Ecclesall Road is a road in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, that runs for about 3.6 miles south-west from Sheffield's city centre under the number A625. At Banner Cross, where the house numbers reach 1001, the road name changes to Ecclesall Road South and numbering restarts. Ecclesall Road, as a named road, finishes at Whirlow, although the course of the road continues as Hathersage Road. From the city centre to Banner Cross the road is home to student accommodation. In the suburb of Ecclesall, one of the UK's wealthiest districts, the road is bordered by rather large properties. Ecclesall Road is itself noted for its vast range of restaurants, bars cafes and shops, including many one-off boutiques; the Ecclesall Road shopping area is on the South side of the road, includes Hunters Bar and Sharrow Vale Road. As the road nears the City Centre, there is a large Marks and Spencers, gym and a Waitrose supermarket; the north side of the road is residential, containing the Hannover Flats and the districts of Broomhall, The Groves and Ranmoor.
Sunnybank Nature Reserve, established in 1985 and managed by the Wildlife Trust for Sheffield and Rotherham is located at the city centre end of the Road. The Sheffield Botanical Gardens are close to Ecclesall Road, opposite the Berkley Precinct shopping centre, it has a large student population from Sheffield Hallam University, who have a campus on nearby Collegiate Crescent, although there are some flats owned by the University of Sheffield. The road runs past Endcliffe Park and close to Ecclesall Woods. Notable residents of Ecclesall Road are the following people: Branwyn'The Blitz' Harris - a famous wrestler who moved there in the mid 50's from rural Mexico. Ecclesall Road was constructed in the early part of the 19th century, was operated as a turnpike road by the Sheffield and Chapel en le Frith Trust—the first toll being paid at Hunter's Bar; the tolls were abolished on 31 October 1884 and the toll house at Hunter's Bar was demolished, although the gate posts were preserved and are now situated in the centre of Hunters Bar roundabout.
In the early part of the 20th century the road was used by one of the city's tramway lines, terminating at the top of Woodholm Road. This was one of the first tram routes to close, being abandoned in March 1954 despite a petition against its closure of 11,000 signatures; the starting point of Ecclesall Road was the junction of London Road and Cemetery Road running past Sheffield General Cemetery, but the road was truncated at Moore Street when Sheffield's Inner Ring was constructed in the 1960s. Transport in Sheffield Sheffield Hallam Ecclesall War Memorial
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Doncaster and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, its largest settlement is Sheffield. Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east; the Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the UK, dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.
South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a High Sheriff. South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most Leave areas in the country. Although the modern county of South Yorkshire was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements and parts goes back centuries. Prehistoric remains include a Mesolithic "house" dating to around 8000 BC, found at Deepcar, in the northern part of Sheffield. Evidence of earlier inhabitation in the wider region exists about 3 miles over the county boundary at Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, where artefacts and rock art found in caves have been dated by archaeologists to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, at least 12,800 years ago.
The region was on the frontier of the Roman Empire during the Roman period. The main settlements of South Yorkshire grew up around the industries of mining and steel manufacturing; the main mining industry was coal, concentrated to the north and east of the county. There were iron deposits which were mined in the area; the rivers running off the Pennines to the west of the county supported the steel industry, concentrated in the city of Sheffield. The proximity of the iron and coal made this an ideal place for steel manufacture. Although Christian nonconformism was never as strong in South Yorkshire as in the mill towns of West Yorkshire, there are still many Methodist and Baptist churches in the area. South Yorkshire has a high number of followers of spiritualism, it is the only county. The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county—York and North Midlands—roughly centred on the southern part of the West Riding of Yorkshire and northern parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.
The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before it was able to issue a final report. The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the existing system of local government; the commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation. Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour government in February 1970. Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election, there was a commitment to local government reform, the need for a metropolitan county of South Yorkshire; the Local Government Act 1972 reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established South Yorkshire on 1 April 1974, although South Yorkshire County Council had been running since elections in 1973.
The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively". South Yorkshire had a two tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and four districts providing most services. In 1974, as part of the South Yorkshire Structure Plan of the environment and land use, South Yorkshire County Council commissioned a public attitudes survey covering job opportunities, educational facilities, leisure opportunities and medical services, shopping centres and transport in the county. In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished; the functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. The joint boards continue to include the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive; the South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner oversees South Yorkshire Police.
