United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Conservation is an ethic of resource use and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries and biological diversity. Secondary focus is on material conservation, including non-renewable resources such as metals and fossil fuels, energy conservation, important to protect the natural world; those who follow the conservation ethic and those who advocate or work toward conservation goals are termed conservationists. The terms conservation and preservation are conflated outside the academic and professional kinds of literature; the US National Park Service offers the following explanation of the important ways in which these two terms represent different conceptions of environmental protection ethics: ″Conservation and preservation are linked and may indeed seem to mean the same thing. Both terms involve a degree of protection, but how that protection is carried out is the key difference. Conservation is associated with the protection of natural resources, while preservation is associated with the protection of buildings and landscapes.
Put conservation seeks the proper use of nature, while preservation seeks protection of nature from use. During the environmental movement of the early 20th century, two opposing factions emerged: conservationists and preservationists. Conservationists sought to regulate human use while preservationists sought to eliminate human impact altogether.″ To conserve habitat in terrestrial ecoregions and to stop deforestation is a goal shared by many groups with a wide variety of motivations. To protect sea life from extinction due to overfishing or climate change is another stated goal of conservation – ensuring that "some will be available for future generations" to continue a way of life; the consumer conservation ethic is sometimes expressed by the four R's: " Rethink, Recycle, Repair" This social ethic relates to local purchasing, moral purchasing, the sustained, efficient use of renewable resources, the moderation of destructive use of finite resources, the prevention of harm to common resources such as air and water quality, the natural functions of a living earth, cultural values in a built environment.
The principal value underlying most expressions of the conservation ethic is that the natural world has intrinsic and intangible worth along with utilitarian value – a view carried forward by the scientific conservation movement and some of the older Romantic schools of ecology movement. More Utilitarian schools of conservation seek a proper valuation of local and global impacts of human activity upon nature in their effect upon human well being, now and to posterity. How such values are assessed and exchanged among people determines the social and personal restraints and imperatives by which conservation is practiced; this is a view common in the modern environmental movement. These movements have diverged but they have deep and common roots in the conservation movement. In the United States of America, the year 1864 saw the publication of two books which laid the foundation for Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions in America; the posthumous publication of Henry David Thoreau's Walden established the grandeur of unspoiled nature as a citadel to nourish the spirit of man.
From George Perkins Marsh a different book and Nature subtitled "The Earth as Modified by Human Action", catalogued his observations of man exhausting and altering the land from which his sustenance derives. In common usage, the term refers to the activity of systematically protecting natural resources such as forests, including biological diversity. Carl F. Jordan defines the term as: biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish. While this usage is not new, the idea of biological conservation has been applied to the principles of ecology, bio geography, anthropology and sociology to maintain biodiversity; the term "conservation" itself may cover the concepts such as cultural diversity, genetic diversity and the concept of movements environmental conservation, seedbank. These are summarized as the priority to respect diversity by Greens. Much recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization.
Slow Food is a consequence of rejecting these as moral priorities, embracing a slower and more locally focused lifestyle. Distinct trends exist regarding conservation development. While many countries' efforts to preserve species and their habitats have been government-led, those in the North Western Europe tended to arise out of the middle-class and aristocratic interest in natural history, expressed at the level of the individual and the national, regional or local learned society, thus countries like Britain, the Netherlands, etc. had what we would today term NGOs – in the shape of the RSPB, National Trust and County Naturalists' Trusts Natuurmonumenten, Provincial Conservation Trusts for each Dutch province, etc. – a long time before there were national parks and national nature reserves. This in part reflects the absence of wilderness areas in cultivated Europe, as well as a longstanding interest in laissez-faire government in some countries, like the UK, leaving it as no coincidence that John Muir, the Scottish-born founder of the National Park movement did his sterling work in the USA, where he was the motor force behind the establishment of such NPs as Yosemite and Yellowstone.
Nowadays more than 10 percent
National Park Service ranger
National Park Service rangers are among the uniformed employees charged with protecting and preserving areas set aside in the National Park System by the United States Congress and the President of the United States. While all employees of the agency contribute to the National Park Service mission of preserving unimpaired the natural and cultural resources set aside by the American people for future generations, the term "park ranger" is traditionally used to describe all National Park Service employees who wear the uniform. Broadly speaking, all National Park Service rangers promote stewardship of the resources in their care - either voluntary stewardship via resource interpretation, or compliance with statute or regulation through law enforcement; these comprise the two main disciplines of the ranger profession in the National Park Service. The term "ranger" is from a Middle English word dating back to 1350–1400. "Rangers" patrolled royal forests and parks to prevent "poachers" from hunting game claimed by the nobility.
