The Hidatsa are a Siouan people. Hidatsa are enrolled in the federally recognized Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota, their language is related to that of the Crow, they are sometimes considered a parent tribe to the modern Crow in Montana. The Hidatsa's autonym is Hiraacá. According to the tribal tradition, the word hiraacá derives from the word "willow"; the present name Hidatsa was borne by one of the three tribal villages. When the villages consolidated, the name was adopted for the tribe as a whole, they are called the Minnetaree by the Mandan. The nomadic Gros Ventre were called Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie, Minnetarees of the Prairie, Minnetarees of the Plains or Gros Ventres of the Prairie while the semisedentary Hidatsa were known as Minnetarees of the Missouri or Gros Ventres of the Missouri. For hundreds of years the Knife River area in present North Dakota was the home of the Hidatsa and their ancestors; the first villages dates back to the 13th century.
Accounts of recorded history in the early 18th century identify three related village groups to which the term Hidatsa is applied. What is now known as the Hidatsa tribe is the amalgamation of these three groups, which had discrete histories and spoke different dialects; the Awaxawi or Amahami have a creation tradition similar to that of the Mandan, which describes their emergence long ago from the Earth, at Devil's Lake. They moved westward to the Painted Woods and settled near a village of Mandan and another of Awatixa; the Awatixa or Awadixá originated not from the sky, led by Charred Body. According to their tradition, their first people lived near Painted Woods, "where they were created." After that they always lived between the Heart River and Knife River along the Middle Missouri River. The Hidatsa proper or Hiraacá / Hiratsa, largest of the three, were a confederation of numerous nomadic Hidatsa bands from the north, who separated from the Awaxawi/Amahami in what is now western Minnesota.
First they settled to the north later moved south to Devil's Lake. In their travels they met the Mandan and moved westward and settled with these distant relatives north of the Knife River, where they adopted agriculture and permanent villages, they moved to the mouth of Knife River. Their territory ranged upstream along the Missouri River, its tributary regions to the west, the Mouse River and Devils Lake regions to the northeast, they were part of those who would become the River Crow. The Hidatsa called the Crow Nation Gixaa'iccá / Gixáa-iccá; the Hidatsa lived in Miri xopash / Mirixubáash / Miniwakan, the Devils Lake region of North Dakota, before being pushed southwestward by the Lakota. As they migrated west, the Hidatsa came across the Mandan at the mouth of the Heart River; the two groups formed an alliance, settled into an amiable division of territory along the area's rivers. Prior to the epidemic of 1782, they had few enemies; the Hidatsa hunted upstream from the earthlodge villages below the Knife River.
Here, between the Knife and Yellowstone River, they were numerous enough to withstand attacks of the Assiniboine, who hunted in the area but wintered on the Missouri River, as part of the mighty Iron Confederacy they were an opponent the Hidatsa had to pay attention to. A remarkable siege of the village Big Hidatsa by the Sioux around 1790 ended with a major victory for the inhabitants, they killed 100 or more retreating Sioux in a counter attack, according to the sources. The Hidatsa played a central role in the Great Plains Indian trading networks based on an advantageous geographical position combined with a surplus from agriculture and craft. Historical sources show that the Hidatsa villages were visited by Cree, Crow, Arapaho, Plains Apache and Comanche. White traders from the north, like North West Company man David Thompson, began to visit the Hidatsa and Mandan villages during the 1790s. In 1800, a group of Hidatsa abducted Sacagawea and several other girls in a battle that resulted in death among the Shoshone of four men, four women and several boys.
