Kalbarri National Park
Kalbarri National Park is located 485 km north of Perth, in the Mid West region of Western Australia. The major geographical features of the park include the Murchison River gorge which runs for nearly 80 km on the lower reaches of the Murchison River. Spectacular coastal cliffs are located on the coast near the mouth of the Murchison River and the town of Kalbarri. Kalbarri National Park preserves the inland desert regions of red and white striped Tumblagooda sandstone east of the town of Kalbarri the lower reaches of the Murchison River and its gorge, as well as the mouth of the river by Meanarra Hill; the western edge of the park protects the coastline south of the town which features cliffs more than 100 m high. The coastal area contains several wind and water eroded rock formations including a sea stack and a natural bridge; the park is open all year round though temperatures can be high from December through April. The park lies in the northernmost limits of the transition zone between a Mediterranean and a semi-arid climate.
Winters are warm with moderate precipitation. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures that exceed 40 °C in the inland part of the park. Inland areas can be more than 10 °C higher than along the coast and in town. Monthly precipitation levels are low with most rain falling from May through August. Heavy rainfalls may cause the roads to the gorge to be closed; the Kalbarri area is known for its extent of wildflowers. More than 800 species of wildflowers bloom from late winter through early summer with peak times in August and September. Twenty-one plant species are found only in the coastal cliff tops and gorge country predominantly in the National Park. One of the best known local plants is the Kalbarri catspaw, a small yellow or red plant, seen on burnt country from August to September. Several orchids can only be seen in and near the park, including the Kalbarri spider orchid and the Murchison hammer orchid; the small-petalled Beyeria or short-petalled Beyeria, once thought to be extinct, was re-discovered in the park in 1994.
The population in the park is one of only three known populations. The park area has observation records for about 200 different animal species in the interior of the park along the Murchison River. More than 400 species have been recorded around the town of Kalbarri; the threatened tammar wallaby was observed in the area but not lately. 150 bird species have been observed including the emu, wedge-tailed eagle and Australian pelican. Some of the recorded mammal species in the interior include the western grey kangaroo, short-beaked echidna and spinifex hopping mouse; the only observed bat in the park is the Finlayson's cave bat. The recorded reptile species include the thorny devil, western bearded dragon and central netted dragon; the only observed amphibian is Günther's toadlet. About 30 different arthropods have been recorded including a dragonfly called the Pilbara tiger and the savanna black tree ant; the most popular activities are sightseeing, fishing and bushwalking. Other activities include abseiling in the gorge and horseback riding, as well as scuba diving, snorkelling and swimming in the Indian Ocean at Red Bluff Beach and the small beach at Pot Alley.
From Kalbarri there are scenic cruises along the Murchison River and flights over Kalbarri National Park. There are no other accommodations and no water available within the park boundaries. All overnight visitors must use the facilities in the town unless they are on a multi-day bushwalk or boat tour. Coastal part, starting from the town of Kalbarri and moving south: Red Bluff Mushroom Rock Rainbow Valley Pot Alley Eagle Gorge Shellhouse and Grandstand Island Rock Natural BridgeInland part, along the Murchison River Gorge: Nature's Window The Loop Z Bend Hawks Head Ross Graham Lookout Protected areas of Western Australia EveryTrail travel site's guide for Kalbarri
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Francois Peron National Park
Francois Peron National Park is a national park on the Peron Peninsula in Western Australia, 726 km north of Perth, located within the boundary of the Shark Bay World Heritage area. The nearest towns to the park are Denham, found on the southern edge of the park and Carnarvon, found about 80 kilometres to the north. Aboriginal Australians were the initial inhabitants of the area and have been living there for over 26,000 years; the local peoples who speak the Malgana language call the area Wulyibidi. It is named after the French naturalist and explorer François Péron, the zoologist aboard Nicolas Baudin's 1801 and 1803 scientific expeditions to Western Australia, is situated within the bounds of the earlier pastoral lease of the Peron Station. Locations from the French exploration era include: Guichenault Cape Lesueur Lake MontbazinA pearling camp was established on the peninsula at Herald Bight in the 1880s and the remains of the shells can still be found along the beach. Used as a sheep station from the early 1900s onwards the station was sold to the state government in 1990.
It was gazetted on 8 January 1993 as a National Park – through the purchase of Peron Station in 1990. It is adjacent to and surrounded by the Shark Bay Marine Park to the west and east, by the Denham to Monkey Mia road to the south. Picnic, boat launching and camping areas along the west coast of the Peninsula include: Big Lagoon Cape Lesueur Cattle Well South Gregories Gregories Bottle Bay List of protected areas of Western Australia Denham, Western Australia Monkey Mia Edward Duyker François Péron: An Impetuous Life: Naturalist and Voyager, Miegunyah/MUP, Melb. 2006, pp. 349, ISBN 978-0-522-85260-8. Francois Peron National Park page at the Department of Parks and Wildlife website Francois Peron National Park page at SharkBay.org Francois Peron National Park page at the Shire of Shark Bay website
Hidden Valley National Park
Mirima National Park commonly known as Hidden Valley National Park is a National Park in far northern Western Australia located at the eastern side of the Kimberley region. It is located 2,220 kilometres from Perth just outside the township of Kununurra; the park covers a total area of 2,068 hectares and was declared a national park in 1982. Unusual sandstone formations dominate the park and are compared to the Bungle Bungles; the area is of great significance to the local indigenous peoples, the Miriuwung, several examples of rock art can be found within the park."Mirima" is the name given by the Miriwoong people to the area extending some 150 kilometres to the north and south, 170 kilometres to the east and west from Kununurra. Access to the park is via a sealed bitumen road and an entry fee to the park applies. Camping and fires within the park are not permitted. Facilities include toilets, information shelters and three walk trails around the park. Protected areas of Western Australia
Avon Valley National Park
Avon Valley is a national park in Western Australia, 47 kilometres northeast of Perth. It was named after the Avon River; the area is an undulating plateau with the sides of the valley steeply sloping back to the river 200 metres below. The area contains granite outcrops and a mix of soil types including loams and lateritic sands, it was named on 15 October 1971. Jarrah and Wandoo trees are found in the park along with 90 different species of birds making it an ideal place for bird watching. Christmas trees and grasstrees are interspersed through the woodlands. In the springtime the park is visited by wildflower enthusiasts to view the a diverse range of flowers including dryandras, donkey orchids and lechenaultias. Other plants found in the area are Conostylis and the rare fringed lily are found within the park; the bushranger Moondyne Joe used the area as a hide-out with his cave and corral situated within the park boundaries. Both have since been damaged by a series of bushfires within the park.
