Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Liberal Democrats (UK)
The Liberal Democrats are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. They have 11 Members of Parliament in the House of Commons, 96 members of the House of Lords, one member of the European Parliament, five Members of the Scottish Parliament and one member in the Welsh Assembly and London Assembly. At the height of its influence, the party formed a coalition government with the Conservative Party from 2010 to 2015 with its leader Nick Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister, it is led by Sir Vince Cable. In 1981, an electoral alliance was established between the Liberal Party, a group, the direct descendent of the 18th-century Whigs, the Social Democratic Party, a splinter group from the Labour Party. In 1988 this alliance was formalised as the Liberal Democrats. Under the leadership of Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy, the party grew during the 1990s and 2000s, focusing its campaigning on specific seats and becoming the third largest party in the House of Commons. Under its leader Nick Clegg, the Liberal Democrats were junior partners in a coalition government headed by Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron, with Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister.
The coalition damaged the Liberal Democrats' electoral prospects: the party was reduced from 57 to 8 seats at the 2015 election. Positioned in the centre ground of British politics, the Liberal Democrats are ideologically liberal. Emphasising stronger protections for civil liberties, the party promotes liberal approaches to issues like LGBT rights, education policy, criminal justice. Different factions take different approaches to economic issues; the party is pro-Europeanist, supporting continued UK membership of the European Union and greater European integration. It calls for electoral reform with a transition from the first-past-the-post voting system to one of proportional representation. Other policies have included further environmental protections and drug liberalisation laws, while it has opposed certain UK military engagements like the Iraq War; the party is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and Liberal International. The Liberal Democrats are strongest in northern Scotland, southwest London, southwest England, mid-Wales.
The Liberal Democrats were formed on 3 March 1988 by a merger between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party, which had formed a pact nearly seven years earlier as the SDP–Liberal Alliance. The Liberal Party, founded in 1859, were descended from the Whigs and Peelites, while the SDP were a party created in 1981 by former Labour Party members, MPs and cabinet ministers, but gained defections from the Conservative Party. Having declined to third party status after the rise of the Labour Party from 1918 and during the 1920s, the Liberals were challenged for this position in the 1980s when a group of Labour MPs broke away and established the Social Democratic Party; the SDP and the Liberals realised that there was no space for two political parties of the centre and entered into the SDP–Liberal Alliance so that they would not stand against each other in elections. The Alliance was led by Roy Jenkins; the two parties had their own policies and emphases, but produced a joint manifesto for the 1983 and 1987 general elections.
Following disappointing results in the 1987 election, Steel proposed to merge the two parties. Although opposed by Owen, it was supported by a majority of members of both parties, they formally merged in March 1988, with Steel and Robert Maclennan as joint interim leaders; the new party was named Social and Liberal Democrats with the unofficial short form The Democrats being used from September 1988. The name was subsequently changed to Liberal Democrats in October 1989, shortened to Lib Dems; the new party logo, the Bird of Liberty, was adopted in 1989. The minority of the SDP who rejected the merger remained under Owen's leadership in a rump SDP. Michael Meadowcroft joined the Liberal Democrats in 2007 but some of his former followers continue still as the Liberal Party, most notably in a couple of electoral wards of the cities of Liverpool and Peterborough; the then-serving Liberal MP Paddy Ashdown was elected leader in July 1988. At the 1989 European Elections, the party received only 6% of the vote, putting them in fourth place after the Green Party.
They failed to gain a single Member of the European Parliament at this election. Over the next three years, the party recovered under Ashdown's leadership, they performed better at the 1990 local elections and in by-elections—including at Eastbourne in 1990 which saw the first success by a Liberal Democrat standing for parliament. They had further successes in Ribble Valley and Kincardine & Deeside in 1991; the Lib Dems did not reach the share of national votes in the 1990s that the Alliance had achieved in the 1980s. At their first election in 1992, they won 17.8 % of twenty seats. In the 1994 European Elections, the party gained its first two Members of European Parliament. Following the election of Tony Blair as Labour leader in July 1994 after the death of his predecessor John Smith, Ashdown pursued co-operation between the two parties becaus
Paul James Scriven, Baron Scriven is a Liberal Democrat politician and former Leader of Sheffield City Council, once described as Nick Clegg's "closest ally in local government". Scriven was raised on a council estate in West Yorkshire, he was educated at Rawthorpe High School, but after working for two years for a road construction firm, he returned to education at 18 to study his "O" and "A" levels at Huddersfield Technical College. He attended Manchester Polytechnic to read for a BA. From 1989 to 1990 he was president of its Students Union, he started his working life'fast tracked' as a graduate trainee in the National Health Service. He worked at a number of hospitals in the UK and for a number of private companies, he now is managing partner for a consultancy Scriven Consulting, working with private and public bodies in the UK,southern Africa and South East Asia. Scriven was elected to Sheffield City Council in May 2000 for the Broomhill ward and became Leader of the Liberal Democrat Group in 2002.