She was taken as a captive to a Hidatsa village near North Dakota. In 1804, Lewis and Clark came to the Hidatsa in three villages at the mouth of the Knife River, the Mandan in two villages a few miles lower down on the Missouri River. In July 1825, the "Grovonters came into council & treaties of peace & Trade & friendship were concluded" with the United States; the tribe – in the document called "Belantse-Etoa or Minitaree" – recognized the supremacy of the United States, whether it understood it or not. The peace treaty was never broken. "We have always
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries in what is now North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the Mandan lived along both banks of the Upper Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife rivers— in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, they developed a agrarian culture, they established permanent villages featuring large, earth lodges, some 40 feet in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. Matrilineal families lived in the lodges; the Mandan were a great trading nation, trading their large corn surpluses with other tribes in exchange for bison meat and fat. Food was the primary item, but they traded for horses and other trade goods; the Mandan population was 3,600 in the early 18th century. It is estimated to have been 10,000-15,000 before European encounter. Decimated by a widespread smallpox epidemic in 1781, the people had to abandon several villages, remnants of the Hidatsa gathered with them in a reduced number of villages.
In 1836, there were more than 1,600 full-blood Mandans but, following another smallpox epidemic in 1836-37, this number was estimated to have dropped to 125 by 1838. In the 20th century, the people began to recover. In the 1990s, 6,000 people were enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes. In the 2010 Census, 1,171 people reported Mandan ancestry; some 365 of them identified as full-bloods, 806 had partial Mandan ancestry. The English name Mandan is derived from the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de la Verendrye, who in 1738 heard it as Mantannes from his Assiniboine guides, which call the Mandan Mayádąna, he had heard the earth lodge peoples referred to by the Cree as Ouachipouennes, "the Sioux who go underground". The Assiniboine are Siouan speakers. Nearby Siouan speakers had exonyms similar to Mantannes in their languages, for instance, Teton Miwáthaŋni or Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc; the Mandan have used differing autonyms to refer to themselves: Numakaki was inclusive and not limited to a specific village or band.
This name was used before the smallpox epidemic of 1837-1838. Nueta, the name used after this epidemic was the name of Mandan villagers living on the west bank of the Missouri River; the Mandan used Nųmą́khų́·ki / Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. This word fell to disuse and instead two divisions' names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare; the term Nų́ʔetaa / Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 means "people on the river bank", but this may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Mandani, Mantannes, Mendanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́'kši, Wíhwatann, Mevataneo. Gloria Jahoda in Trail of Tears states that they call themselves the "Pheasant people." George Catlin said the Mandans The Mandan language or Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo belongs to the Siouan language family. It was thought to be related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow.
However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages has been obscured. For this reason, linguists classify Mandan most as a separate branch of the Siouan family. Mandan has two main dialects: Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utah has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993; as of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive. As of 2010, programs in local schools encourage students' learning the language; the Mandan and their language received much attention from European Americans, in part because their lighter skin color caused speculation they were of European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words.
The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, was supported by George Catlin, but researchers have found no evidence of such ancestry. Mandan has different grammatical forms. Questions asked of men must use the suffix -oʔša while the suffix -oʔrą is used when asking of women; the indicative suffix is -oʔs when addressing men and -oʔre when addressing women, for imperatives: -ta, -rą. Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A /s/ sound denotes smallness/less intensity, /ʃ/ denotes medium-ness, /x/ denotes largeness/greater intensity: síre "yellow" šíre "tawny" xíre "brown" sró "tinkle" xró "rattle" The exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown. Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsin. Scholars theorize the Mandan ance
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since major explorations after the Age of Discovery have occurred for reasons aimed at information discovery. In scientific research, exploration is one of three purposes of empirical research; the term is used metaphorically. For example, an individual may speak of exploring the Internet, etc; the Phoenicians traded throughout the Mediterranean Sea and Asia Minor though many of their routes are still unknown today. The presence of tin in some Phoenician artifacts suggests. According to Virgil's Aeneid and other ancient sources, the legendary Queen Dido was a Phoenician from Tyre who sailed to North Africa and founded the city of Carthage. Hanno the Navigator, a Carthaginean navigator explored the Western Coast of Africa.
