Sharia, Islamic law or sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam the Quran and the hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations; the manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah and ijma. Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad. Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt and muʿāmalāt, which together comprise a wide range of topics, its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms, assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, neutral and prohibited.
Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God’s will. Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars through legal opinions issued by qualified jurists, it was applied in sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt with civil disputes and community affairs. Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, influenced by sharia but not bound by its rules. Non-Muslim communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs. Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were incorporated into state bureaucracies, fiqh was complemented by various economic and administrative laws issued by Muslim rulers; the Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify sharia. In the modern era, traditional laws in the Muslim world have been replaced by statutes inspired by European models. Judicial procedures and legal education were brought in line with European practice.
While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were retained only in personal status laws. Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning. In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers; some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations. Sharia continues to influence other aspects of private and public life; the role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. Introduction of sharia-based laws sparked intercommunal violence in Nigeria and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan; some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws.
There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with democracy, human rights, freedom of thought, women's rights, LGBT rights, banking. The word sharīʿah is used by Arabic-speaking peoples of the Middle East to designate a prophetic religion in its totality. For example, sharīʿat Mūsā means law or religion of Moses and sharīʿatu-nā can mean "our religion" in reference to any monotheistic faith. Within Islamic discourse, šarīʿah refers to religious regulations governing the lives of Muslims. For many Muslims, the word means "justice," and they will consider any law that promotes justice and social welfare to conform to sharia. Jan Michiel Otto distinguishes four senses conveyed by the term sharia in religious and political discourse: Divine, abstract sharia: God's plan for mankind and the norms of behavior which should guide the Islamic community. Muslims of different perspectives agree in their respect for the abstract notion of sharia, but they differ in how they understand the practical implications of the term.
Classical sharia: the body of rules and principles elaborated by Islamic jurists during the first centuries of Islam. Historical sharia: the body of rules and interpretations developed throughout Islamic history, ranging from personal beliefs to state legislation and varying across an ideological spectrum. Classical sharia has served as a point of reference for these variants, but they have reflected the influences of their time and place. Contemporary sharia: the full spectrum of rules and interpretations that are developed and practiced at present. A related term al-qānūn al-islāmī, borrowed from European usage in the late 19th century, is used in the Muslim world to refer to a legal system in the context of a modern state; the primary range of meanings of the Arabic word šarīʿah, derived from the root š-r-ʕ, is related to religion and religious law. The lexicographical tradition records two major areas of use where the word šarīʿah can appear without religious connotation. In texts evoking a pastoral or nomadic environment, the word, its derivatives refer to watering animals at a permanent water-hole or to the seashore, with special reference to animals who come there.
The "Pulse 3 EP" is an EP release by The Future Sound of London under the alias'Indo Tribe, Smart Systems and Yage'. The tracks are all techno in form and have a few odd samples such as an owl cooing on "Owl". "The Tingler, "Owl" and "Bite The Bullet Baby" feature on the Earthbeat compilation and "Calcium" is from Accelerator. Smart Systems – "Tingler" Producer: Mental Cube Indo Tribe – "Owl" Producer: Mental Cube Indo Tribe – "Bite The Bullet Baby" Producer: Yage Yage – "Calcium" Producer: Luco Artwork by Buggy G Riphead Composed by Brian Dougans, Garry Cobain Executive producer – Tim Jones Producer, engineer – The Future Sound Of London Pulse Three at Discogs
Brut y Tywysogion known as Brut y Tywysogyon, is one of the most important primary sources for Welsh history. It is an annalistic chronicle that serves as a continuation of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae. Brut y Tywysogion has survived as several Welsh translations of an original Latin version, which has not itself survived; the most important versions are the one in Robert Vaughan's Peniarth MS. 20 and the less complete one in the Red Book of Hergest. The version entitled Brenhinoedd y Saeson combines material from the Welsh annals with material from an English source; the Peniarth MS. 20 version begins in 682 with a record of the death of Cadwaladr and ends in 1332. The entries for the earlier years are brief records of deaths and events such as eclipses, plagues or earthquakes, but entries give much more detail; the main focus is on the rulers of the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Deheubarth, but ecclesiastical events are mentioned, such as the bringing of the date of celebrating Easter in the Welsh church into line with Rome by "Elbodius", Bishop of Bangor, in 768.
Events in England, Ireland and sometimes France are briefly chronicled. The original monastic annals are thought to have been written at Strata Florida Abbey, but may have been kept at the old abbey at Llanbadarn Fawr in the 11th century. Annals from other abbeys were used in the composition. At least one of the Welsh translations is thought to have been written at Strata Florida. John Edward Lloyd, The Welsh Chronicles Ian R. Jack, Medieval Wales Thomas Jones, ed. Brut y Tywysogyon: Red Book of Hergest Version Thomas Jones, ed. Brut y Tywysogyon: Peniarth MS. 20 Version Chronicle of the Princes Brut y Tywysogion, Llyfr Coch Hergest/Red Book of Hergest Version Brut y Tywysogion, Peniarth MS 20 Version Brut y Tywysogion