Bourbon Street is a historic street in the heart of the French Quarter of New Orleans. Extending thirteen blocks from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue, Bourbon Street is famous for its many bars and strip clubs. With 17.74 million visitors in 2017 alone, New Orleans depends on Bourbon Street as a main tourist attraction. Tourist numbers have been growing yearly after the devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city has rebuilt its tourist base. For millions of visitors each year, Bourbon Street provides a rich insight into New Orleans' past; the French claimed Louisiana in the 1690s, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville was appointed Director General in charge of developing a colony in the territory. He founded New Orleans in 1718. In 1721, the royal engineer Adrien de Pauger designed the city's street layout, he named the streets after Catholic saints. He paid homage to the House of Bourbon, with the naming of Bourbon Street. New Orleans was given to the Spanish in 1763 following the Seven Years' War.
The Great New Orleans Fire of 1788 destroyed 80 percent of the city's buildings. The Spanish rebuilt many of the damaged structures. For this reason, Bourbon Street and the French Quarter display more Spanish than French influence. Following a brief restoration of French rule, the Americans gained control of the colony with the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, they translated the French street names with Rue Bourbon becoming Bourbon Street. During the 19th century, New Orleans was similar to other Southern cities in that its economy was based on selling cash crops, such as sugar and tobacco. By 1840, newcomers whose wealth came from these enterprises turned New Orleans into the third largest metropolis in the country; the city's port was the nation's second largest, with New York City being the largest. The main difference between New Orleans and other Southern cities was its unique cultural heritage as a result of having been a French and Spanish possession. Promoters emphasized this cultural legacy, in the form of its architecture and traditions, to attract tourists to New Orleans.
The French Quarter was central to this image of cultural legacy and became the best-known part of the city. Recent arrivals in New Orleans criticized the perceived loose morals of the Creoles, a perception that drew many travelers to New Orleans to drink and visit the city’s brothels, beginning in the 1880s. Bourbon Street was a premier residential area prior to 1900; this changed in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when the Storyville red-light district was constructed on Basin Street adjacent to the French Quarter. The area became known for prostitution and vaudeville acts. Jazz is said to have developed here, with artists such as King Oliver and Jelly Roll Morton providing musical entertainment at the brothels; this was the era when some of New Orleans' most famous restaurants were founded, including Galatoire's, located at 209 Bourbon Street. It was established by Jean Galatoire in 1905. Known for years by its characteristic line snaking down Bourbon Street, patrons waited for hours just to get a table — on Fridays.
Before World War II, the French Quarter was emerging as a major asset to the city’s economy. While there was an interest in historic districts at the time, developers pressured to modernize the city. With the wartime influx of people, property owners opened adult-centered nightclubs to capitalize on the city’s risqué image. Wartime Bourbon Street was memorably depicted in Erle Stanley Gardner’s detective novel “Owls Don’t Blink”. After the war, Bourbon Street became the new Storyville in terms of reputation. By the 1940s and 1950s, nightclubs lined Bourbon Street. Over 50 different burlesque shows, striptease acts and exotic dancers could be found. There was a move in the 1960s under District Attorney Jim Garrison to clean up Bourbon Street. In August 1962, two months after he was elected, Garrison began raiding adult entertainment establishments on Bourbon, his efforts mirrored those of his predecessors, unsuccessful. He forced closure on a dozen nightclubs convicted of selling overpriced alcohol.
Following this campaign, Bourbon Street was populated by peep shows and sidewalk beer stands. When Mayor Moon Landrieu came into office in 1970, he focused his efforts on stimulating tourism, he did so by making Bourbon Street a pedestrian mall. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a Disneyfication of Bourbon Street. Critics of the rapid increase of souvenir shops and corporate ventures said that Bourbon Street had become Creole Disneyland, they argued that the street’s authenticity had been lost in this process. On April 5, 2018 a giant saxophone, nearly 11 ft. high, was inaugurated in the street. It was offered by the city of Namur to recall that the inventor of the instrument Adolphe Sax is from the region of Namur Dinant. Given Bourbon Street's high-ground location in the French Quarter, it was intact following 2005's Hurricane Katrina. A major tourist attraction, Bourbon Street renovation was given high priority after the storm. However, New Orleans was still experiencing a lack of visitors.