Use of the term "ranger" dates to the 17th century in the United States, was drawn from the word "range". The title "ranger" in the modern sense was first applied to a reorganization of the fire warden force in the Adirondack Park, after fires burned 80,000 acres in the park; the name was taken from Rogers' Rangers, a small force famous for their woodcraft that fought in the area during the French and Indian War beginning in 1755. The term was adopted by the National Park Service; the first Director of the National Park Service, Stephen T. Mather, reflected upon the early park rangers in the US National Parks as follows: They are a fine, earnest and public-spirited body of men, these rangers. Though small in number, their influence is large. Many and long are the duties. If a trail is to be blazed, it is "send a ranger." If an animal is floundering in the snow, a ranger is sent to pull him out. If a Dude wants to know the why, if a Sagebrusher is puzzled about a road, it is "ask the ranger." Everything the ranger knows, he will tell ex-cept about himself.
Horace Albright, second director of the National Park Service, called Harry Yount, gamekeeper of Yellowstone National Park, the "father of the ranger service, as well as the first national park ranger". Yount was hired in 1880 to enforce the prohibition on hunting in the park. In addition to these duties, he would act as a guide and escort for visiting officials, such as he did in 1880 for the Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz. Although he was paid a yearly salary of $1,000 he resigned at the end of 1881. Before leaving, he suggested to the superintendent of Yellowstone that "...the game and natural curiosities of the park be protected by officers stationed at different points of the park with authority to enforce observance of laws of the park maintenance and trails." Yount pointed out that it was nearly impossible for one person to protect the game properly over the park's vast expanse. The park ranger position in the federal government began as a series of specialized positions in the miscellaneous Series.
In 1959, the official park ranger position was established throughout the federal government. Along with its companion series the park technician; the park ranger position was designated for "professional" work like management of the park, or management of division. The park technician series was designed to handle routine technical skills, i.e. giving walks, patrolling roads, fee collection. After years of concern of pay, the National Park Service and the Office of Personnel Management agreed to consolidate the two series into a single group, to be used only for professional positions and temporary or seasonal positions; the agreement required that the park service begin using other appropriate technical series for lower paid positions. The protection ranger series was changed to "GL"-0025 in 2005. 0025 – park ranger series* - The duties are to supervise and perform work in the conservation and use of federal park resources. This involves functions such as park conservation; the work requires a knowledge of techniques involved in handling special programs.
This series is used for fee collectors at campgrounds and entrance stations. 0189 – recreation aid and assistant series - Provides support to recreation programs by performing limited aspects of recreation work, lifeguards 0090 – guide series - Provides or supervises interpretive and guide services to visitors to sites of public interest. Give formal talks about natural and historic features, explains engineering structures and related water developments, answers questions, guides tours; the duties of the modern park ranger are as varied and diverse as the parks where they serve, in recent years have become more specialized - though they intertwine. Regardless of the regular duties of any one discipline, the goal of all rangers remains to protect the park resources for future generations and to protect park visitors; this goal is accomplished by the professionalism and sometimes overlapping of the different functions and specialties. For example, an interpretive ranger may be
Civilian Conservation Corps
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. For young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of the agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death; the CCC was a major part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal that provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal and local governments; the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Through the course of its nine years in operation, 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter and food, together with a wage of $30 per month; the American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.
Sources written at the time claimed an individual's enrollment in the CCC led to improved physical condition, heightened morale, increased employability. The CCC led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources, the continued need for a planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources; the CCC operated separate programs for Native Americans. 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, Congress voted to close the program; as governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. Long interested in conservation, as president, he proposed to Congress a full-scale national program on March 21, 1933: I propose to create to be used in complex work, not interfering with normal employment and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control, similar projects.
I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only through the prevention of great present financial loss but as a means of creating future national wealth. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, housing and medical care for working in the national forests and other government properties; the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933, which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, a former labor union official who served until 1939; the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. The order indicated that the program was to be supervised jointly by four government departments: Labor, which recruited the young men, which operated the camps, Agriculture and Interior, which organized and supervised the work projects.
A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative from each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program. To end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, as director of the corps. William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps. General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army, but the Army found numerous benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni sergeants. CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the leadership performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers.
The CCC provided lessons which the Army used in developing its wartime and mobilization plans for training camps. The legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Roosevelt made his request to Congress on March 21, 1933; the first CCC enrollee was selected April 8, subsequent lists of unemployed men were supplied by state and local welfare and relief agencies for immediate enrollment. On April 17, the first camp, NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established at George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. On June 18, the first of 161 soil erosion control camps was opened, in Alabama. By July 1, 1933 there were 1,463 working camps with 250,000 junior enrollees; the typical CCC enrollee was a U. S. citizen, unemployed male, 18–25 years of age. His family was on local relief; each enrollee volunteered and, upon passing a physical exam and/or a period of conditioning, was required to serve a minimum six-month period, with the
Johnson County, Illinois
Johnson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 12,582, its county seat is Vienna. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Johnson County was organized in 1812 out of Randolph County, it was named for Richard M. Johnson, a U. S. Congressman from Kentucky. In 1813, Johnson commanded a Kentucky regiment at the Battle of the Thames, after which he claimed to have killed Tecumseh in hand-to-hand combat. Johnson went on to be Vice President of the United States. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 349 square miles, of which 344 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Vienna have ranged from a low of 25 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −20 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.16 inches in October to 5.16 inches in May.
