Sharjah is the third largest and third most populous city in the United Arab Emirates, forming part of the Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman metropolitan area. The emirate of Sharjah borders with Dubai to the south and Umm Al Quwain to the north and Ras Al Khaimah to the east, it is the only emirate that overlooks the coastline on the Persian Gulf to the west and the Gulf of Oman to the East, with the eastern Sharjah coastal towns of Kalba and Khor Fakkan. Sharjah is the capital of the emirate of the same name. Sharjah shares legal, political and economic functions with the other emirates of the UAE within a federal framework, although each emirate has jurisdiction over some functions such as civil law enforcement and provision and upkeep of local facilities. Sharjah has been ruled by the Al Qasimi dynasty since the 18th century; the city is a centre for culture and industry, alone contributes 7.4% of the GDP of the United Arab Emirates. The city covers an approximate area of 235 km² and has a population of over 800,000.
The sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited in the emirate of Sharjah without possession of an alcohol licence and alcohol is not served in Sharjah hotels, restaurants or other outlets due to the Muslim majority in the area. This has helped Sharjah increase the number of Islamic tourists. Sharjah has been named as a WHO healthy city; the 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Sharjah as the 68th best city in the world to be a university student. Sharjah is regarded as the cultural capital of the UAE, was the Islamic culture capital in 2014. Sharjah was named World Book Capital for 2019 by UNESCO. Sultan Al Omaimi, a UAE poet and researcher in folk literature, says that some historians speculate that Sharjah was the name of an idol worshipped in the ancient era, known as Abed Al Shareq. Other researchers link the word Sharjah to the fact that the city is located to the east, of Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Sharjah was one of the wealthiest towns in this region with a settlement in existence for over 5000 years.
In the early 18th century, the Qawasim clan established itself in Sharjah, c.1727 declaring Sharjah independent. On 8 January 1820, Sheikh Sultan I signed the General Maritime Treaty with Britain, accepting a protectorate to keep the Ottoman Turks out. Like four of its neighbours, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Umm Al Quwain, its position on the route to India made it important enough to be recognised as a salute state. In 1829, English author and traveler James Silk Buckingham described Sharjah as such: "In the course of the night, we had passed the port of Sharjee, on the Arabian coast, not an island, as laid down in Niebuhr's chart, the only one in which it is inserted, it is situated in lat. 25° 34' north, lies eleven leagues south-west of a small island, close to the shore, called Jeziret-el-Hamra. By the turn of the 20th century, Sharjah extended inland to the area now known as Wasit Suburb, the area between the city and Dhaid being under the control of the tribes of the interior. With some 15,000 inhabitants, Sharjah had some 4 or 5 shops in Layyah and a bazaar of some 200 shops in Sharjah proper.
At the height of World War II, Nazi propaganda infiltrated the town. Loud transmissions of pro-Hitler speeches could be heard emanating from the Sheikh of Sharjah's palace during a period in 1940, messages sharing a similar sentiment had been graffitied on walls in the town centre according to British intelligence reports at the time; because the message being propagated by the Germans was one of anti-Imperialism, it found a sympathetic audience among the emirate's populace Abdullah bin Faris, a secretary of the Sheikh, responsible for the broadcasts. After the Sheikh was confronted by the British, he wrote a letter reiterating his support for the British war efforts and disputed the charges laid out against bin Faris. Attached to the letter was a petition signed by 48 prominent individuals testifying to bin Faris' character, according to the British, had been misrepresented to the signees; the incident resolved after the Sheikh and bin Faris ceased from transmitting propaganda and doubled down on their support of the British.
On 2 December 1971, together with Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Umm Al Qawain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates. The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the UAE on 10 February 1972, following giant non-Arab neighbour Iran's annexation of the RAK-owned Tunbs islands. Like the other former Trucial States, Sharjah's name is known by many stamp collectors because of the large numbers of stamps that were issued by the Sharjah Post Office shortly before the formation of the United Arab Emirates, which became part of the class of worthless stamps known to collectors as Dunes. Many of these items feature subjects unrelated to the emirates whose names they bear, therefore many catalogues do not list them. Sharjah is the third largest city in the United Arab Emirates after Abu Dhabi; the palace of the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, His Highness Sheikh Dr. Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, is located about 20 kilometres southeast of the city; the city of Sharjah overlooks the Persian Gulf and has a population of over 800,000.
