Shashanka was the first independent king of a unified polity in the Bengal region, called the Gauda Kingdom and is a major figure in Bengali history. He reigned in 7th century AD, some historians place his rule between circa 600 C. E and 636/7 C. E. Other sources place his reign between 590 and 625 C. E, he is of Bhaskaravarman of Kamarupa. His capital was in present-day Murshidabad in West Bengal; the development of the Bengali calendar is attributed to Shashanka because the starting date falls within his reign. There are several major contemporary sources of information on his life, including copperplates from his vassal j, copperplates of his rivals Harsha and Bhaskaravarman, the accounts of Banabhatta, a bard in the court of Harsha, of the Chinese monk Xuanzang, coins minted in Shashanka's reign. Not much is known about the early life of Shashanka. Historian D K Ganguly is reported to have concluded; the same source reports that the historian Padmanath Bhattacharya took Shashanka to be a son of Mahasenagupta.
R D Banerji concluded. These views are opposed by other historians like B. S. Sinha and John Middleton, citing lack of evidence. Nagendranath Basu has argued that Shashanka was the son / descendant of Raja Karnadeva, who founded the city of Karnasubarna. In some sources, Shashanka is described as a tribal leader. Shashanka's name appears in multiple forms, including Śaśānka-deva; the name is derived as another name for the Moon. Śaśānka-deva therefore loosely translates to Moon god. The Hindu god Shiva is known as Shashank Sekhar as He holds the moon on his head; the Chinese monk Xuanzang's writings, he is mentioned as She-Shang-Kia. He is called Śaśānka Narendragupta, which lent credence to the claim that he was descended from the Guptas. In Sinha's Dynastic History of Magadha, the names'Śaśānka' and'Soma' are used interchangeably; the Gupta Empire saw a series of weak kings after the death of Skandagupta in 467 C. E. On top of that, starting circa 480 C. E. Alchon Hun armies began attacking the declining empire from multiple sides.
Defence of the vast empire put a strain on the royal treasury. Though the Huns were driven out, the protracted invasions quickened the downfall of the Gupta kings, it may be noted that Indian archeologist Shanker Sharma has argued that the empire's end was precipitated by a massive deluge around the middle of the sixth century C. E. Near the end of the sixth century, the empire was ruled over by a feeble ruler belonging to the Later Gupta dynasty, Mahasenagupta; the decline of the Gupta empire had left the disintegrating empire in chaos. Numerous local kings and rulers like Yashodharman emerged, started vying for control of the many pieces of the former empire. Shashanka emerged as one of these ambitious local rulers, aiming to seize control of Gauda and its surrounding region; the first mention of Shashanka is found in the 7th century hill fort Rohtasgarh in the small town of Rohtas in the kingdom of Magadha. The seal bore a curt inscription, "Mahasamanta Shashankadeva." Some historians believe that Shashanka began his career as a feudatory chief under Mahasenagupta, of the Later Gupta Dynasty.
And that after the death of Mahasenagupta, Shashanka drove the Guptas and other prominent nobles out of the region and established his own kingdom with his capital at Karnasubarna. Other historians like Sailendra Nath Sen is of the opinion that Mahasenagupta - under pressure from the Maukharis - wouldn't have knowingly appointed Shashanka to such an important position. Middleton argues in a similar vein that Shashanka served as maha samanta to a Gauda king Jayanaga. Whether Shashanka was a feudatory under the Maukharis or the Guptas is not known. By 605 C. E. following Mahasenagupta's death, Shashanka had established what became known as the Gauda Kingdom. From there, he issued gold coins to celebrate his triumph, came to be addressed as Maharajadhiraja. Not many historical references to the Gauda Army are available. Like its predecessor, the Late Gupta army, Shashanka's army had cavalry units. D. C. Sircar reports that the Gauda army fielded a strong elephant corps in Kamarupa. Kamarupa king Bhaskaravarman describes the Gauda army as fielding a strong naval force.