The Greek explorer from Marseille, Pytheas was the first to circumnavigate Great Britain, explore Germany, reach Thule. Romans -under Augustus emperor- reached and explored all the Baltic Sea Africa ExplorationThe Romans organized expeditions to cross the Sahara desert with five different routes: through the western Sahara, toward the Niger river and actual Timbuktu. Through the Tibesti mountains, toward Lake Chad and actual Nigeria through the Nile river, toward actual Uganda. Though the western coast of Africa, toward the Canary Islands and the Cape Verde islands. Through the Red Sea, toward actual Somalia and Tanzania. All these expeditions were supported by legionaries and had a commercial purpose. Only the one done by emperor Nero seemed to be a preparative for the conquest of Ethiopia or Nubia: in 62 AD two legionaries explored the sources of the Nile river. One of the main reasons of the explorations was to get gold using the camel to transport it; the explorations near the African western and eastern coasts were supported by Roman ships and related to the naval commerce.
Romans organized several explorations in Northern Europe, as far as Asia up to China. 30 BC-640 AD. The Empire now has a direct connection to the Spice trade Egypt had established beginning in 118 BC.100 AD-166 AD Romano-Chinese relations begin. Ptolemy writes of the Golden Chersonese and the trade port of Kattigara, now identified as Óc Eo in northern Vietnam part of Jiaozhou, a province of the Chinese Han Empire; the Chinese historical texts describe Roman embassies, from a land they called Daqin.2nd century Roman traders reach Siam, Cambodia and Java.161 An embassy from Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius or his successor Marcus Aurelius reaches Chinese Emperor Huan of Han at Luoyang.226 A Roman diplomat or merchant lands in northern Vietnam and visits Nanjing and the court of Sun Quan, ruler of Eastern Wu During the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty explored much of the Eastern Northern Hemisphere. Starting in 139 BC, the Han diplomat Zhang Qian traveled west in an unsuccessful attempt to secure an alliance with the Da Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.
When Zhang returned to China in 125 BC, he reported on his visits to Dayuan and Daxia. Zhang described Dayuan and Daxia as agricultural and urban countries like China, although he did not venture there, described Shendu and Anxi further west. From about 800 AD to 1040 AD, the Vikings explored Europe and much of the Western Northern Hemisphere via rivers and oceans. For example, it is known that the Norwegian Viking explorer, Erik the Red, sailed to and settled in Greenland after being expelled from Iceland, while his son, the Icelandic explorer Leif Ericson, reached Newfoundland and the nearby North American coast, is believed to be the first European to land in North America. Polynesians were a maritime people, who populated and explored the central and south Pacific for around 5,000 years, up to about 1280 when they discovered New Zealand; the key invention to their exploration was the outrigger canoe, which provided a swift and stable platform for carrying goods and people. Based on limited evidence, it is thought.
It is unknown if one or more boats went to New Zealand, or the type of boat, or the names of those who migrated. 2011 studies at Wairau Bar in New Zealand show a high probability that one origin was Ruahine Island in the Society Islands. Polynesians may have used the prevailing north easterly trade winds to reach New Zealand in about three weeks; the Cook Islands are in direct line along the migration path and may have been an intermediate stopping point. There are cultural and language similarities between New Zealand Maori. Early Maori had different legends of their origins, but the stories were misunderstood and reinterpreted in confused written accounts by early European historians in New Zealand trying to present a coherent pattern of Maori settlement in New Zealand. Mathematical modell
Animal trapping, or trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, pest control, wildlife management. Neolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine, used traps to capture their prey. An early mention in written form is a passage from the self-titled book by Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi describes Chinese methods used for trapping animals during the 4th century BC; the Zhuangzi reads, "The sleek-furred fox and the elegantly spotted leopard...can't seem to escape the disaster of nets and traps.” "Modern" steel jaw-traps were first described in western sources as early as the late 16th century. The first mention comes from Leonard Mascall's book on animal trapping, it reads, "a griping trappe made all of yrne, the lowest barre, the ring or hoope with two clickets." The mousetrap, with a strong spring device spring mounted on a wooden base, was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, Illinois, in 1894.