It contains the main administrative and commercial centres together with an array of cultural and traditional projects, including several museums covering areas such as archaeology, natural history, arts, heritage
Ann Phoenix, is a British psychologist and academic, whose research focuses on psychosocial issues related to identity. She is Professor of Psychosocial Studies at the Institute of University College London, she was ESRC Professorial Fellow for the Transforming Experiences research programme. She was Co-Director of the Thomas Coram Research Unit, Reader in Psychology at the Open University. Phoenix's early academic career was spent at the Open University, she was a senior lecturer and Reader in psychology. She was a visiting professor at the University of Humanistic Studies in Utrecht, The Netherlands, for the 1997–1998 academic year. In 2003, she was promoted to Professor of Developmental Psychology. In 2007, she joined the Institute of Education part of the University of London, as Professor of Education, Co-Director, Thomas Coram Research Unit. In 2014, the Institute of Education became part of University College London. In 2014, Phoenix was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and social sciences.
She is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Phoenix, Ann. Young mothers. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745608549. Phoenix, Ann. Working out: New directions for women's studies. Gender and Society: Feminist Perspectives on Past and Present. London Washington, D. C: The Falmer Press. ISBN 9780750700436. Phoenix, Ann. Crossfires: Nationalism and gender in Europe. London East Haven, Connecticut: Pluto Press for the European Forum of Left Feminists. ISBN 9780745309941. Phoenix, Ann. Standpoints and differences: Essays in the practice of feminist psychology. London Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. ISBN 9780761954446. Phoenix, Ann. Young masculinities understanding boys in contemporary society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780333779231. Phoenix, Ann. Black, white or mixed race? Race and racism in the lives of young people of mixed parentage. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415259828. Phoenix, Ann. Parenting and ethnicity. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation in association with the Open University.
ISBN 9781859355978. Pdf. Phoenix, Ann. Mapping psychology. DSE212 Course: Exploring Psychology. Milton Keynes: Open University. ISBN 9781780074986. Phoenix, Ann. "Aspiring to a politics of alliance: response to Sylvia Walby's'Beyond the politics of location: the power of argument in a global era'". Feminist Theory. 1: 230–235. Doi:10.1177/14647000022229182. Phoenix, Ann. Pdf. An interview with Ann Phoenix, on the Institute of Education YouTube Channel. Published 17 January 2013.
Barregarrow, is a district located between the 13th milestone and 14th milestones on the A3 Castletown to Ramsey road including the area of the ‘Barregarrow’ cross-road junction and the C4 Ballaleigh Road and B10 Sartfield or former Barregarrow mountain gate road in the parish of Kirk Michael in the Isle of Man. The area of Bayr Garrow or ‘Barrowgarrow’ is a former area of mountain commons or ‘rough’ pasture situated on a series of ridge-lines formed by a post-glacial lake opposite to Cronk Urleigh that drained via the Ballaleigh valley, westwards into the river of Glen Mooar on the A4 Peel to Kirk Michael road; the mountain grazing land of Sartfell Park is located on the western side of the nearby Sartfell mountain and Barrowgarrow crossroads. The Barregarrow Methodist Chapel was visited by John Wesley in June 1781 and he wrote in his journal. In 1911 the Four Inch Course for automobiles was first used by the Auto-Cycling Union for the Isle of Man TT motorcycle races; this included the ‘Barrowgarrow’ section and the course became known as the 37.73 mile Isle of Man TT Mountain Course, used since 1911 for the Isle of Man TT Races and from 1923 for the Manx Grand Prix races.
The C4 Ballaleigh Road with its junction with the A3 Castletown to Ramsey road at the Barregarrow cross-roads has been used as part of a special timed stages for the Rally Isle of Man, the former Manx International Rally and the Manx National Rally events