It appears that between 595-600 C. E. the Gauda army had carried out attacks against the Varman King of Kamrupa. The Varman king died early in the war, his two sons stepped up; the Doobi Copper Plate inscriptions tell us that the Gauda army fought and defeated the king, princes Supratisthita and Bhaskara of Kamrupa. The princes are described as fighting a mighty elephantry force; the princes were released shortly thereafter. They returned to their kingdom as feudatories under Shashanka; the younger of the two would soon turn against the Gauda. Hans Bakker argues that the army that set out to attack the Maukharis in Kanyakubja was more of a "confederation of all those who held a grudge", that it was led by Shashanka. Now because the ruling dynasties of Kanyakubja and Sthaniswara were related by matrimony, Thanesar king Rajyavardhana set out with 10,000 cavalrymen to recapture Kanyakubja and avenge his sister Rajyashri. Rajyavardhana killed Devagupta on the way; as he continued towards Kanyakubja, he came across Shashanka's army.
Circa 606 C. E. Rajyavardhana was killed by Shashanka. No conclusive evidence exists but it is possible that Shashanka, who joined the battle as an ally of Devagupta, murd
Harold Frend See, Jr. is a legal scholar and was an associate justice of the Alabama Supreme Court from 1997 to 2009. The son of Harold F. See, Sr. and Corinne See, he was born at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center in Illinois while his father was serving with the United States Navy in the South Pacific. See received a B. A. from Emporia State University, Kansas, an M. Sc. in economics from Iowa State University, a J. D. from the University of Iowa College of Law, where he graduated with honors and was awarded the Order of the Coif. See worked his way through school as a heavy equipment operator, a sheet metal worker, a roofer, he served as assistant professor of economics at Illinois State University and practiced law with the law firm of Sidley & Austin. He joined the faculty at the University of Alabama School of Law, where he served for over twenty years successively as associate professor, full professor, Herbert D. Warner Professor of Law. In 1996, he was elected associate justice of the Alabama Supreme Court as a Republican by defeating first-term incumbent Democrat Kenneth Ingram in a race that attracted national attention for its rough campaign..
See was sworn in following his November election in January, 1997. He lost a Republican Primary race to become chief justice in 2000 to then-Etowah County Circuit Judge Roy Moore, but was re-elected to a second term on the Supreme Court in 2002, he was succeeded by Greg Shaw. See is a professor at Belmont University College of Law, where he teaches intellectual property and law and economics. See has served as a contributing editor to the Federal Circuit Bar Journal, he is a member of the American Law Institute, the Alabama Law Institute, the American Law and Economics Association, the Federalist Society, the American Bar Association, the Alabama State Bar Association, V. O. C. A. L. A victims' rights advocacy group. In 2011, Justice See joined the faculty of the Belmont University College of Law in Nashville, Tennessee. Www.judicial.state.al.us
Glycation is the covalent attachment of a sugar to a protein or lipid. Typical sugars that participate in glycation are fructose, or their derivatives. Glycation is implicated in some diseases and in aging. Glycation endproducts are believed to play a causative role in the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. In contrast with glycation, glycosylation is the enzyme-mediated ATP-dependent attachment of sugars to protein or lipid. Glycosylation occurs at defined sites on the target molecule, it is a common form of post-translational modification of proteins and is required for the functioning of the mature protein. Glycations occur in the bloodstream to a small proportion of the absorbed simple sugars: glucose and galactose, it appears that fructose has ten times the glycation activity of glucose, the primary body fuel. Glycation can occur through Amadori reactions, Schiff base reactions, Maillard reactions. Red blood cells have a consistent lifespan of 120 days and are accessible for measurement of glycated hemoglobin.
Measurement of HbA1c—the predominant form of glycated hemoglobin—enables medium-term blood sugar control to be monitored in diabetes. Some glycation product are implicated in many age-related chronic diseases. Glycation cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease,Long-lived cells, long-lasting proteins, DNA can sustain substantial glycation over time. Damage by glycation results in stiffening of the collagen in the blood vessel walls, leading to high blood pressure in diabetes. Glycations cause weakening of the collagen in the blood vessel walls, which may lead to micro- or macro-aneurysm. Advanced glycation end-product Alagebrium Fructose Galactose Glucose Glycosylation List of aging processes Ahmed N, Furth AJ. "Failure of common glycation assays to detect glycation by fructose". Clin. Chem. 38: 1301–3. PMID 1623595. Vlassara H. "Advanced glycation in health and disease: role of the modern environment". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1043: 452–60. Bibcode:2005NYASA1043..452V. Doi:10.1196/annals.1333.051.