In 2004, the year before Katrina, the city had 10.1 million visitors. The year after the storm, that number was 3.7 million. One third of the city's operating budget $6 billion before Katrina, came from visitors and conventions, so officials saw tourism as vital for post-disaster economic recovery; the New Orleans Tourism Marketing Corporation initiated efforts to draw visitors back to the city, featuring celebrities such as Emeril Lagasse and Patricia Clarkson with the s
Stanley Kubrick was an American film director and producer. He is cited as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in cinematic history, his films, which are adaptations of novels or short stories, cover a wide range of genres, are noted for their realism, dark humor, unique cinematography, extensive set designs, evocative use of music. Kubrick was raised in the Bronx, New York City, attended William Howard Taft High School from 1941 to 1945, he only received average grades, but displayed a keen interest in literature and film from a young age, taught himself all aspects of film production and directing after graduating from high school. After working as a photographer for Look magazine in the late 1940s and early 1950s, he began making short films on a shoestring budget, made his first major Hollywood film, The Killing, for United Artists in 1956; this was followed by two collaborations with Kirk Douglas, the war picture Paths of Glory and the historical epic Spartacus. His reputation as a filmmaker in Hollywood grew, he was approached by Marlon Brando to film what would become One-Eyed Jacks, though Brando decided to direct it himself.
Creative differences arising from his work with Douglas and the film studios, a dislike of the Hollywood industry, a growing concern about crime in America prompted Kubrick to move to the United Kingdom in 1961, where he spent most of the remainder of his life and career. His home at Childwickbury Manor in Hertfordshire, which he shared with his wife Christiane, became his workplace, where he did his writing, research and management of production details; this allowed him to have complete artistic control over his films, but with the rare advantage of having financial support from major Hollywood studios. His first British productions were two films with Peter Lolita and Dr. Strangelove. A demanding perfectionist, Kubrick assumed control over most aspects of the filmmaking process, from direction and writing to editing, took painstaking care with researching his films and staging scenes, working in close coordination with his actors and other collaborators, he asked for several dozen retakes of the same scene in a movie, which resulted in many conflicts with his casts.
Despite the resulting notoriety among actors, many of Kubrick's films broke new ground in cinematography. The scientific realism and innovative special effects of 2001: A Space Odyssey were without precedent in the history of cinema, the film earned him his only personal Oscar, for Best Visual Effects. Steven Spielberg has referred to the film as his generation's "big bang", it is regarded as one of the greatest films made. For the 18th-century period film Barry Lyndon, Kubrick obtained lenses developed by Zeiss for NASA, to film scenes under natural candlelight. With The Shining, he became one of the first directors to make use of a Steadicam for stabilized and fluid tracking shots. While many of Kubrick's films were controversial and received mixed reviews upon release—particularly A Clockwork Orange, which Kubrick pulled from circulation in the UK following a mass media frenzy—most were nominated for Oscars, Golden Globes, or BAFTA Awards, underwent critical reevaluations, his last film, Eyes Wide Shut, was completed shortly before his death in 1999 at the age of 70.
Kubrick was born in the Lying-In Hospital at 307 Second Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, to a Jewish family. He was the first of two children of Jacob Leonard Kubrick, known as Jack or Jacques, his wife Sadie Gertrude Kubrick, known as Gert, his sister, Barbara Mary Kubrick, was born in May 1934. Jack Kubrick, whose parents and paternal grandparents were of Polish-Jewish, Austrian-Jewish, Romanian-Jewish origin, was a doctor, graduating from the New York Homeopathic Medical College in 1927, the same year he married Kubrick's mother, the child of Austrian-Jewish immigrants. Kubrick's great-grandfather, Hersh Kubrick, arrived at Ellis Island via Liverpool by ship on December 27, 1899, at the age of 47, leaving behind his wife and two grown children, one of whom was Stanley's grandfather Elias, to start a new life with a younger woman. Elias Kubrick followed in 1902. At Stanley's birth, the Kubricks lived in an apartment at 2160 Clinton Avenue in the Bronx, his parents had been married in a Jewish ceremony, but Kubrick did not have a religious upbringing, would profess an atheistic view of the universe.
By the district standards of the West Bronx, the family was wealthy, his father earning a good income as a physician. Soon after his sister's birth, Kubrick began schooling in Public School 3 in the Bronx, moved to Public School 90 in June 1938, his IQ was discovered to be above average, but his attendance was poor, he missed 56 days in his first term alone, as many as he attended. He displayed an interest in literature from a young age, began reading Greek and Roman myths and the fables of the Grimm brothers which "instilled in him a lifelong affinity with Europe", he spent most Saturdays during the summer watching the New York Yankees, would photograph two boys watching the game in an assignment for Look magazine to emulate his own childhood excitement with baseball. When Kubrick was 12, his father Jack taught; the game remained a lifelong interest of Kubrick's. Kubrick, who became a member of the United States Chess Federation, explained that chess helped him develop "patience and discipline" in making decisions.
