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Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China. It is located in Shanhaiguan District, Hebei province. In 1961, the pass was selected as a National Cultural Site of China, it is a popular tourist destination at the eastern terminal point of the Ming Dynasty Great Wall. The location where the wall meets the Bohai Sea is nicknamed "Old Dragon's Head" Laolongtou; the pass lies nearly 300 kilometres east of Beijing and is linked via the Jingshen Expressway that runs northeastward to Shenyang. Throughout Chinese history, the pass served as a frontline defensive outpost against ethnic groups from Manchuria, including the Khitan and the Manchus. Located south of Yan Mountain, north of the Bohai Sea, for centuries the pass guarded the narrow passage between Northeast and Central East China; the Northern Qi Dynasty, Sui Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty constructed passes here. The site was called Yuguan during the Tang period and by 785, a garrison was established there. Eight more garrisons were established from Yuguan to Jinniukou.

During the late Tang and Five Dynasties period, the territory was controlled by autonomous governors. No garrisons remained by the Five Dynasties period; the area and the passes were controlled by the Liao Dynasty. The Liao founded Qianmin County east of Yuguan in present day Shanhaiguan. Garrisons were built in the area under the Yuan Dynasty. In 1381, Ming general Xu Da constructed the present pass, named Shanhaiguan because of its position between the mountains and the sea. In the late 16th century, Ming general Qi Jiguang began fortification and construction of a military city around the pass, building cities and forts to the east and north, making it one of the most fortified passes in China. Today it is one of the best preserved passes in the Great Wall. In 1644, Li Zicheng led a rebel army into the Ming dynasty capital of Beijing, marking the official end of the Ming dynasty. After occupying the capital, Li attempted to enlist the support of Ming general Wu Sangui, commander of the powerful Ningyuan garrison north of the Great Wall.

Rather than submit to Li, Wu contacted the Manchu Qing dynasty, suggesting that they combine forces to drive the rebels from the capital. Dorgon, regent of the Qing, marched his army to Shanhai Pass to receive Wu's surrender. Together, Wu and the Manchus defeated Li Zicheng's army near the pass, Li was forced to abandon the capital; the Qing victory enabled their army to enter Beijing unopposed, established them as the dominant power in China. During the Qing era, the Shanhai Pass, situated between Shenyang and Beijing, was referred to as the "Key to the Capitals". During the Republican era, as well as during the Eight-Nation Alliance and World War II, the pass witnessed many conflicts; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica noted: SHANHAI-KWAN, a garrison town in the extreme east of the province of Chih-li, China. Pop. about 30,000. It is situated at the point where the range of hills carrying the Great Wall of China dips to the sea, leaving a kwon or pass of limited extent between China proper and Manchuria.

It is thus an important military station, the thoroughfare of trade between Manchuria and the great plain of China. The Imperial Northern railway from Tientsin and Taku, 174 m. from the former, runs through the pass, skirts the shore of the Gulf of Liao-tung as far as the treaty port of Niu-chwang, where it connects with the railways leading from Port Arthur to the Siberian main line. The pass formed the southern limit of the Russian sphere of influence as defined in the convention between Great Britain and Russia of the 28th of April 1899. In July 1900, 15,000 Japanese troops landed at Shanhai Pass, prior to marching on Peking to relieve the siege of the legations by the Boxers. A pre-landing bombardment of the area was unnecessary. Inter-allied relations were dealt a blow when a drunken fracas occurred at the Shanhai Pass between Japanese and French troops. In the fighting three French and seven Japanese soldiers were killed, five French and 12 Japanese were wounded. In November 1945, the North Eastern People's Liberation Army attempted to hold Shanhaiguan against Guomindang forces attacking from the south.