Although the county council was abolished, Sou
Benjamin Robert Haydon was a British painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, although he painted a few contemporary subjects and portraits. His commercial success was damaged by his tactless dealings with patrons, by the enormous scale on which he preferred to work, he was troubled by financial problems throughout his life, which led to several periods of imprisonment for debt. He committed suicide in 1846, he gave lectures on art, kept extensive diaries that were published after his death. Haydon was born in Plymouth, the only son of another Benjamin Robert Haydon, a prosperous printer and publisher, his wife Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Cobley, rector of Dodbrooke, near Kingsbridge, Devon. At an early age he showed an aptitude for study, fostered by his mother. At the age of six he was placed in Plymouth Grammar School, at twelve in Plympton Grammar School, where Sir Joshua Reynolds had received most of his education. Reading Albinus inspired him with a love for anatomy, from childhood he wanted to become a painter.
Full of energy and hope, he left home, on 14 May 1804, for London, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools. He was so enthusiastic. In 1807, at the age of 21, Haydon exhibited, at the Royal Academy; the painting he entered, The Repose in Egypt, was bought by Thomas Hope a year for the Egyptian Room at his townhouse in Duchess Street. This was a good start for Haydon, who shortly afterwards received a commission from Lord Mulgrave and an introduction to Sir George Beaumont. In 1809 he finished his picture of Dentatus, though it increased his fame, resulted in a lifelong quarrel with the Royal Academy, whose committee hung it in a small side-room instead of in the great hall; that same year, he took on his first pupil, Charles Lock Eastlake a leading figure in the British art establishment. The financial difficulties which were to dog him for the rest of his life began in 1810 when, in response to Haydon having achieved a certain amount of commercial success, his father stopped paying him his annual allowance of £200.
He became involved in disputes with Beaumont, for whom he had painted a picture of Macbeth, with Richard Payne Knight, who had outraged Haydon by denying both the aesthetic and the financial value of the sculptures from the Parthenon brought to Britain by Lord Elgin. Haydon was fascinated by the "Elgin Marbles", believed that they provided evidence that ancient Greek artists had studied anatomy; the Judgment of Solomon, his next production, was sold for £700, to two Plymouth bankers, brought £100 voted to him by the directors of the British Institution, the freedom of the borough of Plymouth. The income was not enough to pay off all his debts, but it maintained his credit, allowing him to continue borrowing. At the end of May 1814 Haydon took advantage of the cessation of hostilities with France to visit Paris with his friend David Wilkie, see the art collections gathered by Napoleon from across Europe at the Louvre. Much of what he saw there disappointed him: he described Raphael's Transfiguration, a painting he had wanted to see, as "small & insignificant".
At François Gerard's studio he saw a portrait of Napoleon, began to develop a fascination with the defeated French leader, unlike some of his more radical friends such as William Hazlitt, Haydon never admired him politically. On returning to England, he produced Christ's Entry into Jerusalem, to form the nucleus of the American Gallery of Painting, erected by his cousin, John Haviland of Philadelphia. While painting another large work, the Resurrection of Lazarus, his financial problems increased, he was arrested but not imprisoned, the sheriff-officer taking his word for his appearance. In October, 1821, he increased his commitments when he married Mary Hyman, a widow with two young children, whom he had known for some years. In 1823 Haydon spent two months imprisoned for debt in the King's Bench Prison, where he received consoling letters from leading men of the day. While there, he drew up a petition to Parliament in favour of the appointment of "a committee to inquire into the state of encouragement of historical painting", presented by Lord Brougham.
During 1825, following an agreement for his financial support with his lawyer, Thomas Kearsey, Haydon turned, rather unwillingly, to portrait painting, at first had considerable success. His works in the genre were, attacked in a savage review in Theodore Hook's weekly newspaper John Bull. Haydon blamed the article for his loss of clientele, falling back into unmanageable levels of debt. Following a second period of incarceration at the King's Bench Prison in 1827, he painted the Mock Election inspired by an incident he had witnessed there; the picture was bought by King George IV for £500. Encouraged by this success, he painted a companion picture, Chairing the Member, returning to the prison to make drawings of some of the inmates. A third painting of contemporary life showed the audience at a Punch and Judy show in the New Road at Marylebone, his hopes that the king would buy this work were disappointed, a setback he blamed on the actions of the Keeper of the King's Pictures, William Seguier.
