Alturas is a city in and the county seat of Modoc County, California. The population was 2,827 at the 2010 census. Alturas is located on the Pit River, east of the center of Modoc County, at an elevation of 4370 feet; as the county seat, the town is a home to regional government offices, including a California Highway Patrol office and a state Department of Motor Vehicles office. Alturas now occupies what was an Achumawi village known as Kosealekte or Kasalektawi; the city was known as Dorris Bridge, named after Pressley and James Dorris, who built a bridge across the Pit River at this location. The Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, renamed Dorrisville in 1874, in 1876, was renamed Alturas, Spanish for "heights"; the census of 1880 showed a population of 148. However, settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was incorporated on September 16, 1901; because of its central location, Dorrisville became the county seat when Modoc County formed in 1874 though both Adin and Cedarville were larger towns.
On January 10, 1945, a balloon bomb was shot down 30 miles west of the town. Alturas straddles the North Fork of the Pit River, near its confluence with the South Fork in the north end of South Fork Valley, in the extreme northeastern corner of California at 41°29′14″N 120°32′33″W; the tall Warner Mountains lie to the east, the wetlands and wild rice fields of South Fork Valley to the south, the extensive Modoc Plateau to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles and 0.57% of it is covered by water. The climate in Alturas is thought of as being semi-arid. However, it has a dry-summer continental climate; the average January temperatures are a high of 41.6 °F and a low of 16.5 °F. The average July temperatures are a high of 88.2 °F and a low of 44.3 °F. There are an average of 36.2 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 203.8 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high was 108 °F on July 8, 2007, the record low was −34 °F on December 9, 1972.
Freezing temperatures have occurred in every month of the year. Precipitation averages 12.43 inches annually. There are an average of 78 days with measurable precipitation; the wettest year was 1998 with 20.89 in and the driest year was 1976 with 6.54 in. The most precipitation in one month was 6.17 in in October 1962, the most in 24 hours 3.51 in on December 11, 1937. Snowfall averages 30.9 in per season. The most snowfall in a season was 85.5 in in 1952. The 2010 United States Census reported that Alturas had a population of 2,827; the population density was 1,154.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alturas was 2,430 White, 15 African American, 81 Native American, 45 Asian, 7 Pacific Islander, 118 from other races, 131 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 347 persons; the Census reported that 2,814 people lived in households, none lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 13 were institutionalized. There were 1,238 households, out of which 391 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 507 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 181 had a female householder with no husband present, 65 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 102 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 9 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 403 households were made up of individuals and 160 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27. There were 753 families; the population was spread out with 702 people under the age of 18, 219 people aged 18 to 24, 672 people aged 25 to 44, 802 people aged 45 to 64, 432 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. There were 1,407 housing units at an average density of 574.6 per square mile, of which 691 were owner-occupied, 547 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%. 1,563 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,251 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,892 people, 1,181 households, 753 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,316.3 people per square mile.
There were 1,367 housing units at an average density of 622.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.9% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 4.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.8% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. 11.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,181 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the ag
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface. The term elevation is used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, depth is used for points below the surface. Elevation is not to be confused with the distance from the center of the Earth. Due to the equatorial bulge, the summits of Mount Everest and Chimborazo have the largest elevation and the largest geocentric distance. GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of relationships of the landscape at different scales. Tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial cartography. A topographical map is the main type of map used to depict elevation through use of contour lines.
In a Geographic Information System, digital elevation models are used to represent the surface of a place, through a raster dataset of elevations. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS. USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States and the U. S. territories. There are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3, 1, 2 arcseconds; this map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earth's terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds. It uses shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation. Height Orthometric height Hypsography Geodesy Geodesy of North America Sea Level Datum of 1929 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 North American Vertical Datum of 1988 List of European cities by elevation List of highest mountains List of highest towns by country Normaal Amsterdams Peil Normalhöhennull Physical geography Table of the highest major summits of North America Temperature lapse rate Topographic isolation Topographic prominence Topography Vertical pressure variation U.
S. National Geodetic Survey website Geodetic Glossary @ NGS NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS United States Geological Survey website Geographical Survey Institute Downloadable ETOPO2 Raw Data Database Downloadable ETOPO5 Raw Data Database Find the elevation of any place
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the state line between Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, at 122,160,280 acre⋅ft trails only the five Great Lakes as the largest by volume in the United States, its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about two million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin, with the modern extent being shaped during the ice ages, it is known for the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe, or Tahoe. More than 75% of the lake's watershed is national forest land, comprising the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States Forest Service. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both California, it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the area's reputation.
The Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. Lake Tahoe is the second deepest lake in the U. S. with a maximum depth of 1,645 feet, trailing Oregon's Crater Lake at 1,949 ft. Tahoe is the 16th deepest lake in the world, the fifth deepest in average depth, it is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline and a surface area of 191 square miles. The lake is so large. At lake level the opposing shorelines are below the horizon at its widest parts. Visibility may vary somewhat with atmospheric refraction. Fata Morgana may be responsible for Tahoe Tessie sightings. Two-thirds of the shoreline is in California; the south shore is dominated by the lake's largest city, South Lake Tahoe, which adjoins the town of Stateline, while Tahoe City, California, is located on the lake's northwest shore. Although highways run within sight of the lake shore for much of Tahoe's perimeter, many important parts of the shoreline lie within state parks or are protected by the United States Forest Service.
The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the land area that drains to the lake and the Lake Tahoe drainage divide traverses the same general area as the Tahoe Rim Trail. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries; these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the lake's only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, into Pyramid Lake which has no outlet, it accounts for one third of the water that leaves the lake, the rest evaporating from the lake's vast surface. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet; the natural rim is with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to store water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno and surrounding areas.
The Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west. Down-dropping and block tilting created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between; this kind of faulting is characteristic of the geology of the adjoining Great Basin to the east. Lake Tahoe is the youngest of several extensional basins of the Walker Lane deformation zone that accommodates nearly 0.47 in per year of dextral shear between the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block and North America. Three principal faults form the Lake Tahoe basin: the West Tahoe Fault, aligned between Meyers and Tahoe City, and, the local segment of the Sierra Nevada Fault, extending on shore north and south of these localities; the West Tahoe Fault appears to be the most active and hazardous fault in the basin. A study in Fallen Leaf Lake, just south of Lake Tahoe, used seafloor mapping techniques to image evidence for paleoearthquakes on the West Tahoe and revealed the last earthquake occurred between 4,100 and 4,500 years ago.
Subsequent studies revealed submarine landslides in Fallen Leaf Lake and Lake Tahoe that are thought to have been triggered by earthquakes on the West Tahoe fault and the timing of these events suggests a recurrence interval of 3,000–4,000 years. Some of the highest peaks of the Lake Tahoe Basin that formed during the process of Lake Tahoe creation are Freel Peak at 10,891 feet, Monument Peak at 10,067 feet, Pyramid Peak at 9,984 feet, Mount Tallac at 9,735 feet; the north shore boasts three peaks at 10,000+ feet: Mount Rose at 10,785 feet, Houghton and Relay peaks. Mt. Rose is a popular hiking and backcountry skiing destination. Eruptions from the extinct volcano Mount Pluto formed a volcanic
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area
The Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area in northern California. The recreation area was established in 1965 by the United States Congress. Recreational activities available include swimming, boating and hiking; the Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area has a total of 246,087 acres of land, divided into the: Shasta Unit Trinity Unit Whiskeytown UnitThe Shasta–Trinity National Forest surrounds the Shasta and Trinity units, so they are managed by the United States Forest Service. The National Park Service manages the Whiskeytown unit; each of the units encompasses a large reservoir and its surrounding natural features and terrain. The WST-NRA has interesting wildlife viewing opportunities, including over sixty pairs of osprey, thirty pairs of nesting bald eagles, other resident and migrating birds, deer and bear populations. Plant communities include: Riparian, Interior chaparral, Blue oak grasslands, Mixed oak woodlands, Knobcone pine, Ponderosa pine, or mixed evergreen forests.
Of the eighteen National Recreation Areas under Forest Service management in the U. S. the Shasta–Trinity Units are somewhat unusual, being made up of three large reservoir lakes set in scenic and protected foothill locales with diverse recreation opportunities. The Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area section, of the Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area, has 203,587 acres managed by the Shasta–Trinity National Forest, it includes Shasta and Lewiston Lakes and their surrounding natural areas. The Trinity Unit, centered on Trinity Lake and Lewiston Lake, has four subunits: the Lewiston Lake, Trinity Dam, Stuart Fork, North Lake Units, they offer many opportunities for recreation, including trout fishing in Lewiston Lake, scenic driving on the Trinity Heritage National Scenic Byway, picnicking and hiking/riding on the multi-use trail system. The Trinity Dam Unit has Trinity Lake reservoir, that when full has 145 miles of shoreline, contains 17,000 acres, holds 2,500,000 acre feet of water.
Trinity Dam is one of the highest earth filled dams in the world. The Shasta Unit, centered on Shasta Lake, has four tributary arms; each attracts outdoor recreation visitors. There are numerous facilities including private marinas. Public recreation facilities and amenities within the Shasta Unit include boat ramps, shoreline picnic areas, hiking/equestrian/mountain biking trails. Shasta Lake is the largest reservoir in California; when full, the lake has 370 miles of shoreline. The reservoir contains 30,000 acres, holds 4,550,000 acre feet of water. Shasta Lake is formed by Shasta Dam, the second largest and second tallest concrete dam in the United States; the Whiskeytown Unit of the Whiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area is 42,500 acres in size, centered on Whiskeytown Lake of 3,200 acres. It includes 39,000 acres surrounding the reservoir; the backcountry, with mountain creeks and waterfalls, is accessible via 70 miles of multi-use hiking, and/or mountain biking) trails. Trinity Mountains — in the southern and eastern sections in the recreation area, part of the Klamath Mountains System.
Marble Mountains — in the northwestern section, are part of the Klamath Mountains Range. Sierra Nevada — in the eastern section. Whiskeytown Falls Carr Fire U. S. Forest Service: official Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area — Shasta and Lewiston Lakes areas. U. S. National Park Service: official Whiskeytown National Recreation Area website — Whiskeytown Lake area. NPS: Discover Whiskeytown’s Biodiversity
The Wintun are members of several related Native American peoples of Northern California, including the Wintu and Patwin. Their range is from present-day Lake Shasta to San Francisco Bay, along the western side of the Sacramento River to the Coast Range; each of these tribes speak one of the Wintuan languages. Linguistic and archaeological evidence suggests that the Wintun people entered the California area around 500 AD from what is now southern Oregon, introducing bow and arrow technology to the region. Cachil DeHe Band of Wintun Indians of the Colusa Indian Community of the Colusa Rancheria Grindstone Indian Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians Cortina Indian Rancheria of Wintun Indians of California Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians Redding Rancheria Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation known as the Rumsey Indian Rancheria of Wintun Indians Wintu-Nomlaki traditional narratives Patwin traditional narratives Patwin people Patwin language Siskiyous.edu: Wintu peoples Native Tribes, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770