He became Leader of the Council in 2008, following the local elections which saw the Liberal Democrats take control of Sheffield City Council. At the 2010 general election, he was the Liberal Democrat candidate for the Sheffield Central constituency losing to Labour's Paul Blomfield by 165 votes. Following the 2010 election, Scriven remained as Leader of the Council and, in November of that year, he received a Leader Award from the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, awarded annually to "recognise... the work of outstanding local and regional liberal and democrat politicians". In April 2011, The Guardian newspaper described Scriven as the "closest ally in local government" to Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg MP. In the article he discussedcoalition government's decision to "front-load" local government spending cuts and claimed it was right to front load the reductions in spending and it might not have been better to out the reductions across four years. In the May 2011 local elections, Labour regained control of the Council and Scriven resigned as Leader of the Liberal Democrat Group.
A year in the 2012 elections, Scriven lost his Broomhill seat. On 8 August 2014 it was announced, he was made the Baron Scriven of Hunters Bar in the City of Sheffield on 23 September 2014. During the 2015 general election campaign Lord Scriven made media headlines when he claimed on Twitter that Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron had told Liberal Democrat Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg that he did not believe the Conservatives would win a majority in a conversation before the election campaign. In May 2016 Scriven was again elected onto Sheffield City Council, for the Ecclesall Ward Scriven announced that he would not be seeking re-election to the Council when his term ended in May 2019. Lord Scriven made history in July 2017 by becoming the first male in the modern House of Lords, other than clergymen, to speak without a tie in a debate. In June 2017, Scriven married his partner of twenty two years Dr. David Black
David Blunkett, Baron Blunkett, is a former British politician, having represented the Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough constituency for 28 years through to 7 May 2015 when he stepped down at the general election. Blind since birth, coming from a poor family in one of Sheffield's most deprived districts, he rose to become Education and Employment Secretary, Home Secretary and Work and Pensions Secretary in Tony Blair's Cabinet following Labour's victory in the 1997 general election. After the 2001 general election he was promoted to Home Secretary, a position he held until 2004, when he resigned following publicity about his personal life. After the 2005 general election, he was appointed Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, though he resigned from that role that year following media coverage relating to external business interests in the period when he did not hold a cabinet post; the Cabinet Secretary Gus O'Donnell exonerated him from any wrongdoing in his letter of 25 November 2005.
On 20 June 2014, Blunkett announced to his constituency party that he would be standing down from the House of Commons at the next general election in May 2015. The editor of the right-wing The Spectator magazine, Fraser Nelson, commented, "He was never under-briefed, never showed any sign of his disability... he was one of Labour's best MPs – and one of the few people in parliament whose life I would describe as inspirational." Responding to a question from Blunkett on 11 March 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron said: "As a new backbencher, I will never forget coming to this place in 2001 and, in the light of the appalling terrorist attacks that had taken place across the world, seeing the strong leadership he gave on the importance of keeping our country safe. He is a remarkable politician, a remarkable man."In May 2015 he accepted a professorship in Politics in Practice at the University of Sheffield, in June 2015 he agreed to become Chairman of the Board of the University of Law. In addition to his other work with charities, he was chairman of the David Ross Multi Academy Charitable Trust from June 2015 to January 2017.
He is the President of the Association for Citizenship Teaching. In August 2015 he was awarded a peerage in the dissolution honours lists, he was created Baron Blunkett, of Brightside and Hillsborough in the City of Sheffield on 28 September 2015. David Blunkett was born on 6 June 1947 at Jessop Hospital, West Riding of Yorkshire, with improperly developed optic nerves due to a rare genetic disorder, he grew up in an underprivileged family. This left the surviving family in poverty since the board refused to pay compensation for two years because his father worked past the retirement age, dying at age 67. Blunkett was educated at schools for the blind in Shrewsbury, he was never sent for assessment at the School for the Blind in Worcester, instead attended the Royal National College for the Blind in Hereford. He was told at school that one of his few options in life was to become a lathe operator, he won a place at the University of Sheffield, where he gained a BA honours degree in Political Theory and Institutions.