At the age of 13, Kubrick's father bought
Original Dixieland Jass Band
The Original Dixieland Jass Band was a Dixieland jazz band that made the first jazz recordings in early 1917. Their "Livery Stable Blues" became the first jazz record issued; the group composed and recorded many jazz standards, the most famous being "Tiger Rag". In late 1917 the spelling of the band's name was changed to Original Dixieland Jazz Band; the band consisted of five musicians. They were a racially integrated group of musicians who played for parades and advertising in New Orleans. ODJB billed itself as the Creators of Jazz, it was the first band to have hit recordings in the genre. Band leader and cornetist Nick LaRocca argued that ODJB deserved recognition as the first band to record jazz commercially and the first band to establish jazz as a musical idiom or genre. In early 1916 a promoter from Chicago approached clarinetist Alcide Nunez and drummer Johnny Stein about bringing a New Orleans-style band to Chicago, where the similar Brown's Band From Dixieland, led by trombonist Tom Brown, was enjoying success.
They assembled trombonist Eddie Edwards, pianist Henry Ragas, cornetist Frank Christian. Shortly before they were to leave, Christian backed out, Nick LaRocca was hired as a last-minute replacement. On March 3, 1916 the musicians began their job at Schiller's Cafe in Chicago under the name Stein's Dixie Jass Band; the band was received offers of higher pay elsewhere. Since Stein as leader was the only musician under contract by name, the rest of the band broke off, sent to New Orleans for drummer Tony Sbarbaro, on June 5, started playing under the name, The Dixie Jass Band. LaRocca and Nunez had personality conflicts, on October 30 Tom Brown's Band and ODJB agreed to swap clarinetists, bringing Larry Shields into the Original Dixieland Jass Band; the band attracted the attention of theatrical agent Max Hart. At the start of 1917 the band began an engagement playing for dancing at Reisenweber's Cafe, on Columbus Circle, in Manhattan. While a couple of other New Orleans bands had passed through New York City earlier, they were part of vaudeville acts.
ODJB, on the other hand, played for dancing and hence, were the first "jass" band to get a following of fans in New York and record at a time when the American recording industry was centered in the northeastern United States in New York City and Camden, New Jersey. Shortly after arriving in New York, a letter dated January 29, 1917, offered the band an audition for the Columbia Graphophone Company; the session took place on Wednesday, January 31, 1917. Nothing from this test session was issued; the band recorded two sides for the Victor Talking Machine Company, "Livery Stable Blues" and "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step", on February 26, 1917 at Victor's New York studios. These titles were released as Victor 18255 in the first issued jazz record; the band's recordings, first marketed as a novelty, were a surprise hit, gave many Americans their first taste of jazz. Musician Joe Jordan sued, since the "One Step" incorporated portions of his 1909 ragtime composition "That Teasin' Rag"; the record labels subsequently were changed to "Introducing'That Teasin' Rag' by Joe Jordan".
A court case dispute over the authorship of "Livery Stable Blues" resulted in the judge declaring the tune in the "public domain". In the wake of the group's success of the Victor record, the ODJB returned to Columbia in May, recording two selections of popular tunes of the day chosen for them by the label "Darktown Strutters' Ball" and " Indiana" as catalogue #A-2297. Numerous jazz bands were formed in the wake of the success of ODJB that copied and replicated its style and sound. Bands were brought from Chicago and California in an attempts to join the jazz craze. Established bands of different types and bandleaders such as Wilbur Sweatman began billing their groups as "jass" or "jazz" bands. Earl Fuller, bandleader at a competing New York venue, was ordered by management to form a "jass" band. W. C. Handy recorded one of the earliest cover versions of an ODJB tune when he released a recording of "Livery Stable Blues" by Handy's Orchestra of Memphis for Columbia in 1917. In 1918, the song "When You Hear That Dixieland Jazz Band Play" by Shelton Brooks, "the King of Ragtime Writers", was published by Will Rossiter in Chicago.