The Archaeological Museum of Volos known as Athanasakeion Archaeological Museum of Volos, is a museum located in Volos, that houses many exquisite finds from early 20th century and modern archaeological excavations in Thessaly. Exhibits on display include jewelry, household utensils and agricultural tools, originating from the Neolithic settlements of Dimini and Sesklo, as well as clay statuettes and a wide variety of items from the Geometric period, a time of great heroic events, such as the Argonaut Expedition and the Trojan War. There are statues and uncommon jointed statuettes from the classical period, rare steles with relief work from the Hellenistic period whereby the color are well-preserved, as well as reliefs from the early Christian and Byzantine periods. Other fascinating exhibits include tombs transported in their entirety from the archaeological sites where they were discovered, along with the human skeleton and the offerings placed around it. Just outside the museum there are some interesting reconstructions of the Neolithic houses at Dimini and Sesklo.
"The X-Files" is a 1996 instrumental recorded by American film and television composer Mark Snow. It is a remixed version of the original theme Snow composed for the science fiction television series The X-Files in 1993. Released in March 1996 in several countries, it achieved major success in France, where it reached number one on the singles chart; the composition has since been covered by many artists, including DJ Dado and Triple X. "The X-Files" used more instrumental music than most hour-long dramas. According to the "Behind the Truth" segment on the Season 1 DVD, Mark Snow created the echo effect on his famous X-Files theme song by accident. Snow said that he had gone through several revisions, but Chris Carter felt that something was not quite right. Carter Snow put his hand and forearm on his keyboard in frustration. Snow said, "this sound was in the keyboard. And, it." The single debuted at number two on the UK Singles Chart on March 30, 1996, stayed there for three weeks. In France, the single entered the chart at number 42 on April 6, 1996, climbed until reaching number two four weeks later.
It remained for five weeks at this position, behind Robert Miles's hit "Children" topped the chart for a sole week, becoming the second instrumental number-one hit on the French charts. It totaled 12 weeks in the top ten and 30 weeks in the top 50; the single remained in the lower positions. Composed by Mark Snow Terrestrial mix: remixed and produced Flexifinger P. M. Dawn remix: guitar by Cameron Greider, remixed by P. M. Dawn, synthesizers by Henry Hay and Maurice Luke and mixed by Michael Fossenkemper Ravers nature remix: produced and remixed by John Bogota, Pedro Ferrari and Roy Ströbel Secret Session remixes: produced by Special Agents for MAP Productions and mixed by RoBo Map Mystery mix: produced and mixed by Moorcroft and Prins for MAP Productions and programmed by TK for MAP Productions At the same time Snow's original version was experiencing chart success, Italian producer DJ Dado covered the song with a dream trance version, which became a top-ten hit in several countries, including reaching number one in Denmark, though it failed to reach the top 10 in France and Germany.
In the US, this version was featured on the Pure Moods compilation album 1997 re-release. CD single "X-Files" – 6:38 "X-Files" – 8:40CD maxi "X-Files" – 3:57 "X-Files" – 6:42 "X-Files" – 8:44CD maxi "X-Files" – 3:57 "X-Files" – 6:41 "X-Files" – 6:38 "X-Files" – 6:29 "X-Files" – 6:53 "X-Files" – 8:4412" maxi "X-Files" – 6:42 "X-Files" – 8:44CD maxi – Remixes "X-Files" – 5:07 "X-Files" – 5:02 "X-Files" – 6:25 "X-Files" – 6:25 "X-Files" – 8:38 "X-Files" – 4:35 "X-Files" – 5:18 "X-Files" – 6:18 The song was covered by Triple X; this cover was less successful than the original version or DJ Dado's cover, but it did reach number two in Australia and was certified Gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association. A version by The X-Club was released in Australasia in 1996. "The X-Files Theme" was released as a Japan only EP in 1998 from the soundtrack album The X-Files: The Album for The X-Files movie. The maxi-CD includes four remixes of Mark Snow's theme to The X-Files. Notably "Tubular X" consists of parts of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells.
