuing bronzeware from metal, confiscated or donated and were sent to be melted down. Before the Cultural Revolution, a tradition formed whereby Shanghai's wealthy collectors would make annual donations to the museum; the museum's work halted as a result of the Cultural Revolution. After the end of the revolution, as one of China's most important museums, the collections have continued to be enriched with the fruit of donations, government purchases, important finds from archaeological excavations; the growth of its collections put enormous pressure on the cramped premises. For his role in ensuring a large, purpose-built home, it is said that Shanghai Museum owes much of its current existence to Ma Chengyuan, its director from 1985 until his retirement in 1999; when a new museum was omitted from Shanghai's five-year reconstruction plan in 1992, Ma lobbied Mayor Huang Ju for its rebuilding.

After seeing the dilapidated rooms of the Zhonghui Building, Huang agreed to allocate a prime site on the People's Square, but the museum had to raise its own building funds. Ma raised US$25 million by leasing the old building to a Hong Kong developer, he made many trips abroad to solicit donations from the Shanghai diaspora who had fled to Hong Kong after the Communist revolution, raising another $10 million. The money still ran short, but he won another 140 million yuan from the city government to complete the building. Construction of the current building started in August 1993, it was inaugurated on October 1996 to wide acclaim. It is 29.5 meters high with five floors, covering a total area of 39,200 m². Designed by local architect Xing Tonghe, the building is designed in the shape of an ancient bronze cooking vessel called a ding, it is said that the inspiration for the design was provided by the Da Ke ding, now on exhibit in the museum. The building has a round top and a square base, symbolizing the ancient Chinese perception of the world as "round sky, square earth".

The museum has a collection of over 120,000 pieces, including bronze, calligraphy, jades, ancient coins, seals, minority art and foreign art. The Shanghai Museum houses several items of national importance, including one of three extant specimens of a "transparent" bronze mirror from the Han Dynasty, it has three special temporary exhibition halls. The permanent galleries are: Gallery of Ancient Chinese Bronze Gallery of Ancient Chinese Sculpture Gallery of Ancient Chinese Ceramics Gallery of Ancient Chinese Jades Gallery of Ancient Chinese Paintings Gallery of Ancient Chinese Calligraphy Gallery of Ancient Chinese Seals Gallery of Ancient Chinese Numismatics Gallery of Chinese furniture in Ming and Qing dynasties Gallery of Arts and Crafts by Chinese Minorities The Museum has an important collection of ancient coins from the Silk Road, donated since 1991 by Linda and Roger Doo; the collection contains 1783 pieces from the Greeks to the Mongol Empire. Ancient Chinese Ceramic Gallery The Shanghai Museum.

Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House, 1996. ISBN 7-5325-1721-7 List of museums in China Shanghai history museums Chen Xiejan, Doo R, Wang Yue Shanghai Museum's Collection of Ancient Coins from the Silk Road Shanghai Museum China Museums Shanghai Museum Pictures

Senior cat diet

While there is no clear definition, a senior cat is considered to be either mature, senior or geriatric. As the population of senior cats appears to be growing in North America based on numbers for geriatric populations, important nutritional considerations need to be made when choosing an appropriate diet for a healthy senior cat. Dietary management of many age-related conditions becomes more important in senior cats because changes in their physiology and metabolism may alter how their system responds to various medications and treatments. Diets should be managed for each individual cat to ensure that they maintain an ideal body and muscle condition. Unlike many other species, the energy requirements for cats do not decrease with age, but may increase, therefore seniors require the same or more energy than adults. Scientific studies have indicated that after 12 years of age, again after 13 years of age, energy requirements for cats increase significantly. Obesity is much less so in senior cats.

Of all feline life stages it has been demonstrated that senior cats are the most underweight. Research has shown that fat and protein digestibility decrease with age in cats, causing seniors to have a higher dietary requirement for these macronutrients; the fat and protein sources need to be digestible to maximize energy capture from the food. This may help to explain the body condition differences between adult and senior cats given the consistency of food intake. There is little research on the reasons for decreased fat and protein digestibility, however some speculations have been made based on age-related changes observed in other species. Decreased secretion of digestive enzymes may be related to decreased digestive function in humans and rats, however more research into this is required to explain this in cats. Vitamin B12 is important in methionine synthesis, DNA synthesis, is a vital part of an enzyme important for metabolic pathways. Lower nutrient digestibility may be due to gastrointestinal disease, including pancreatic and intestinal disease, which are found with low levels of vitamin B12.

