Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Shearling coats are made from processed lambskin, sheepskin, or pelt. This "shearing" process creates a uniform depth of the wool fibers for a uniform look. Shearling coats and garments are made from pelts by tanning them with the wool of uniform depth still on them; the result is a soft, natural fleece material, heavy due to thickness of outer skin and degree of fur on the inside, quite dense. The length of the sheep fur can be long, but it is cropped short to about two inches or five centimeters. Most find these coats to be comfortable and warm. Due to the high quality and uniqueness of shearling and garment are considered luxurious. Sheepskin and Shearling are synonymous; the outer must be sheepskin to be Shearling on the inside. Sheepskin boots
Calfskin or calf leather is a leather or membrane produced from the hide of a calf, or juvenile domestic cattle. Calfskin is valuable because of its softness and fine grain, as well as durability, it is used for high-quality clothing, shoes and similar products, as well as traditional leather bookbindings. In these contexts, just "calf" is used. Fine calfskin is one of the skins used for parchment manuscripts. In Spanish, the word is novillo. Chickenskin, despite its name, is a form of calfskin made using the skin of unborn calves. In fashion, soft finished calfskin is sometimes described as veau velours. Goldbeater's skin, made from the intestine of a calf Sheepskin
Sheep farming is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. It is a branch of animal husbandry. Sheep are raised principally for their meat and fiber, they yield sheepskin and parchment. Sheep can be raised in range including arid zones. Farmers build fences, shearing sheds and other facilities on their property, such as for water, feed and pest control. Most farms are managed so sheep can graze pastures, sometimes under the control of a shepherd or sheep dog; the major sources of income for a farm will come from the sale of lambs and the shearing of sheep for their wool. Farmers can select from various breeds suitable for their market conditions; when the farmer sees that a ewe is showing signs of heat or estrus, they can organise for mating with males. Newborn lambs are subject to tail docking and males may be castrated. According to the FAOSTAT database of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the top five countries by number of heads of sheep were: mainland China, India and the former Sudan.
In 2013, the five countries with the largest number of heads of sheep were mainland China, India, the former Sudan, Iran. In 2013, the number of heads of sheep were distributed as follows: 44 % in 28.2 % in Africa. The top producers of sheep meat were as follows: mainland China; the top five producers of sheep meat in 2013 were mainland China, New Zealand, the former Sudan, Turkey. In the United States, inventory data on sheep began in 1867, when 45 million head of sheep were counted in the United States; the numbers of sheep peaked in 1884 at 51 million head, declined over time to 6 million head. Since the 1960s, per capita consumption of lamb and mutton declined from nearly 5 pounds to just about 1 pound, due to competition from poultry, pork and other meats. Since the 1990s, U. S. sheep operations declined from around 105,000 to around 80,000 due to shrinking revenues and low rates of return. According to the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the "sheep industry accounts for less than 1 percent of U.
S. livestock industry receipts." Crutching Dolly Domestic sheep reproduction Glossary of sheep husbandry Guard llama History of the domestic sheep Jacob Lamb marking List of sheep breeds Livestock guardian dog Mulesing Patagonian sheep farming boom Sheep shearing Sheep station, a large property for raising of sheep in Australia or New Zealand Shepherd Transhumance Carlson, Alvar Ward. "New Mexico's Sheep Industry: 1850–1900, Its Role in the History of the Territory." New Mexico Historical Review 44.1. Dick, Everett. Vanguards of the Frontier: A Social History of the Northern Plains and Rocky Mountains from the Fur Traders to the Sod Busters pp 497–508. "Economic aspects of the Scottish sheep industry." Transactions of the Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland 51: 39–57. Hawkesworth, Alfred. "Australasian sheep & wool.": a practical and theoretical treatise. Jones, Keithly G. "Trends in the US sheep industry". Minto, John. "Sheep Husbandry in Oregon. The Pioneer Era of Domestic Sheep Husbandry."
The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society: 219–247. in JSTOR Perkins, John. "Up the Trail From Dixie: Animosity Toward Sheep in the Culture of the US West." Australasian Journal of American Studies: 1–18. in JSTOR Witherell, William H. "A comparison of the determinants of wool production in the six leading producing countries: 1949–1965." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 51.1: 138–158. Media related to Ovis aries at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Sheep shearing at Wikimedia Commons Sheep at Curlie
Leather is a natural durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides and skins. The most common raw material is cattle hide, it can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from artisan to modern industrial scale. Leather is used to make a variety of articles, including footwear, automobile seats, bags, book bindings, fashion accessories, furniture, it is decorated by a wide range of techniques. The earliest record of leather artifacts dates back to 2200 BC; the leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental subprocesses: preparatory stages and crusting. A further subprocess, can be added into the leather process sequence, but not all leathers receive finishing; the preparatory stages are. Preparatory stages may include: soaking, liming, bating and pickling. Tanning is a process that stabilizes the proteins collagen, of the raw hide to increase the thermal and microbiological stability of the hides and skins, making it suitable for a wide variety of end applications.
The principal difference between raw and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard, inflexible material that, when rewetted, will putrefy, while tanned material dries to a flexible form that does not become putrid when rewetted. Many tanning methods and materials exist; the typical process sees tanners load the hides into a drum and immerse them in a tank that contains the tanning "liquor". The hides soak while the drum rotates about its axis, the tanning liquor penetrates through the full thickness of the hide. Once the process achieves penetration, workers raise the liquor's pH in a process called basification, which fixes the tanning material to the leather; the more tanning material fixed, the higher the leather's hydrothermal stability and shrinkage temperature resistance. Crusting is a process that lubricates leather, it includes a coloring operation. Chemicals added during crusting must be fixed in place. Crusting culminates with a drying and softening operation, may include splitting, dyeing, whitening or other methods.