It was a tribute to the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. When the New Orleans Jazz style swept New York by storm in 1917 with the arrival of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, Jimmy Durante was part of the audience at Reisenweber's Cafe on Columbus Circle when ODJB played that venue. Durante was impressed with the band and invited them to play at a club called the Alamo in Harlem where Jimmy played piano. Durante had his friend, Johnny Stein, assemble a group of like-minded New Orleans musicians to accompany his act at the Alamo. Stein did so, with a band consisting of fellow veterans of the Laine bands in New Orleans, other than pianist Durante. In late 1918 they recorded two sides for Okeh under the name of the New Orleans Jazz Band, they recorded the same two numbers a couple of months for Gennett under the name of Original New Orleans Jazz Band, in 1920 the same group recorded again for Gennett as Jimmy Durante's Jazz Band. They billed themselves as "Durante's Jazz and Novelty Band". Both LaRocca and Sbarbaro were children of immigrants from the Italian region of Sicily.
The Sicilian capital of Palermo had long held cotton and cit
James Francis Durante was an American singer, pianist and actor. His distinctive clipped gravelly speech, Lower East Side Manhattan accent, comic language-butchery, jazz-influenced songs, prominent nose helped make him one of America's most familiar and popular personalities of the 1920s through the 1970s, he referred to his nose as the schnozzola, the word became his nickname. Durante was born on the Lower East Side of New York City, he was the youngest of four children born to Rosa and Bartolomeo Durante, both of whom were immigrants from Salerno, Italy. Bartolomeo was a barber. Young Jimmy served as an altar boy at St. Malachy Roman Catholic Church, known as the Actor's Chapel. Durante dropped out of school in seventh grade to become a full-time ragtime pianist, he first played with his cousin, whose name was Jimmy Durante. It was a family act, he continued working the city's piano bar circuit and earned the nickname "ragtime Jimmy", before he joined one of the first recognizable jazz bands in New York, the Original New Orleans Jazz Band.
Durante was the only member not from New Orleans. His routine of breaking into a song to deliver a joke, with band or orchestra chord punctuation after each line, became a Durante trademark. In 1920 the group was renamed Jimmy Durante's Jazz Band. By the mid-1920s, Durante had become a vaudeville star and radio personality in a trio called Clayton and Durante. Lou Clayton and Eddie Jackson, Durante's closest friends reunited with Durante in subsequent years. Jackson and Durante appeared in the Cole Porter musical The New Yorkers, which opened on Broadway on December 8, 1930. Earlier that same year, the team appeared in the movie Roadhouse Nights, ostensibly based on Dashiell Hammett's novel Red Harvest. By 1934, Durante had a major record hit with his own novelty composition, "Inka Dinka Doo", with lyrics by Ben Ryan, it became his theme song for the rest of his life. A year Durante starred on Broadway in the Billy Rose stage musical Jumbo. A scene in which a police officer stopped Durante's character—who was leading a live elephant across the stage—to ask, "what are you doing with that elephant?", followed by Durante's reply, "what elephant?", was a regular show-stopper.
This comedy bit reprised in his role in Billy Rose's Jumbo contributed to the popularity of the idiom the elephant in the room. Durante appeared on Broadway in Show Girl, Strike Me Pink and Red and Blue. During the early 1930s, Durante alternated between Broadway, his early motion pictures included an original Rodgers & Hart musical The Phantom President, which featured Durante singing the self-referential Schnozzola. He was paired with silent film legend Buster Keaton in a series of three popular comedies for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Speak Easily, The Passionate Plumber, What! No Beer?, which were financial hits and a career springboard for the distinctive newcomer. However, Keaton's vociferous dissatisfaction with constraints the studio had placed upon him, his perceived incompatibility with Durante's broad chatty humor, exacerbated by his alcoholism, led the studio to end the series. Durante went on to appear in The Wet Parade, Broadway to Hollywood, The Man Who Came to Dinner, Ziegfeld Follies, Billy Rose's Jumbo, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World.
In 1934, he starred in Hollywood Party, where he dreams he is'Schnarzan', a parody of'Tarzan', popular at the time due to the Johnny Weissmuller films. On September 10, 1933, Durante appeared on Eddie Cantor's NBC radio show, The Chase and Sanborn Hour, continuing until November 12 of that year; when Cantor left the show, Durante took over as its star from April 22 to September 30, 1934. He moved on to The Jumbo Fire Chief Program. Durante teamed with Garry Moore for The Durante-Moore Show in 1943. Durante's comic chemistry with the young, brushcut Moore brought Durante an larger audience. "Dat's my boy dat said dat!" became an instant catchphrase, which would inspire the cartoon Augie Doggie and Doggie Daddy. The duo was one of the nation's favorites for the rest of the decade, their Armed Forces Radio Network Command Performance with Frank Sinatra remains a favorite of radio-show collectors today. Moore left the duo in mid-1947, the program returned October 1, 1947 as The Jimmy Durante Show. Durante continued the show for three more years, featured a reunion of Clayton and Durante on his April 21, 1948 broadcast.