One study has shown that fat digestibility in senior cats could be reduced by as much as 9% when associated with B12 deficiency and pancreatic disease. Due to this lower digestibility seen in seniors, it is important to look at metabolizable energy values, which provide a more accurate assessment of nutrient availability than a gross energy calculation; the metabolizable energy of food is determined by the Atwater system and calculates the amount of energy available to the animal after digestion and absorption. A gross energy calculation may overestimate digested energy, as it provides the total available energy in the food rather than what is being utilized by the cat. Senior cats are prone to arthritis, periodontal disease, a decline in cognitive and sensory function. What an owner may perceive as a normal age-related change could be subtle signs of arthritis, such as increased inactivity and reluctance to perform normal activities, such as stair climbing and descent. Arthritis has been found in 80-90% of senior cats showing little or no lameness.

Cats that suffer from arthritis have been shown in some studies to display significant signs of improvement when chondroprotectants, substances which help maintain the integrity of connective tissue, are added to the diet. Evidence for antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for inflammation, L‑carnitine and lysine has been shown to be beneficial in other species. Cognitive decline similar to that seen in humans and dogs has been observed in senior cats, with ongoing research into the causes and treatment. Changes in the structure of the brain, including those similar to the causes of Alzheimer's Disease in humans, are considered to be a significant factor in cognitive issues in cats. Studies in other species have shown that supplementing dietary omega-3 and -6 fatty acids EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid, along with antioxidants such as beta-carotene and vitamin B12, may aid in the prevention of decline of cognitive function, slow the progression of symptoms.

Senior cats tend to become picky with their food as a reduced ability to taste and smell is associated with age, palatability is an important factor to consider. Cats have shown a preference in studies for diets with a higher protein content regardless of the flavouring of the food. Additionally, cats are unable to regulate their water intake, seniors are prone to dehydration. Wet diets should be considered to increase water intake and enhance palatability, as well as to alleviate discomfort associated with periodontal disease, a common concern with senior cats. Dry dental kibble could be considered to help prevent plaque buildup on teeth, however as this has only been shown to be effective as the sole diet, brushing of the teeth or dental chews would be a better alternative in combination with a canned food in order to optimize water intake and dental health; as they do not digest as much energy per meal as an adult cat, it is important to feed senior cats smaller, more frequent meals of a digestible diet throughout the day.

It is important to monitor the cat's health with regular visits to the veterinarian, as they are good at hiding symptoms of disease. By selecting a diet that considers a senior cat's changing needs, such as digestion, cognition, dental health and body condition, it may be p

National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto

The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto is an art museum in Kyoto, Japan. This Kyoto museum is known by the English acronym MoMAK; the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto was created as the Annex Museum of the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo. MoMAK was established on its present site on March 1, 1963, its building the auxiliary building of the Kyoto Municipal Exhibition Hall for Industrial Affairs, was transferred from Kyoto City to the National Museum after restoration. On June 1, 1967, the Kyoto Annex Museum became the National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto. Seventeen years the old building was dismantled and the present building, designed by Fumihiko Maki was completed; the museum was opened to the public on October 26, 1986, with 9,761.99 m² total floor area and 2,604.94 m² exhibition area. MoMAK is a national institution devoted to the collection and preservation of artworks and related reference materials of the twentieth century in Japan and other parts of the world. Particular *emphasis is placed on artists or artistic movements in Kyoto and the Kansai area, such as Japanese-style paintings of the Kyoto School.

The gallery exhibits selected works of Japanese-style painting, Western-style painting, sculpture and photography from the museum collection, rotating the works on display twenty times a year. Outstanding and monumental works of modern art in Japan, as well as modern and contemporary European and American art are exhibited; the Union Catalog of the Collections of the National Art Museums, Japan, is a consolidated catalog of material held by the four Japanese national art museums—the National Museum of Modern Art, the National Museum of Modern Art, the National Museum of Art and the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo: National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto. National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo National Museum of Art, Osaka National Museum of Western Art The online version of this union catalog is under construction, with only selected works available at this time. List of Independent Administrative Institutions Hufnagl, Florian.. Designmuseen der Welt eingeladen durch Die Neue Sammlung München: Eingeladen Durch Die Neue Sammlung München.

Basel: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-3-7643-6741-1.