Native Americans trapped fur bearing animals with pits, dead falls, snares. Trapping was widespread in the early days of North American settlements, companies such as the Canadian fur brigade were established. In the 18th century blacksmiths manually built leghold traps, by the mid-19th century trap companies manufacturing traps and fur stretchers, became established; the monarchs and trading companies of Europe invested in voyages of exploration. The race was on to establish trading posts with the natives of North America, as trading posts could function as forts and legitimize territorial claims; the Hudson's Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, knives, frying pans and blankets for furs from trappers and Native Americans. Trappers and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur, they traded with Native Americans from whom they learned trapping skills. Beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats.
Beaver hats became popular in the early 19th century but the fashion changed. Towards the end of the century beaver became locally extinct in others; the decline in key species of fur-bearers, due to over-harvesting, the emergence of the first regulatory laws marked the end of the heyday of unregulated trapping. Many trappers turned to buffalo hunting, serving as scouts for the army or leading wagon trains to the American west; the trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were used by settlers heading west. Trapping is carried out for a variety of reasons, it was for food and other animal products. Trapping has since been expanded to encompass "pest control", wildlife management, the pet trade, zoological specimens. In the early days of the colonization settlement of North America, the trading of furs was common between the Dutch and Native Americans, the French and Native Americans or English and the local Native Americans. Many locations where trading took place were referred to as trading posts.
Much trading occurred along the Hudson River area in the early 1600s. In some locations in the US and in many parts of southern and western Europe, trapping generates much controversy as it is seen as a contributing factor to declining populations in some species. One such example is the Canadian Lynx. In the 1970s and 1980s, the threat to lynx from trapping reached a new height when the price for hides rose to as much as $600 each. By the early 1990s, the Canada lynx was a clear candidate for Endangered Species Act protection. In response to the lynx’s plight, more than a dozen environmental groups petitioned FWS in 1991 to list lynx in the lower 48 states. Fish and Wildlife Services (FW regional offices and field biologists supported the petition, but FWS officials in the Washington, D. C. headquarters turned it down. In March 2000, the FWS listed the lynx as threatened in the lower 48. In recent years, the prices of fur pelts have declined so low, that some trappers are considering not to trap as the cost of trapping exceeds the return on the furs sold at the end of the season.
Beaver castors are used in many perfumes as a sticky substance. Trappers are paid by the government of Ontario to harvest the castor sacs of beavers and are paid from 10–40 dollars per dry pound when sold to the Northern Ontario Fur Trappers Association. In the early 1900s, muskrat glands were used in making perfume or women just crush the glands and rub them on their body. Trapping is used for pest control of beaver, raccoon, bobcat, Virginia opossum, squirrel, rat and mole in order to limit damage to households, food supplies, farming and property. Traps are used as a method of pest control as an alternative to pesticides. Spring traps which holds the animal are used — mousetraps for mice, or the larger rat traps for larger rodents like rats and squirrel. Specific traps are designed for inverterbrates such as spiders; some mousetraps can double as an insect or universal trap, like the glue traps which catch any small animal that walks upon them. Though it is common to state that trapping is an effective means of pest control, a counter-example is found in the work of Dr. Jon Way, a biologist in Massachusetts.
Dr Way reported that the death or disappearance of a territorial male coyote can lead to double litters, postulates a possible resultant increase in coyote density. Coexistence programs that take this scientific research into account are being pursued by groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animal
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Mitutanka was the lower Mandan village at the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition. At the time that Lewis and Clark visited. After a catastrophic smallpox epidemic, the Nuitadi Mandans of Good Boy moved north and built Mitutanka at the confluence of the Knife River with the Missouri River. Mitutanka was on the west Bank while the Ruptare town of Ruptare was on the east bank of the Missouri
Big White Ski Resort
Big White Ski Resort, or Big White, is a ski resort located 56 km southeast of Kelowna in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Located on Big White Mountain, the highest summit in the Okanagan Highland, an upland area between the Monashee Mountains and the Okanagan Valley, it is the third largest resort in British Columbia, after Whistler-Blackcomb and Sun Peaks; the mountain summit is at 2,319 m with a vertical drop of 777 m, serviced by 16 lifts. The mountain receives 750 cm of annual snowfall, it has 2,765 acres of overall skiable terrain. With 38 acres of night skiing, Big White has western Canada's largest resort night skiing area, it has a central village classified as a designated place by Statistics Canada, which comprises accommodation, eateries and shops. The village is 1,755 m above sea level. Big White opened in 1963 with one T-bar; the Ridge Chair opened in the early 1970s. The Powder Chair, The Easter Chair, the Village Chair opened thereafter. In the mid 1980s the Easter Chair was moved to replace the bunny hill t-bar and was renamed the Village chair.