Although Durante made his television debut on November 1, 1950 he continued to keep a presence in radio, as a frequent guest on Tallulah Bankhead's two-year NBC comedy-variety show The Big Show. Durante was one of the cast on the show's premiere November 5, 1950, along with humorist Fred Allen, singers Mindy Carson and Frankie Laine, stage musical performer Ethel Merman, actors Jose Ferrer and Paul Lukas, comic-singer Danny Thomas. A highlight of the premiere was Durante and Thomas, whose own nose rivaled Durante's, in a routine in which Durante accused Thomas of stealing his nose. "Stay outta dis, no-nose!" Durante barked at Bankhead to a big laugh. From 1950 to 1951, Durante was the host once a month on Wednesday evenings at 8 p.m, on NBC's comedy-variety series Four Star Revue. Jimmy continued with the show until 1954. Durante had a half-hour variety show - The Jimmy Durante Show - on NBC from
Circle Records is a jazz record label founded in 1946 by Rudi Blesh and Harriet Janis. In New York and Janis heard jazz drummer Warren "Baby" Dodds playing inventive solos with Bunk Johnson's band. Blesh said. To record Dodds and others, they started Circle Records; the name was given by fellow audience member Marcel Duchamp. Circle recorded traditional jazz of the time, its releases included Chippie Hill, George Lewis, broadcasts of Blesh's This is Jazz radio show; the label was the first to release Jelly Roll Morton's Library of Congress recordings. Blesh and Janis continued the label until 1952. Circle Records released modern classical music by artists including Henry Cowell and Paul Hindemith. Circle was bought in the mid-1960s by Jr.. The Circle catalog is now under the control of the George H. Buck Jr. Jazz Foundation; some of the original Circle recordings have been reissued on compact disc through other labels controlled by the George H. Buck Jr. Jazz Foundation, including American Music and Jazzology.
This Circle Records is not to be confused with the German record label of the same name. The first record issued by Circle Records was by the Baby Dodds Trio. Many of their subsequent releases were albums of from two to four 10", 78 RPM shellac records, issued in a binder. Many of the albums included cover art by Charles Alston. Circle Records was reactivated, is used by the George H. Buck Jr. Jazz Foundation to swing music; the reactivated Circle label put out recordings from the World transcriptions. Music by the following bandleaders is available through Circle Records. List of record labels Circle Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project Numerical Listing of Circle 78rpm issues on The Online Discographical Project
Milneburg was a town on the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana, absorbed into the city of New Orleans. A neighborhood to the south of this area is still sometimes known by this name. Milneburg was named for landowner-developer Alexander Milne; however local pronunciation came to call it "Mill-en-burg" or "Mil-lan-bug" instead of "Miln-burg", the name has been seen in print misspelled Milenberg and variations. Early on it was designated Port Pontchartrain, but the "Milneburg" name soon replaced this for all uses except for United States Coast Guard designation of the lighthouse there, which continued to be listed as "Port Pontchartrain Lighthouse" to 1929. In the early 19th century Milneburg was connected to the city of New Orleans, limited to the riverfront area, by Elysian Fields Avenue. In 1830 it was decided to build the region's first railway along this route, the Pontchartrain Rail-Road began steam locomotive transport of people and cargo along the 5-mile route on 23 April 1831.
A long pier was built into the shallows of the lake, with a portion of the rail line running atop it, enabling ocean-going ships to dock at Milneburg. The port boomed, hotels, bath houses, resorts were built around it atop high wooden piers in the shallows of the lake, connected by a network of pier-like wooden boardwalks; the importance of Milneburg in shipping declined in the late 19th century, but it remained an important resort. A series of "camps" were rented out for parties, with fishing and dancing to live bands. Milneburg was important in the early development of jazz. Bands from different parts of the city and across racial lines would listen to each other and try to outdo each other here. Musician Sharkey Bonano grew up in Milneburg, the area is commemorated in the New Orleans Rhythm Kings tune "Milenburg Joys" which has remained a jazz standard. In the 1920s and 1930s a project to dredge new land on what had been the shallows of Lake Pontchartrain extended the shoreline out, and, the end of old Milneburg.
The Pontchartrain Beach amusement park was built on. The University of New Orleans was established nearby; the neighborhood now designated as "Milneburg" by the New Orleans Planning Commission is to the south and inland of the historic Milneburg.