He entered local politics on graduation, whilst gaining a Postgraduate Certificate in Education from Huddersfield Holly Bank College of Education. He spent a total of six years going to evening classes and day-release classes to get the qualifications needed to go to university, he worked as a clerk typist between 1967 and 1969 and as a lecturer in industrial relations and politics between 1973 and 1981. In 1970, at the age of 22, Blunkett became the youngest-ever councillor on Sheffield City Council and in Britain, being elected while a mature student, he served on Sheffield City Council from 1970 to 1988, was Leader from 1980 to 1987. He served on South Yorkshire County Council from 1973 to 1977; this was a time of decline for Sheffield's steel industry. The Conservative MP for Sheffield Hallam, Irvine Patnick, coined the phrase "Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire" to describe the left-wing politics of its local government. Sheffield City Council supported the National Union of Mineworkers in their 1984-85 strike, designated Sheffield a "nuclear-free zone", set up an Anti-Apartheid Working Party.
Blunkett became known as the leader of one of Labour's left-wing councils, sometimes described pejoratively as "loony left". Blunkett was one of the faces of the protest over rate-capping in 1985 which saw several Labour councils refuse to set a budget in a protest against Government powers to restrain their spending, he built up support within the Labour Party during his time as the council's leader during the 1980s, was elected to the Labour Party's National Executive Committee. Having unsuccessfully fought Sheffield Hallam in February 1974, at the 1987 general election he was elected Member of Parliament for Sheffield Brightside with a large majority in a safe Labour seat, he became a party spokesman on local government, joined the shadow cabinet in 1992 as Shadow Health Secretary and became Shadow Education Secretary in 1994. After Labour's landslide victory in the 1997 general election, he became Secretary of State for Education and Employment, thus becoming Britain's first blind cabinet minister (Henry Fawcett, husband of suffragist Millicent Fawcett, had been a member of the Privy Council, of which the Cabinet is the executive committee, m
Local Government Act 1985
The Local Government Act 1985 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Its main effect was to abolish the six county councils of the metropolitan counties, set up in 1974, 11 years earlier, by the Local Government Act 1972, along with the Greater London Council, established in 1965. In their place many single purpose authorities known collectively as'joint authorities' were established for fire service and passenger transport. An ad hoc education authority was established for Inner London and a planning authority for Greater London; the legislation permitted councils to form'joint arrangements' for waste disposal and other services that they wished to provide together. Time-limited residuary bodies were created to dispose of the assets of the former authorities. Following the victory of the Conservative Party at the 1979 general election, Margaret Thatcher's government were involved in a series of high-profile disputes with the GLC and Metropolitan County Councils. All of the authorities were controlled by, or came under the control of the opposition Labour Party during Thatcher's first term.
The Conservative manifesto for the 1983 general election pledged their abolition, describing the councils as "a wasteful and unnecessary tier of government". Having won a landslide victory in the 1983 General Election, the government published a white paper in October of that year, Streamlining the cities, its proposals formed the basis of the Local Government Bill. The core provision, section 1, stated that "the Greater London Council, it came into effect on 1 April 1986, with some powers being devolved to the metropolitan boroughs themselves and London boroughs and others to joint authorities consisting of members of each of the metropolitan district councils within each county. At the time of the Act, one third of the population of England were living in Greater London and the metropolitan counties. Time-limited residuary bodies were created to handle the disposal of the councils' assets. Part III of the Act set up the Inner London Education Authority, a committee of the GLC responsible for education in Inner London, as a directly elected body.
This was to remain in existence for only three years. The Local Government Act 1972 allowed councils to voluntarily form joint committees to provide services together and the Local Government Act 1985 extended this principle by directing local authorities to form some shared arrangements whilst permitting them to form others as they wished. Six metropolitan county councils were abolished and the local authority of Greater London. Greater London Council Greater Manchester County Council Merseyside County Council South Yorkshire County Council Tyne and Wear County Council West Midlands County Council West Yorkshire County Council Joint planning committee for Greater London Greater Manchester Trading Standards Joint Committee Merseyside County Trading Standards Joint Committee South Yorkshire Trading Standards Joint Committee Tyne and Wear Trading Standards Joint Committee West Midlands Trading Standards Joint Committee West Yorkshire Trading Standards Joint Committee East London Waste Authority Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority Merseyside Waste Disposal Authority North London Waste Authority Western Riverside Waste Authority West London Waste Authority Inner London Education AuthorityNote: The outer London borough councils and metropolitan district councils were education authorities.