The third route of the Eastern Railway is in parts the southern border of the park, on the southern side of the Avon River, provides - at times of bushfires and other emergencies - a track and point of access. Entry and camping fees apply for visitors to the park. Toilets, shaded areas and wood barbecues are available for use. Trail signage and an information shelter are located within the park and a dedicated ranger is on site
Eucla National Park
Eucla National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 1,238 kilometres east of Perth. The southern edge of the park borders a section of the Great Australian Bight. Other notable features of the park include Wilson Delisser sandhills; the area is composed of typical of the southern coast. Wildflowers such as Cockie's Tongue, with its distinctive red, pink or yellow flowers are common throughout the park. A rare plant species of senecio, native to the limestone cliff area is known to exist in the park. Access to the area is via the Eyre Highway found on the northern border of the park. No facilities are available for visitors in the park and no sealed roads exist within the park, only 4WD tracks. No camping is permitted within the park, the nearest camping facilities are at Eucla and the Border Village. Historical ruins such as the Eucla Telegraph station and the original Eucla township can be found at the western end of the park. Both are buried by encroaching sand dunes. Protected areas of Western Australia
Millstream Chichester National Park
Millstream Chichester National Park is a national park in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, is located 1,190 kilometres north of the state capital, Perth. The park is made up of the old Millstream Station, on the Millstream Creek, just before it joins Fortescue River, one of the few permanent watercourses in the area and the Chichester Range; the area is homeland of the Yinjibarndi people. Millstream Creek was named by the explorer Francis Thomas Gregory in 1861, he reported the favourable grazing prospects. The first pastoral lease was taken up on 1865. By 1907 the property occupied an area of 1,000 square miles, it was stocked with 20,500 sheep, 1,900 cattle and 150 horses and was passed in at auction at £26,000. The present Millstream Homestead was built in 1920; the homestead was a tavern between 1975 and 1986. In 1970, the Chichester Range National Park was set aside and named. In 1975, the Conservation through Reserves Committee made recommendations for reserves in the Pilbara region, subsequently, the Millstream region was integrated into the park in 1982.
The Yindjibarndi people work as contractors in the Park. The Millstream Homestead Visitor Centre is in the old Homestead, which feature rooms dedicated to the Yinjibarndi people, the early settlers and the natural environment. Other displays provide information about the park's attractions and management challenges; the Pilbara is located within the arid tropics. During summer, between October and April, temperatures rise above 40 degrees and cyclones and local thunderstorms can flood roads and watercourses; the cool season, between May and August, experiences little rain, with daytime temperatures around 26 degrees. Nights at this time of year can be cool, so warm clothes may be necessary. Camping is available at Stargazers campgrounds. Miliyanha toilets and is generator friendly, it has some shade in afternoon. Stargazers is a more open site and generators are not permitted. A gas BBQ and toilets are provided. Both campgrounds are suitable for tent camping up to large caravans and motorhomes, can be accessed by 2WD in good weather, road conditions should be checked before embarking in 2WD, for information concerning road conditions contact The Shire of Ashburton.
Snake Creek Campground has been closed to campers since 2011, Crossing Pool has been closed to campers since 2013 due to safety issues concerning a drop in water levels and tree death. The Millstream Chichester area is significant Indigenous cultural site in northern Australia, its cultural and mythological importance stems from thousands of years occupation, with Millstream being the home of the mythical serpent or warlu, whose presence is still felt at Nhanggangunha. All the pools are significant in this regard and warrant a high level of respect because of their spiritual and mythological importance; the broad area of land straddling the Fortescue River from the Hamersley Range through to the Chichester escarpment is the homeland of the Yindjibarndi people. Ngarluma people's lands run from the Chichester escarpment northward to the sea. Aside from its important spiritual significance, Millstream was an important campsite for intertribal meetings; the Fortescue River provided food and water during drier months.
Along the river, Indigenous people had a varied diet of red meat, reptiles, eggs, honey fruits and root vegetables. Extensive areas were burnt to attract kangaroos; the dry climate meant. The Indigenous people were skilled in land management and were nomadic within their traditional boundaries. Yindjibarndi and Ngarluma people continue to come to the park to spend time on country and to carry out customery activities, they are represented on the Jirndawurrunhs Park Council which, in association with the Department of Parks and Wildlife, manages the strategic direction of the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Juluwarlu Group Aboriginal Corporation