The Ridge Rocket Express replaced the double chair in 1989 and the Bullet Express replaced the Summit and Village chairs in 1991. The Alpine T-Bar was extended around this time as well; the Falcon Chair, in fact the old Ridge Chair, opened up the west side of the hill in 1992. The Gem Lake Express, which doubled the skiable era, opened in 1997; the Snow Ghost Express, adjacent to the Ridge Rocket, ended annoyingly long lineups when it opened in 2006. Shred and Shred 2, are snowboarding movies starring Tom Green and Dave England were filmed at Silver Star and Big White. Big White has a total of 27 unnamed trails. 18% of these trails are beginner, 56% intermediate and the remaining 26% are classed as expert. The wooded areas between trails are all open, can offer a variety of ungroomed snow and varied terrain. Big White has one 8-passenger high speed gondola, one 6-passenger high speed chair, four 4-passenger high speed chairs, two 4-passenger fixed grip chairs, three 2-passenger chairs, one T-bar, one children's and one adult's magic carpet.
There is a tubing carpet lift. These lifts are capable of transporting 28,000 people per hour uphill. All feeder lifts now passes; the eastern side of Big White is. The runs on this side are shorter and more crowded than those found over on the Gem Lake side; the most advanced runs are located on this side underneath the Cliff chair. The Cliff Chair closed during the 2008 season, pending an investigation by avalanche experts after the Parachute Bowl slipped in January 2008. There is one high-speed detachable 6-seater chair, three high-speed detachable quad chairs, one fixed-grip quad chairlift, three double chairlifts, a single T-bar, the Alpine T-bar; the Ridge Rocket chair has a small lodge at its base, the base of the Bullet chair is near the main village. The new 6-seater lift was built for the 2006-2007 season parallel to Ridge Rocket Express to reduce lift lines. Gem Lake is located on the western side of Big White and is served by the Gem Lake high-speed detachable quad chair; the Falcon and Powder Chairs and four person lifts are nearby.
The Gem Lake lift is windier than the east side lifts, but offers the largest single-lift vertical drop at the hill at 710 m. It has a lodge known as the Westridge Warming Hut complete with washrooms, coffee shop, ticket sales and large parking lot at its base. Traditionally tourists tend to ski more on the east side while locals from Kelowna and other nearby towns will ski Gem Lake more than tourists; the addition of several new groomed blue and green runs at Gem Lake have allowed this area to be much more family friendly to the beginner / intermediate skier or rider. The ski resort is expected to unveil plans in the near future that call for the addition of 2,000 acres of skiable area on the East Peak; this new area will be intermediate and advanced terrain and the expansion will be on land leased from the province. Included in the plans are a second base area, a new residential area and a golf course. Big White opened the Telus Park in the 2004/2005 season, it features a standard sized half-pipe along with a skier/border cross course and beginner through to advanced rails and jumps.
The park is separated into two sides. Big White is exclusive to a snow-cross run identical to the one at the Olympics. Big White has 25 km of Nordic trails. You can dog-sled as well as cross-country ski on the cross-country trails. A small number of them have snowmobiles. There is one warming hut on the trail. Big White has offering classes for all ages and all skill levels. Big White is in the process of submitting an updated Master Plan. Activities include the Mega Snow Coaster, once the largest tubing park in North America, snowmobile tours, Kids snow mobile rides, sleigh riding, dog sleds, snowshoeing through Big White's beautiful trails, ice skating on the Olympic sized outdoor rink with a scenic view. Big White also