A number of single purpose authorities were established, collectively known as joint authorities in the legislation. Fire and civil defence authoritiesGreater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority London Fire and Civil Defence Authority Merseyside Fire and Civil Defence Authority South Yorkshire Fire and Civil Defence Authority Tyne and Wear Fire and Civil Defence Authority West Midlands Fire and Civil Defence Authority West Yorkshire Fire and Civil Defence AuthorityPassenger transport authoritiesGreater Manchester Passenger Transport Authority Merseyside Passenger Transport Authority South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Authority Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority West Midlands Passenger Transport Authority West Yorkshire Passenger Transport AuthorityNote: London Regional Transport was established separately by the London Regional Transport Act 1984. Police authoritiesGreater Manchester Police Authority Merseyside Police Authority Northumbria Police Authority South Yorkshire Police Authority West Midlands Police Authority West Yorkshire Police AuthorityNote: The Metropolitan Police was under the control of the Home Office and unaffected by the legislation.
London Boroughs Grants Committee Greater Manchester Residuary Body London Residuary Body Merseyside Residuary Body South Yorkshire Residuary Body Tyne and Wear Residuary Body West Midlands Residuary Body West Yorkshire Residuary Body London Research Centre Local Government Act 1985, 1985 c. 51
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party of England and Wales is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales. Headquartered in London, since September 2018, its co-leaders are Jonathan Bartley; the Green Party has one representative in the House of Commons, one in the House of Lords, three in the European Parliament. In addition, it has various councillors in UK local government and two members of the London Assembly; the party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing economic policies, including well-funded, locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady state economy, it supports proportional representation. It takes a progressive approach to social policies such as civil liberties, animal rights, LGBT rights and drug policy reform; the party believes in nonviolence, basic income, a living wage, democratic participation. The party comprises various regional divisions, including the semi-autonomous Wales Green Party. Internationally, the party is affiliated to the European Green Party.
The Green Party of England and Wales was established in 1990 alongside the Scottish Green Party and the Green Party in Northern Ireland through the division of the pre-existing Green Party, a group, established as the PEOPLE Party in 1973. Experiencing centralising reforms spearheaded by the Green 2000 group in the early 1990s, the party sought to emphasise growth in local governance, doing so throughout the 1990s. In 2010, the party gained its first MP in former leader Caroline Lucas, who represents the constituency of Brighton Pavilion; the Green Party of England and Wales has its origins in the PEOPLE Party, founded in Coventry, Warwickshire, in February 1972. PEOPLE was renamed The Ecology Party in 1975, in 1985 changed again to the Green Party. In 1989 the party's Scottish branch split to establish the independent Scottish Green Party, with an independent Green Party in Northern Ireland developing shortly after, leaving those branches in England and Wales to form their own party; the Green Party of England and Wales is registered with the Electoral Commission as the Green Party.
In the 1989 European Parliament elections, the Green Party of England and Wales polled 15% of the vote with 2.3 million votes, the best performance of a Green party in a nationwide election. This gave it the third largest share of the vote after the Conservative and Labour parties, although because of the first-past-the-post voting system it failed to gain a Member of the European Parliament; this success has been attributed to both the increased respectability of environmentalism and the effects of the development boom in southern England in the late 1980s. Seeking to capitalise on the Greens' success in the EP elections, a group named Green 2000 was established in July 1990, arguing for an internal reorganisation of the party in order to develop it into an effective electoral force capable of securing seats in the House of Commons, its proposed reforms included a more centralised structure, the replacement of the existing party council with a smaller party executive, the establishment of delegate voting at party conferences.
Many party members opposed the reforms, believing that they would undermine the internal party democracy, amid the arguments various key members resigned or were dismissed from the Greens. Although Green 2000 proposals were defeated at the party's 1990 conference, they were overwhelmingly carried at their 1991 conference, resulting in an internal restructuring of the party. Between the end of 1990 and mid-1992, the party lost over half its members, with those polled indicating that frustration over a lack of clear and effective party leadership was a major reason in their decision; the party fielded more candidates than it had done before in the 1992 general election but was deemed to have performed poorly. In 1993, the party adopted its "Basis for Renewal" program in an attempt to bring together conflicting factions and thus save the party from bankruptcy and potential demise; the party sought to escape their reputation as an environmentalist single-issue party by placing greater emphasis on social policies.