Among Haydon's other pictures were: Eucles. Curtius Leaping into the Gulf, Uriel and Satan; as a supporter of parliamentary reform, he had the idea of painting a grand canvas of a
Yorkshire Carnegie is an English rugby union club in Leeds, West Yorkshire, which plays in the RFU Championship. The club was founded in 1991 as Leeds RUFC. In 1998, the club merged with Leeds Rhinos to form Leeds Rugby Limited known as Leeds Tykes. In 2007, Leeds Metropolitan University bought a 51% stake in the club and changed the name to fit with the university's sport department, Carnegie College. At the end of the 2008–09 season, ownership of the club passed back into the hands of Leeds Rugby. Leeds have bounced between the Premiership and the second-level National Division One, now known as the RFU Championship. Leeds were relegated from the Premiership as bottom finishers in 2006, promoted as National Division One champions in 2007, relegated again from the Premiership in 2008, promoted a second time as National Division One champions in 2009, they managed to stay in the Premiership in the 2009–10 season, which helped to secure their financial future. In 2009–10, they only received 60% of a full share of Premiership revenues.
Headingley has a tradition of rugby which started back in 1877, after several youngsters became interested in rugby after watching Leeds St. John's to become the Leeds Rhinos rugby league team, their first game was in November against the Saints second team. Union was centred around a church club; the original rugby union team was Leeds St John's and it played at the Militia Barracks ground before moving to Cardigan Fields. The Headingley name was adopted in 1878 and Cardigan Fields was used for both rugby and cricket. On 5 January 1884, England played Wales there and won 5–3 with a crowd in the region of 2,000 in attendance; the club playing there was disbanded but was re-formed again in 1885 under the auspices of the Headingley Hill Chapel Sunday Class and played matches on local fields against local teams, including Roundhay. In 1888, the Cardigan Estate was sold at auction and Lot 17a was purchased by a group of Leeds citizens, who intended to form the city's leading sports club. Lot 17a became.
Leeds St John's played their final season under that name in 1889–90, before becoming the football section of Leeds Cricket and Athletic Company Ltd the following season. With Headingley still being completed, Leeds' first game was staged at Cardigan Fields, the home side defeating Otley; the first game at Headingley was played on 20 September 1890, when Manningham were beaten by one try and one dropped goal to nil. Leeds were founder members of the Northern Union when it broke away from the Rugby Football Union in 1895. Leeds' début in the Northern Union was a 6–3 victory at Leigh on 7 September 1895, the inaugural day of the new competition; the development of the playing fields into the Headingley ground was down to Lord Hawke, behind the creation of the Leeds Cricket and Athletic Company and the purchase of lot 17A of the Cardigan Estate.. However, this saw the demise of the Leeds club; the part, to become the Rugby League club in 1895-6 stayed at the Headingley ground and Headingley RUFC was reborn in 1891 finishing up in 1902 in Clarence Fields, Kirkstall.
Two other internationals were played in Leeds before the split between Union and League, against Ireland and Scotland, both ending in defeat. In 1889, Headingley was disbanded when Leeds St. John's moved into the area, built Headingley Rugby Stadium and dropped the St. John's from their name. However, Headingley bounced back and found fixtures outside Yorkshire, in 1901 their fixture list including a game against the famous Blackheath Rugby Club. Roundhay were moved to their ground at Chandos Park in the 1930s. Forty internationals have played for one team or the other the best known being Peter Winterbottom, Ian McGeechan and Chris Rea, who played for Headingley. Former Scotland coach Frank Hadden had a spell at Headingley, where his and McGeechan's playing paths crossed, at the tail end of his career. Brian Moore played for Roundhay before selection for England. Leeds RUFC was founded in 1991 after the merger of Headingley; the new club played their first match on 1 September 1992 against Hull Ionians.
The first try was scored by Glynn Thompson of Roundhay. Richard Cardus, Bev Dovey, Denis Wilkins and Keith Smith all won international caps while in the Roundhay ranks. Smith featured in England's first full tour of Australia in 1975, but had to return home injured and Wilkins, in the Royal Navy, won 13 caps, between 1951–53; when they amalgamated in 1991–92, both clubs were in National Division Three. In the first season in National Three, Leeds finished 6th, but League reorganisation put the club in National Division Four, with finishes of 6th, 6th and 5th in 1995–96; the following season, they finished 3rd, scoring 1,209 points in thirty games, with the former England ‘A’ outside-half Gerry Ainscough scoring 307 points, the ex-Scotland'A' utility back Mark Appleson scoring sixteen tries. In 1997–98, they were promoted from the newly formed Jewson One to Premiership Two, finishing runners-up to Worcester; the Tongan Sateki Tuipulotu scored a club record 322 points. In 1998, the club amalgamated with Leeds Rhinos to form Leeds Rugby Limited.
