Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It operates in more than thirty others. Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Francis Turner Palgrave, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold and Lewis Carroll. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886 and Rudyard Kipling in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Seán O'Casey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy. George Edward Brett opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U.
S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company, Macmillan Publishing called the Macmillan Company. With the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martin's Press. Macmillan of Canada was founded in 1905. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986, he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased the company in 1999. Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001.
McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand. The US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017, its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. With Pan Macmillan's purchase of Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would take oversee Kingfisher's US business in October 2007. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to The New York Times and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting by retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Sony could devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books." In response, the publisher introduced a new boilerplate contract for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers.
Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon.com two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice, with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the agency model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, Amazon.com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both physical, from their website. On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing.
In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of fraudulent practices. The Macmillan division admitted to bribery in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in southern Sudan; as a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the World Bank Group, namely a 6-year debarment declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit; that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional purposes. In May 2015, London-based Macmillan Science and Education merged with Berlin-based Springer Science+Business Media to form Springer Nature, jointly controlled by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. US publishing divis
Walk Two Moons
Walk Two Moons is a novel written by Sharon Creech, published by HarperCollins in 1994 and winner of the 1995 Newbery Medal. The novel was intended as a follow-up to Creech's previous novel Absolutely Normal Chaos; the major themes in the story include the development of new relationships, dealing with grief, death, cultural identity, women's roles as mothers and wives, the hardships of life, the adventures of misunderstandings and coming to terms with reality. In 1997, it won the Literaturhaus Award and the Newbery Award. Creech drew on her own background for many of the book's themes and images, including Sal's love of nature, her relationship with her mother, the road trip to Idaho that frames the narrative. In an interview, Creech said that she found the aphorism that gives the book its title in a fortune cookie. In 1995, Walk Two Moons won the Newbery Medal, the United Kingdom Reading Association Award, the United Kingdom's Children's Book Award. In 1996, it received the WH Smith Mind-Boggling Book Award.
In 1997 Austria, the Young Adult Sequoyah Award
Bloomability is a children's book by Sharon Creech, first published in 1998. She is given the opportunity to attend a boarding school in Lugano, where the majority of the storyline takes place; this school is inspired by The American School In Switzerland. The title, "Bloomability", comes from one of Dinnie's friends in the book. Keisuke is a Japanese student at the school, just learning English, so "bloomability" emerged as his linguistic concept of the word "possibility" Domenica Santolina Doone, known as Dinnie, has spent most of her life traveling around the United States because her father is transiently employed. Dinnie feels that she has settled into this routine of never having a permanent home until one night, her whole world changes. With her older brother in the Air Force after ending up in jail again, her sixteen-year-old sister pregnant and married, her dad still on the road for yet another home, Dinnie is taken away by her aunt and her husband to Switzerland, where Uncle Max is the new headmaster of an international boarding school.
Dinnie becomes a student at the school, where she makes friends, sees new, exciting things, has many adventures of her own. She befriends a girl named Lila, who at first seems nice but starts complaining a lot, but Dinnie still likes her. Dinnie has a friend named Guthrie, a spontaneous and fun-loving "fantastico!" person. She gets to know Keisuke and Belen, a Japanese boy and a Spanish girl, who love each other but their parents are not supportive of their relationship; the group is joined by an Italian girl named Mari. During a Ski trip with the boarding school and Guthrie get trapped in an avalanche and are saved because Dinnie watched where they fell and was thus able to locate them. Both of them made a full recovery. Interspersed in the novel are Dinnie's diary entries, postcards from her two paternal aunts informing Dinnie of what is happening with her family, Dinnie's various attempts to communicate to the local community using signs at her window that she wants to return home. However, as the year progresses, Dinnie begins to thrive in the diverse environment and the stability of remaining in one place.
At the end of the year, Dinnie's aunt and uncle give her a choice: Go home to America for the summer and come back to school in the fall, or go back to America permanently. It is never said what her decision was, but Dinnie keeps her skis in the closet so that she will have to come back someday. Dinnie DooneDinnie, known by her full name "Domenica Santolina Doone", is the protagonist of the story, she is an American girl, thrust into a cultured, diverse environment when she attends the international school her uncle is headmaster of it in Switzerland. She is friendly, though shy. With the help of her new friends, Dinnie discovers who she is, by the end of the book has more confidence in herself and in the world. GuthriePeter Lombardy Guthrie the Third is a boisterous student who Dinnie befriends at the international school; this character lies next to the heart of Creech's novel - to preach the Bloomabilities and to celebrate each moment of life. Guthrie shouts, "Sono Libero", Dinnie understands it was in the celebration of being alive.