Recognising their poor performance in the 1992 national elections, the party decided to focus on gaining support in local elections, targeting wards where there was a pre-existing support base of Green activists. In 1993, future party leader and MP Lucas gained a seat on Oxfordshire County Council, with other gains following in the 1995 and 1996 local elections; the Greens sought to build alliances with other parties in the hope of gaining representation at the parliamentary level. In Wales, the Greens endorsed Plaid Cymru candidate Cynog Dafis in the 1992 general election, having worked with him on a number of environmental initiatives. For the 1997 general election, the Ceredigion branch of the Greens endorsed Dafis as a joint Plaid Cymru/Green candidate, but this generated controversy with the party, with critics believing it improper to build an alliance with a party that did not share all of the Greens' views. In April 1995 the Green National Executive ruled that the party should withdraw from this alliance due to ideological differences.
As the Labour Party shifted to the political centre under the leadership of Tony Blair and his New Labour project, the Greens sought to gain the support of the party's dissafected leftists. During the 1999 European Parliament elections, the first to be held in the UK using proportional representation, the Greens gained their first Members of the European Parliament and Jean Lambert. At the inaugural London Assembly Elections in 2000, the party gained 11% of the vote and returned three Assembly Members, althoug
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of 2014, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights; this appellation carries its own competition for the status is hard-fought. The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria, although in England and Wales it was traditionally given to towns with diocesan cathedrals; this association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established in the early 1540s when King Henry VIII founded dioceses in six English towns and granted them city status by issuing letters patent. City status in Ireland was granted to far fewer communities than in England and Wales, there are only two pre–19th-century cities in present-day Northern Ireland. In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the state until the 19th century.
At that time, a revival of grants of city status took place, first in England, where the grants were accompanied by the establishment of new cathedrals, in Scotland and Ireland. In the 20th century, it was explicitly recognised that the status of city in England and Wales would no longer be bound to the presence of a cathedral, grants made since have been awarded to communities on a variety of criteria, including population size; the abolition of some corporate bodies as part of successive local government reforms, beginning with the Municipal Corporations Act 1840, has deprived some ancient cities of their status. However, letters patent have been issued for most of the affected cities to ensure the continuation or restoration of their status. At present and Elgin are the only former cities in the United Kingdom; the name "City" does not, in itself, denote city status. A number of large towns in the UK are bigger than some small cities, but cannot legitimately call themselves a city without the royal designation.
The initial cities of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities", mentioned by Gildas and listed by Nennius. In the 16th century, a town was recognised as a city by the English Crown if it had a diocesan cathedral within its limits, for which 22 dioceses existed in England & Wales; this association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established when Henry VIII founded new dioceses in six English towns and granted them city status by issuing letters patent, demonstrating these were discrete procedures. Some cities today are small because they were granted city status in or before the 16th century were unaffected by population growth during the Industrial Revolution—notably Wells and St Davids. After the 16th century, no new dioceses were created until the 19th century in England. A long-awaited resumption of creating dioceses began in 1836 with Ripon.
Ripon Town Council assumed that this had elevated the town to the rank of a city, started referring to itself as the City and Borough of Ripon. The next diocese formed was Manchester and its Borough Council began informally to use the title city; when Queen Victoria visited Manchester in 1851, widespread doubts surrounding its status were raised. The pretension was ended when the borough petitioned for city status, granted by letters patent in 1853; this forced Ripon to regularise its position. From this year Ripon bore city status whilst the expanding conurbation of Leeds – in the Ripon diocese – did not; the Manchester case established a precedent that any municipal borough in which an Anglican see was established was entitled to petition for city status. Accordingly, Truro, St Albans, Newcastle upon Tyne and Wakefield were all designated as cities between 1877 and 1888; this was not without opposition from the Home Office, which dismissed St Albans as "a fourth or fifth rate market town" and objected to Wakefield's elevation on grounds of population.
In one new diocese, Southwell, a city was not created, because it was a village without a borough corporation and therefore could not petition the Queen. The diocese covered the counties of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, the boroughs of Derby and Nottingham were disappointed that they would not be able to claim the title of city; the link with Anglican dioceses was broken within England in 1889 when Birmingham petitioned for city status on the grounds of its large population and history of good local government. At the time of the grant, Birmingham lacked an Anglican cathedral, although the parish church became a cathedral in 1905; this new precedent was followed by other large municipalities: Leeds and Sheffield became cities in 1893, Bradford, Kingston upon Hull and Nottingham were honoured on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The last three had been the largest county boroughs outside the London area without city status. Between 1897 and 1914, applications were received