They sought to keep Chiang Kai-shek out of Manchuria. The PLA forces of 10,000 were under equipped and too few to defend the position and retreated to Siping; the Shanhai Pass is built with a perimeter of around four kilometres. The walls reach a height of 14 metres, are seven metres thick; the east and north sides are surrounded by a deep, wide moat with drawbridges over it. In the middle of the pass stands a tall bell tower. All four sides of the Shanhai Pass once possessed a gate or mén, with the Zhèndōng Gate in the east wall, the Yíng'ēn Gate in the west, the Wàngyáng Gate in the south and the Wēiyuǎn Gate in the north. Due to lack of repairs over the centuries, only the Zhèndōng Gate remains today; this was the most important gate due to its position. Lady Meng Jiang Jiayu Pass Juyong Pass Wakeman, The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0520048040 Shanhaiguan travel guide from Wikivoyage Photos of Shanhaiguan Great Wall of China Man made Object Illustrated Atlas of Shanhai, Jizhou, Gubeikou, Huanghua Zhen and Other Areas

Ecko Unltd.

Yakira, L. L. C. is an American urban fashion company founded by Marc Ecko in 1993. The company makes apparel and accessories under brands including the men's Ecko Unltd. Line and the Ecko Red line for women, it is headquartered in New Jersey. The company's products have been popular since the late 1990s, it is most associated with hip hop. The style is based on graffiti art, its brand features a rhino as its logo. Marc Ecko began selling graffiti-style t-shirts in the mid 1980s, founded his clothing brand, Ecko Unlimited, in 1993, with investments from his twin sister and friend, Seth Gerszberg. In 2009, Ecko Unlimited had over $1 billion in global revenue and was the largest brand in streetwear. On October 27, 2009, Iconix Brand Group paid $109 million for a 51% stake in Ecko Unlimited, it acquired full ownership in May 2013. Stüssy Billionaire Boys Club The Hundreds Supreme Official website

Speaking in Tongues (TV series)

Speaking in Tongues is an Australian television program broadcast on SBS Television. The first episode was broadcast on 7 November 2005; the series ran for twelve episodes, with the final episode airing on 23 January 2006. The program is hosted by John Safran and Father Bob Maguire, who discuss current events from a religious perspective in a comedic manner. Maguire, a Catholic priest from South Melbourne appeared on the early show John Safran vs God. Speaking in Tongues was the first Australian television program to be released as a free podcast; the episodes were released for download on the morning following each week's broadcast. The series was directed by John Safran vs God director Craig Melville; the official Speaking in Tongues website Director's site - Download or watch full episodes Speaking in Tongues on IMDb

Percy Humphrey

Percy Gaston Humphrey was a jazz trumpeter and bandleader in New Orleans, Louisiana. In addition to his band, Percy Humphrey and His Crescent City Joymakers, for more than thirty years he was leader of the Eureka Brass Band, he played in the band of the pianist Sweet Emma Barrett. From its opening in the early 1960s until shortly before his death, Humphrey played at Preservation Hall, traveling internationally for performances with the Preservation Hall Jazz Band and his own bands. Percy Humphrey was the younger brother of trombonist Earl Humphrey, his father was clarinetist Willie Eli Humphrey. His grandfather was "Professor" Jim Humphrey, who took the train from New Orleans to sugar cane plantations during the 1890s to teach music to children of plantation workers; the Eureka Brass Band was founded in 1920 by trumpeter Willie Wilson. The band's members included clarinetists Willie Parker, John Casimir, George Lewis. In the 1930s Wilson became ill, during which time trumpeter Alcide Landry had nominal control over the band, but after 1937 Wilson's illness forced him to leave permanently.

Trombonist Joseph "Red" Clark became the leader, followed by Dominique "T-Boy" Remy, who led it from 1937 through 1946. Humphrey led the group for the remainder of its existence; the members of the band varied having nine to eleven members. Typical instrumentation was three trumpets, two trombones, two reeds, snare drum, bass drum. Reed instruments were many, including the saxophones that are found among jazz bands, but the clarinet is characteristically the signature reed instrument of New Orleans jazz, they recorded prolifically. Phonograph records and albums were made for Pax, Folkways and Sounds of New Orleans. A 1951 album, New Orleans Parade, features Humphrey, trombonists Charles "Sunny" Henry and Albert Warner, saxophonist Emanuel Paul, their 1962 sessions, Jazz at Preservation Hall, Volume 1: the Eureka Brass Band of New Orleans, issued on Atlantic Records, features Humphrey and his brother, trumpeters Kid Sheik Cola and Peter Bocage, trombonists Albert Warner and Oscar "Chicken" Henry, Emanuel Paul on tenor saxophone, Wilbert "Bird" Tillman on sousaphone, snare drummer Cie Frazier, bass drummer Robert "Son Fewclothes" Lewis.