Guthrie is an optimistic fellow. He recites in the novel Robert Frost's well-known poem, "The Road Not Taken" in a speech to the student body as the school year closes. Lila KingLila King is another American. Though she is pompous, somewhat prejudiced against non-Americans, Lila can be agreeable and quite friendly. Despite Lila's unfavorable qualities, Dinnie feels the need to stick by her as a friend and defend her. Lila has problems in her family, which maybe explains her unacceptable personality. Guthrie refers to Lila as "the pistol". Aunt SandyDinnie's aunt and sister of Dinnie's mother, a loving and supportive woman who humours Dinnie's wish to return to the United States. Aunt Sandy is a teacher at the school that Dinnie attends, she and her husband Max provide Dinnie with a stable environment, which Dinnie has been lacking throughout her life. Uncle MaxThe husband of Aunt Sandy, he is the headmaster of Dinnie's school, located in Lugano, Switzerland; as with Sandy, he is kindhearted and cares a great deal with Dinnie's well-being, helping her to adjust to her life abroad.
Because of Max's position at the school, Dinnie is able to attend the school without paying the full tuition that other students must provide. Mrs. StirlingThe glamorous and elegant founder of the international school that Dinnie attends. Though Max is the headmaster, Mrs. Stirling is the director of the school and respected by everyone. Despite her advanced age, she is astute and aware of everything, going at the school and fluent in English and Italian. KeisukeA boy who came from Osaka and Guthrie's best friend; because English is not his first language, he pronounces words differently and coins new words to define existing concepts, which are picked up by his friends. He is good-humoured and bright, has a relationship with Belen Martinez, his classmate. Belen MartinezA girl, a roommate with Lila, is from Barcelona, Spain, she and Keisuke are in a relationship of sorts, though Belen is aware that her parents would not approve of her dating a Japanese boy. She is a mature girl who has strong opinions.
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals
The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals is a professional body for librarians, information specialists and knowledge managers in the United Kingdom. Since 2017, it has been branded CILIP: The information association. CILIP in Scotland is an independent organisation which operates in Scotland on behalf of CILIP. CILIP's 2020 goal is to "put information and library skills and professional values at the heart of a democratic and prosperous society". CILIP was formed in 2002 by the merger of the Library Association – founded in 1877 as a result of the first International Conference of Librarians and awarded a Royal Charter in 1898 – and the Institute of Information Scientists, founded in 1958. Membership on unification was estimated at around 23,000. Sheila Corrall was the first President of CILIP, succeeded in 2003 by Margaret Watson. CILIP has its headquarters at London. CILIP is a registered charity CILIP launched a monthly journal, Information Professional in 2017, providing news and analysis.
This publication succeeded Library & Information Update, published from 2002 to 2017 and the Library Association Record published from 1899 to 2002. CILIP publications include Lisjobnet, Facet Publishing. CILIP hosts an annual conference for non-members. Past keynote speakers include Professor Luciano Floridi and Sir Nigel Shadbolt. CILIP works to raise the profile of the work of librarians and information professionals through campaigns, public affairs activity, awards and medals, as well as promoting best practice. Campaigns have included My Library By Right, Facts Matter, the annual Libraries Week campaign and Libraries Change Lives Award. CILIP awards the Kate Greenaway Medals for children's books. CILIP works in partnership to award the Amnesty CILIP Honour, a special commendation, part of the Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals. Special interest groups make their own awards, such as the Jason Farradane Award and Tony Kent Strix Award of UKeiG. There are over 20 special interest groups for members working with, for instance, rare books and prison libraries and a similar number of'organisations in liaison' with CILIP, such as Information for Social Change, the National Acquisitions Group, the Society of Indexers.