Interstate 24 Interstate 57 U. S. Route 45 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 146 Illinois Route 147 Illinois Route 166 Williamson County - north Saline County - northeast Pope County - east Massac County - southeast Pulaski County - southwest Union County - west Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge Shawnee National Forest Whereas, according to the 2010 U. S. Census Bureau: 89.0% White 8.0% Black 0.2% Native American 0.2% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.0% Two or more races 1.6% Other races 3.0% Hispanic or Latino As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,582 people, 4,584 households, 3,270 families residing in the county. The population density was 36.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,598 housing units at an average density of 16.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 89.0% white, 8.0% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.6% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.0% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 17.6% were German, 11.5% were Irish, 10.9% were English, 6.5% were American. Of the 4,584 households, 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.2% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families, 25.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 42.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,619 and the median income for a family was $47,423. Males had a median income of $48,047 versus $30,904 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,402, the lowest of all 102 counties in Illinois and 57th in the U. S.. About 11.1% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. Vienna Belknap Buncombe Cypress Goreville New Burnside Simpson In its early days Johnson County, being Southern in its culture, was fiercely Democratic.
In fact, in the 1860 Presidential election the county gave Illinois native and Northern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas a higher proportion of its votes than any other county in the United States. However, during the Civil War, under the influence of Congressman John Logan, this region of dubious initial loyalty was to provide a number of Union soldiers rivalled on a per capita basis only by a few fiercely Unionist counties in Appalachia; this level of Union service has meant that despite its historic hostility towards Yankee culture, Johnson County has been powerfully Republican since the Civil War. Douglas in 1860 remains the last Democrat to win a majority of the county’s vote: the solitary Democratic victory since was by Bill Clinton in 1992 and was due to Ross Perot taking many votes from Republican incumbent George Bush senior. In 2016, as was typical of the rural Upland South, Hillary Clinton fared badly in Johnson County: despite the long-time Republican traditions of the county, her vote percentage was the lowest by any Democrat in the county’s history, but was typical of her performance in the region due to opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues like homosexuality.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Johnson County, Illinois P. T. Chapman, A History of Johnson County, Illinois. Herrin, IL: Press of the Herrin News, 1925
Pope County, Illinois
Pope County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 4,470, making it the second-least populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Golconda. The county was organized in 1816 from portions of Gallatin and Johnson counties and named after Nathaniel Pope, a politician and jurist from the Illinois Territory and State of Illinois; the first permanent settlement in future Pope County was established in 1798 at the modern-day site of Golconda a part of the Northwest Territory which operated as a ferry point across the Ohio River. The county was formed in 1816 from portions of Johnson Counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 374 square miles, of which 369 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. The entire county is hilly and during rainy weather rivulets cascade down the hills in the park forming waterfalls of varying sizes and heights; the county contains Dixon Springs State Park, one of many state parks in the Illinois Shawnee Hills, is part of the Shawnee National Forest.
It is bordered to the south and east by the Ohio River, which marks the state's border with Kentucky. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Golconda have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches in October to 5.02 inches in May. Illinois Route 34 Illinois Route 145 Illinois Route 146 Illinois Route 147 Saline County - north Hardin County - east Livingston County, Kentucky - southeast Massac County - southwest Johnson County - west Williamson County - northwest Shawnee National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 4,470 people, 1,829 households, 1,209 families residing in the county; the population density was 12.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,491 housing units at an average density of 6.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.7% white, 6.0% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 31.8% were German, 19.1% were Irish, 11.4% were English, 5.4% were American. Of the 1,829 households, 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age was 46.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,672 and the median income for a family was $51,500. Males had a median income of $45,865 versus $28,519 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,134. About 6.6% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Golconda Eddyville. Brownfield Dixon Springs Hamletsburg Herod Lusk's Ferry McCormick Rosebud Temple Hill James L. Alcorn, born near Golconda, American Civil War general in the Union Army John R. Hodge, born in Golconda.
S. Third Army C. L. McCormick, born in McCormick, Illinois state representative and businessman Green B. Raum, born in Golconda, American Civil War general in the Union Army James A. Rose, born in Golconda, Illinois Secretary of State Dixon Springs State Park National Register of Historic Places listings in Pope County Ohio River Shawnee National Forest http://genealogytrails.com/ill/pope/cohist.htm http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/shawnee