For some leathers, tanners apply a surface coating, called "finishing". Finishing operations can include oiling, buffing, polishing, glazing, or tumbling, among others. Leather can be oiled to improve its water resistance; this currying process after tanning supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Tanning processes differ in which chemicals are used in the tanning liquor; some common types include: Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins extracted from vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills. It is the oldest known method, it is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of materials and the color of the skin. The color tan derives its name from the appearance of undyed vegetable-tanned leather. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water.
This is a feature of oak-bark-tanned leather, exploited in traditional shoemaking. In hot water, it shrinks drastically and congeals, becoming rigid and brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances, it was used as armor after hardening, it has been used for book binding. Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium other chromium salts, it is known as "wet blue" for the pale blue color of the undyed leather. The chrome tanning method takes one day to complete, making it best suited for large-scale industrial use; this is the most common method in modern use. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. However, there are environmental concerns with this tanning method. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using oxazolidine compounds, it is referred to as "wet white" due to its pale cream color.
It is the main type of "chrome-free" leather seen in shoes for infants and automobiles. Formaldehyde has been used for tanning in the past. Chamois leather is a form of aldehyde tanning that produces a porous and water-absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather. Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process that uses emulsified oils those of animal brains such as deer and buffalo, they are known for their exceptional washability. Alum leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Alum leather is not tanned. In general, leather is produced in the following grades: Top-grain leather includes the outer layer of the hide, known as the grain, which features finer, more densely packed fibers, resulting in strength and durability. Depending on thickness, it may contain some of the more fibrous under layer, known as the corium. Types of top-grain leather incl
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Domestic sheep reproduction
As with other mammals, domestic sheep reproduction occurs sexually. Their reproductive strategy is similar to other domestic herd animals. A flock of sheep is mated by a single ram, which has either been chosen by a farmer or has established dominance through physical contest with other rams. Most sheep have a breeding season in the autumn; as a result of the influence of humans in sheep breeding, ewes produce multiple lambs. This increase in the lamb births, both in number and birth weight, may cause problems in delivery and lamb survival, requiring the intervention of shepherds. Ewes reach sexual maturity at six to eight months of age, rams at four to six. Sheep are seasonally polyoestrus animals. Ewes enter into oestrus cycles about every 17 days, which last for 30 hours. In addition to emitting a scent, they indicate readiness through physical displays towards rams; the phenomenon of the freemartin, a female bovine, behaviorally masculine and lacks functioning ovaries, is associated with cattle, but does occur to some extent in sheep.
The instance of freemartins in sheep may be increasing in concert with the rise in twinning. The Flehmen response is exhibited by rams; the vomeronasal organ has receptors. The ram displays this by curling his lip. Without human intervention, rams may fight during the rut to determine which individuals may mate with ewes. Rams unfamiliar ones, will fight outside the breeding period to establish dominance. During the rut normally friendly rams may become aggressive towards humans due to increases in their hormone levels. Aggressive rams were sometimes blindfolded or hobbled. Today, those who keep rams prefer softer preventative measures, such as moving within a clear line to an exit, never turning their back on a ram, dousing with water or a diluted solution of bleach or vinegar to dissuade charges. Without ultrasound or other special tools, determining if a sheep is pregnant is difficult. Ewes only begin to visibly show a pregnancy about six weeks before giving birth, so shepherds rely on the assumption that a ram will impregnate all the ewes in a flock.
However, by fitting a ram with a chest harness called a marking harness that holds a special crayon, ewes that have been mounted are marked with a color. Dye may be directly applied to the ram's brisket; this measure is not used in flocks where wool is important, since the color of a raddle contaminates it. The crayon in the marking harness can be changed during the breeding cycle to allow for lambing date predictions for each ewe. After mating, sheep have a gestation period of around five months. Within a few days of the impending birth, ewes begin to behave differently, they may lie down and stand erratically, paw the ground, or otherwise act out of sync with normal flock patterns. An ewe's udder will fill out, her vulva will swell. Vaginal, uterine or anal prolapse may occur, in which case either stitching or a physical retainer can be used to hold the orifice in if the problem persists. Ewes that experience serious issues while lambing such as prolapse, will be discarded from the flock to avoid further complications in upcoming years.
In addition to natural insemination by rams, artificial insemination and embryo transfers have been used in sheep breeding programs for many years in Australia and New Zealand. These programs have become more commonplace in the United States during the 2000s as the number of veterinarians qualified to perform these types of procedures with proficiency have grown. However, ovine AI is a complicated procedure compared to other livestock. Unlike cattle or goats, which have straight cervices that can be vaginally inseminated, ewes have a curved cervix, more difficult to access. Additionally, breeders were until unable to control their ewe's estrus cycles; the ability to control the estrus cycle is much easier today because of products that safely assist in aligning heat cycles. Some examples of products are PG600, CIDRs, Estrumate and Folltropin V; these products contain progesterone which will bring on the induction of estrus in ewes during seasonal anestrus. Seasonal anestrus is when ewes do not have regular estrous cycles outside the natural breeding season.
Vaginal insemination of sheep only produced 40-60% success rates, was thus called a "shot in the dark". In the 1980s, Australian researchers developed a laparoscopic insemination procedure which, combined with the use of progestogen and pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, yielded much higher success rates, has become the standard for artificial insemination of sheep in the 21st century. Semen collection is an integral component of this entire process. Once semen has been collected it can be used for insemination or frozen for use at a date. Fresh semen is recognized as the method of choice as it lives longer and yields higher conception rates. Frozen semen will work but it must be the highest quality of semen and the ewes must be inseminated twice in the same day; the marketing of ram semen is a major part of this industry. Producers owning prize winning rams have found this to be a good avenue to leverage the accolades of their most famous animals. During embryo transfer a minor s