Leeds RUFC took on a new name when they entered Leeds Tykes. The Tykes finished 6th in their first season in Premiership Two with t
Helena Kennedy, Baroness Kennedy of The Shaws
Helena Ann Kennedy, Baroness Kennedy of The Shaws, QC, FRSA, HonFRSE is a British barrister and Labour member of the House of Lords. She served as Principal of Mansfield College, Oxford from 2011 to 2018. Kennedy was born on 12 May 1950 in Scotland to a devoutly Roman Catholic family, she is one of four sisters born to Joshua Patrick and Mary Veronica Kennedy, both committed Labour activists. Her father, a printer with the Daily Record, was a trade union official, she attended Holyrood Secondary School in Glasgow. Kennedy still attends Mass and professes that her Catholicism "remains much part of who I am" though she eschews its more traditional values, she went on to study Law at London's Council of Legal Education. Among her many cases, Kennedy acted as junior counsel for child murderer Myra Hindley during the latter's 1974 trial for plotting to escape from Holloway. Kennedy rebels against her party whip in the House of Lords more than any other Labour Peer, having a dissent rate of 33.3%. She was Chair of Charter 88 and is affiliated to the educational charity Common Purpose.
Kennedy was elected principal of Mansfield College, Oxford in July 2010 and served from September 2011. She retired in 2018 and became Chancellor of Sheffield Hallam University on 26 July 2018, her first partner was the actor Iain Mitchell, with whom she lived from 1978 until 1984, by whom she has a son. In 1986, Kennedy married Dr Iain Louis Hutchison, with whom she has a son, she has received numerous academic awards, including: Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts Fellow of the City and Guilds of London Institute Member of the Académie Universelle des Cultures Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2005 Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2005 Honorary Fellow, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Honorary Fellow, University of Cambridge, 2010 Honorary Fellow, School of Oriental and African Studies, 2011 Honorary Doctorate of Law, Plymouth University, 2012 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2014 Creator: Blind Justice, BBC TV, 1987 Presenter: Heart of the Matter, BBC TV, 1987 After Dark, Channel 4 and BBC4, 1987–2003 She presented many editions of this series, including the "drunk Oliver Reed" episode, where the actor verbally insulted and attempted to kiss feminist Kate Millett Presenter: Raw Deal on Medical Negligence, BBC TV, 1989 Presenter: The Trial of'Lady Chatterley's Lover', BBC Radio 4, 1990 Presenter: Time Gentlemen, Please, BBC Scotland, 1994 Commissioner, BAFTA Inquiry into the future of the BBC, 1990 President, Helena Kennedy Foundation President of the Board the Governors of the School of Oriental and African Studies President, Women of the Year Lunch Chair, JUSTICE Chair of the Board of Governors for the United World College of the Atlantic President, Medical Aid for Palestinians Patron, Burma Campaign UK, the London-based group campaigning for human rights and democracy in Burma Member of the Board of Independent News and Media Trustee, KPMG Foundation Chancellor of Oxford Brookes University Chancellor of Sheffield Hallam University Chair, British Council Chair, Human Genetics Commission President of the National Children's Bureau Kennedy chaired the Power Commission, which examined the problem of democratic disengagement in the United Kingdom.
A report was produced which highlighted the "Myth of Apathy" and the lack of political engagement Chair of Power 2010, which aimed to carry forward the concepts behind the Power Commission into the UK 2010 General Election Member of the World Bank Institute's External Advisory Council Member of the board of the British Museum Vice-President of the Haldane Society Vice-President of the Association of Women Barristers Patron, London International Festival of Theatre liftfestival.com Patron, Institute for Learning http://www.ifl.ac.uk Patron, Liberty Patron, UNLOCK, The National Association of Ex-Offenders Patron, Debt Doctors Foundation UK Patron, Tower Hamlets Summer University Patron, Rights Watch Patron of SafeHands for Mothers, a UK-based charity whose mission is to improve maternal and newborn health by harnessing the power of the visual, through the production of films. Chair, Howard League's Commission of Inquiry into Violence in Penal Institutions for Young People Chair, Reading Borough Council's Commission of Inquiry into the health and safety aspects of the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston Chair, Royal Colleges of Pathologists' and of Pædiatrics' Inquiry into Sudden Infant Death Member of the Foreign Policy Centre's Advisory Council Formerly UK member of the International Bar Association's Task Force on Terrorism As Commissioner of the National Commission for Education, she chaired a committee on widening participation in further education and the Commission's report, Learning Works, published in 1997.
Created a Life Peer, as Baroness Kennedy of The Shaws, of Cathcart in the City of Glasgow on 27 October 1997 Grand Cross, Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana Commandeur, Ordre des Palmes Académiques Eve was Framed: Women and British Justice, 1993.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second