Another track from Oldfield appears, "The Source of Secrets", the opening piece from his Tubular Bells III album, which based upon the same theme from the original Tubular Bells. "Tubular X" - Mike Oldfield – 3:53 "The X-Files Theme" - The Dust Brothers – 3:27 "The X-Files Theme" - Satoshi Tomiie Radio Edit – 4:17 "The X-Files Theme" - R. H. Factor Pop Radio Edit – 3:37 "The Source of Secrets" - Mike Oldfield – 5:33
Maj. Gen. Paul J. Fletcher is the former Vice Commander, 3rd Air Force, Ramstein Air Base, Germany; as the component numbered air force for U. S. European Command, 3rd Air Force is responsible for supporting the EUCOM commander at the operational and tactical level and directing all USAFE forces engaged in contingency and wartime operations in the EUCOM area of responsibility. Third Air Force units include the headquarters AFFOR staff, 603rd Air Operations Center, 10 wings and three stand-alone groups. In addition, as EUCOM's senior military representative to the British government, he represents U. S. military forces based in the United Kingdom. General Fletcher was commissioned through the Washington State University ROTC program, his experience includes airlift operations. He has commanded at the squadron and wing levels, has flown more than 3,500 hours in the C-130E. 1972 Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering, Washington State University 1976 Squadron Officer School, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 1981 Master of Arts degree in logistics management, Central Michigan University 1984 Armed Forces Staff College, Virginia 1986 National Security Management Course 1992 Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.
C. 2000 Program for Senior Managers in Government, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Massachusetts 2002 Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Course, Maxwell AFB, Alabama January 1973 - December 1973, undergraduate pilot training, Webb AFB, Texas December 1973 - May 1974, student, C-130 pilot training, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas May 1974 - February 1979, aircraft commander and evaluator pilot, 39th Tactical Airlift Squadron, Pope AFB, North Carolina February 1979 - January 1984, program manager for C-130 foreign and domestic sales, Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio January 1984 - June 1984, Armed Forces Staff College, Virginia June 1984 - July 1988, Chief of Combat Operations, 435th Tactical Airlift Wing chief pilot and assistant operations officer, 37th Tactical Airlift Squadron, Rhein-Main Air Base, West Germany July 1988 - June 1989, Director of Operations, 34th Tactical Airlift Training Group, executive officer, 314th Tactical Airlift Wing, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas June 1989 - August 1991, Commander, 62nd Tactical Airlift Squadron, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas August 1991 - June 1992, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.
C. June 1992 - July 1994, strategic planner, Operational Plans and Interoperability Directorate, Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington D. C. July 1994 - June 1995, Combat Aerial Delivery School, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas June 1995 - January 1997, Commander, 314th Operations Group, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas January 1997 - September 1998, Deputy Director of Plans and Programs, Headquarters Air Mobility Command, Scott AFB, Illinois September 1998 - July 2001, Commander, 314th Airlift Wing, Little Rock AFB, Arkansas July 2001 - August 2003, Director of Plans and Programs, Headquarters Pacific Air Forces, Hickam AFB, Hawaii September 2003 - October 2005, Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans and Programs, Headquarters U. S. Air Force, Washington, D. C. November 2005 - July 2006, Vice Commander, 16th Air Force, Royal Air Force Mildenhall, England July 2006 - December 2006, acting Commander, 16th Air Force, Ramstein Air Base, Germany December 2006 - November 2007, Vice Commander, 3rd Air Force, RAF Mildenhall, England Rating: Command Pilot Flight hours: More than 3,500 Aircraft flown: T-37, T-38, C-21 and C-130 Air Force Distinguished Service Medal Legion of Merit Legion of Merit Defense Meritorious Service Medal Meritorious Service Medal with Air Force Commendation Medal with oak leaf cluster Humanitarian Service Medal Major General Paul J. Fletcher Paul Fletcher, 16th Air Force vice commander Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF, Official Air Force biography at Archive.today