CILIP, in its previous incarnation as the Library Association, was a founder member of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions in 1927. CILIP accredits degree courses in library and information science at universities in the UK, as well as a number of overseas programmes in China, Hong Kong, Kuwait and Qatar. There are three levels of professional registration with corresponding postnominal letters: Certified Affiliate, suitable for paraprofessionals without an accredited qualification Chartered Member Chartered Fellow Honorary Fellowship, akin to an honorary degree, is granted to a small number of people who have rendered distinguished service to the profession. CILIP provides opportunities for continuing professional development and a self-assessment tool, the Professional Knowledge and Skills Base. Registered members may revalidate their registration annually. Membership of CILIP is not compulsory for practice; the following information on CILIP Membership numbers is taken from CILIP Council reports, with the exceptions of the estimates for 2002, 2003 and 2005.
Membership numbers for 2004 and 2006 are not available. The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals in Scotland is a charitable incorporated organisation affiliated to CILIP. All CILIP members working or living in Scotland are automatically members of CILIPS. Policy, operational matters and advocacy are devolved to CILIPS Council and staff. CILIPS works with the Scottish Library and Information Council, the advisory body for the Scottish Government on library and information matters. CILIP in Scotland was established as the Scottish Library Association in 1908 and affiliated with the Library Association in 1931; when CILIP was established in 2002, the Scottish Library Association voted to change its name to CILIPS. CILIPS published a professional journal, Information Scotland, between 2003 and 2009, which subsequently became a newsletter, IS News. CILIPS was involved in consultations with the Scottish Parliament for the development of the National Library of Scotland Bill 2011.
Munford, W. A. A History of The Library Association, 1877-1977 CILIP website Facet Publishing website Lisjobnet - Library and information jobs CILIP in Scotland website
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Absolutely Normal Chaos
Normal Chaos is a children's or young-adult novel by Sharon Creech, published in the U. K. by Macmillan Children's Books in 1990. It was the American author's first book for children, completed at the midpoint of nearly two decades living in England and Switzerland. Although set in her hometown Euclid, Ohio, it was not published in her native country until 1995, after she won the annual Newbery Medal recognizing Walk Two Moons as the preceding year's best American children's book. Normal Chaos is a 13-year-old girl's "complete and unabridged journal for English class" and can be classed as a bildungsroman. Mary Lou Finney is more than excited about her assignment to keep a journal over the summer. Not only does she have to keep a journal, but she must read The Odyssey; the Odyssey is continuously referenced within her own writing. She adds her own comments about the Odyssey; as the novel unfolds, Mary Lou's cousin, Carl Ray stays with her family. Carl Ray does this in order to look for a job; as the novel progresses, Mary Lou learns about Carl Ray's difficulties in life and how he has struggled.
After discovering this information, Mary Lou finds it easier to examine her struggles with her family, her friends, herself. Sharon Creech stated that the inspiration for this story was an occasion when, "I'd been living overseas for about ten years, I was sadly missing my family back in the States. I thought I'd write a story about normal family chaos and that's how this began, with me trying to remember what it was like growing up in my family. Writing the story was a way for me to feel as if my family were with me, right there in our little cottage in England.". Mary Lou's efforts to make sense of Homer's Odyssey add depth and delight to the story... She sees parallels in her own experiences that adds to the comic elements in this original coming of age story; the results are in turn funny, wise and irreverent. This story is a winner for middle schoolers who may be motivated to read Homer's classic poem. Cindy Darling Codell, Clark Middle School, Winchester, KY, her characterization is nicely done also.
By comparison, this book is differently voiced than Walk Two Moons, lacks that book's masterful imagery, is more superficial in theme. Creech has remained true to Mary Lou, a different narrator, one who will win many fans of her own; those in search of a light, humorous read will find it. Creech's first children's novel, published in England but never before in the US, will make its way into the hands of readers who loved Walk Two Moons.... Her voice rings 100 percent true, although she has her serious moments, Mary Lou is a stitch. Much of the humor derives from Creech's playful use of language: When Mary Lou's mother forbids her using the words God and stuff, Mary Lou makes a foray into the thesaurus with hilarious results; the plot takes unlikely turns, but Creech gets away with it because the characters are so believable. Written, nary a word out of place, by turns sarcastic and irreverent, this a real piece of comedy about contemporary teen life from one funny writer. Normal Chaos in libraries —immediately, first US edition