After 1975, the Eureka Brass Band disbanded, but Humphrey revived the name for festival performances and other appearances. He continued to lead his own band and played with others at Preservation Hall until his death in New Orleans in 1995, his last performance was at the annual New Orleans jazz festival in April, three months before his death at the age of ninety. 1953 Percy Humphrey at Manny's Tavern 1954 Sounds of New Orleans, Vol. 1: Paul Barbarin & His Band/Percy Humphrey's Jam Session 1961 Percy Humphrey's Crescent City Joymakers 1965 Climax Rag 1972 New Orleans to Scandinavia 1972 A Portrait of Percy Humphrey 1974 Living New Orleans Jazz 1995 Jazz in Schloss Gracht 1995 Hot Six 1996 Percy Humphrey & Paul Barbarin 2000 In Italy 2014 Percy Humphrey and the New Orleans Joymakers

Daniel Bonventre

Daniel Bonventre is one of five former Madoff employees charged in the Madoff investment scandal. He had worked as one-time company director of operations and as an accountant for Madoff since the 1960s, he was arrested on February 25, 2010, charged with having created false and fraudulent books and records, securities fraud, tax-related charges. He was sued by the SEC for falsifying records. Prosecutors claimed that Bonventre used $154 million of clients' funds to help obtain a $145 million loan, he was charged with concealing over $270,000 in income tax between 2003 and 2007. Another criminal complaint alleged that he helped to arrange millions in illegal payments and loans to Madoff family members and unidentified employees, some of which were used to purchase luxury homes. In April 2006 three years before other investors lost their life savings, Bonventre emptied his personal accounts at the firm. On March 24, 2014, he was convicted, he may be sentenced to a maximum of 77 years in prison. On February 25, 2010, he was freed on a $5 million bond.

On December 21, 2010, prosecutors sent a letter to Bonventre's defense lawyer, Andrew J. Frisch, demanding that none of the $820,000 given to him to defend the case be used; the reason for this was because the funds would be subject to forfeiture if Bonventre were convicted of criminal charges. In January 2011, Bonventre filed a suit demanding that the indictment against him be dismissed because the prosecutor had made efforts to seize his defense funds. On December 8, 2014, Bonventre was sentenced to 10 years in prison, after being convicted on securities fraud and tax-evasion charges for his involvement in Madoff's $17.5 billion fraud. Affinity fraud Financial crisis of 2007–2010 Participants in the Madoff investment scandal Recovery of funds from the Madoff investment scandal Image

List of Guantanamo Bay detainees cleared for release in 2009

Rear Admiral Thomas H. Copeman III, Commandant of the Guantanamo Bay detention camps, ordered the posting of the official list of Guantanamo captives cleared in 2009. During the last years of the Presidency of George W. Bush captives had annual reviews conducted by an Office for the Administrative Review of Detained Enemy Combatants. On January 22, 2009, two days after President Barack Obama took office, he issued Executive Orders 13491, 13492 and 13493, all of which concerned how the United States should treat its captives; the new policies superseded the older reviews, included new, inter-agency reviews. President Obama announced plans to close the camps before January 22, 2010. According to the Associated Press and Reuters Admiral Copeman ordered the lists of captives, cleared for release to be posted to prevent the spread of rumors. Reuters reported. A further 17 captives have been transferred since President Obama took office. Six captives left Guantanamo on January 2009, four days before Barack Obama took office.

As of September 29, 2009 17 captives have been released, transferred or repatriated sing Barack Obama took office and reversed some policies of the George W. Bush Presidency; some of these men were released, after a habeas corpus petition ruled that the USA was holding them illegally. Other captive were not cleared of suspicion of playing a role that had threatened the USA, but were repatriated to their home country, or transferred to the custody of a third country, because they were determined to no longer pose a significant threat. In addition a captive died while in the camp's psychiatric wing, another captive was transferred to the USA to stand trial in civilian court