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Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the architectural masterpieces of Iranian architecture, built during the Safavid Empire, standing on the eastern side of Naqsh-i Jahan Square, Iran. Construction of the mosque started in 1603 and was finished in 1619, it was built during the reign of Shah Abbas I of Persia. On the advice of Arthur Upham Pope, Reza Shah Pahlavi had the mosque rebuilt and repaired in the 1920s. Of the four monuments that dominated the perimeter of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square, this one was the first to be built; the purpose of this mosque was. For this reason, the mosque is smaller. Indeed, few Westerners at the time of the Safavids paid any attention to this mosque, they did not have access to it, it was not until centuries when the doors were opened to the public, that ordinary people could admire the effort that Shah Abbas had put into making this a sacred place for the ladies of his harem, the exquisite tile-work, far superior to that covering the Shah Mosque. To avoid having to walk across the Square to the mosque, Shah Abbas had the architect build a tunnel spanning the piazza from the Ali Qapu Palace to the mosque.

On reaching the entrance of the mosque, one would have to walk through a passage that winds round and round, until one reached the main building. Along this passage there were standing guards, the obvious purpose of this design was to shield the women of the harem as much as possible from anyone’s entering the building. At the main entrance there were standing guards, the doors of the building were kept closed at all times. Today, these doors are open to visitors, the passage underneath the field is no longer in use. Throughout its history, this mosque has been referred to by different names. For Junabadi it was the mosque with the great dome and the domed mosque, while contemporary historian Iskandar Munshi referred to it as the mosque of great purity and beauty. On the other hand, European travellers, such as Jean Chardin referred to the mosque using the current name, Quranic inscriptions within the mosque, done by Iranian calligrapher Baqir Banai include the name of Sheikh Lutfallah. In addition, the reckonings of Muhibb Ali Beg, the Imperial Treasurer, show that the Imam's salary came directly from the imperial household's resources.

All this suggests that not only was the building indeed named after Sheikh Lutfallah, but that this famous imam was among the first prayer-leaders for the royal court in this mosque. The entrance gateway, like those of the Grand Bazaar and the Masjed-e Shah, was a recessed half-moon; as in the Masjed-e Shah, the lower façade of the mosque and the gateway are constructed of marble, while the haft-rangi tiles decorate the upper parts of the structure. The creation of the calligraphy and tiles, which exceed, in both beauty and quality, anything created in the Islamic world, was overseen by Master calligrapher Ali Reza Abbasi; the monument's architect was Mohammad-Reza Isfahani, who solved the problem of the difference between the direction of qibla and gateway of the building by devising an L-shaped connecting vestibule between the entrance and the enclosure. Reza Abbasi's inscription on the entry gateway gives the date of the start of construction; the north-south orientation of the Maydan does not agree with south-west direction of qibla.

This feature, called pāshnah in Persian architecture, has caused the dome to stand not behind the entrance iwan. Its single-shell dome is 13 metres in diameter; the exterior side is richly covered with tiles. Compared with the Shah Mosque, the design of the Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque is quite simple: there is no courtyard, there are no interior iwans; the building itself consists of a flattened dome resting on a square dome chamber. However, in contrast to the simple structure of this mosque, the decoration of both interior and exterior is exceedingly complex, in its construction the finest materials were used and the most talented craftsmen employed. Robert Byron wrote about this sight: I know of no finer example of the Persian Islamic genius than the interior of the dome: The dome is inset with a network of lemon-shaped compartments, which decrease in size as they ascend towards the formalised peacock at the apex... The mihrāb in the west wall is enamelled with tiny flowers on a deep blue meadow.

Each part of the design, each plane, each repetition, each separate branch or blossom has its own sombre beauty. But the beauty of the whole comes. Again, the highlights are broken by the play of unglazed surfaces. I have never encountered splendour of this kind before; the "peacock" at the centre of the interior side of the dome is one of the unique characteristics of the mosque. If you stand at the entrance gate of the inner hall and look at the center of the dome, a peacock, whose tail is the sunrays coming in from the hole in the ceiling, can be seen. At the interior side of the dome, the aethetic purpose of the long, gloomy passage leading to the dome chamber becomes evident, for it is with a sense of heightened anticipation that one enters the sanctuary. Lowness gives way to soaring height and gloom is dispelled by the steady illumination of nearly a score of windows. Barbara Brend described as follows: "the turquoise cable moudling of an arch is seen below the dome, in which concentric rings of th

Geometric Brownian motion

A geometric Brownian motion is a continuous-time stochastic process in which the logarithm of the randomly varying quantity follows a Brownian motion with drift. It is an important example of stochastic processes satisfying a stochastic differential equation. A stochastic process St is said to follow a GBM if it satisfies the following stochastic differential equation: d S t = μ S t d t + σ S t d W t where W t is a Wiener process or Brownian motion, μ and σ are constants; the former is used to model deterministic trends, while the latter term is used to model a set of unpredictable events occurring during this motion. For an arbitrary initial value S0 the above SDE has the analytic solution: S t = S 0 exp ⁡; the derivation requires the use of Itô calculus. Applying Itô's formula leads to d = ′ d S t + 1 2 ″ d S t d S t = d S t S t − 1 2 1 S t 2 d S t d S t where d S t d S t is the quadratic variation of the SDE. D S t d S t = σ 2 S t 2 d t + 2 σ S t 2 μ d W t d t + μ 2 S t 2 d t 2 When d t → 0, d t converges to 0 faster than d W t, since d W t 2 = O.

So the above infinitesimal can be simplified by d S t d S t = σ 2 S t 2 d t Plugging the value of d S t in the above equation and simplifying we obtain ln ⁡ S t S 0 = t + σ W t. Taking the exponential and multiplying both sides by S 0 gives the solution claimed above; the above solution S t is a log-normally distributed random variable with expected value and variance given by E ⁡ = S 0 e μ t, Var ⁡ = S 0 2 e 2 μ t. They can be derived using the fact that Z t = exp ⁡ is a martingale, that E ⁡ [ exp ⁡

Dancin' wid da Blues Brothers

Dancin' wid da Blues Brothers is the fifth album by The Blues Brothers. It is a rare official Atlantic mini LP compiling seven tracks from previous albums, including four tracks taken from The Blues Brothers: Music from the Soundtrack album, two tracks from the Briefcase Full of Blues album, one track from the Made in America album. "Intro: I Can't Turn You Loose/Time Is Tight" "Peter Gunn Theme" "Shake a Tail Feather" "Soul Man" "Rubber Biscuit" "Do You Love Me" "Gimme Some Lovin'" "Sweet Home Chicago" Elwood Bluesvocals, harmonica "Joliet" Jake Blues – vocals Ray Charleskeyboards, vocals on track 3 Matt "Guitar" Murphy – lead guitar Steve "The Colonel" Cropper – guitar Donald "Duck" Dunnbass guitar Paul "The Shiv" Shaffer – keyboards, background vocals Murphy Dunne – keyboards, background vocals Steve "Getdwa" Jordandrums, background vocals Willie Hall – drums Lou "Blue Lou" Marinitenor and alto saxophones Tom "Triple Scale" Scott – tenor and alto saxophones Tom "Bones" Malone – tenor and baritone saxophones, trumpet, background vocals Alan "Mr. Fabulous" Rubin – trumpet, background vocals

Victor Chizhikov

Victor Alexandrovich Chizhikov. He is a Russian children's book illustrator and the designer of the Olympic mascot, Misha, of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games. Chizhikov illustrated more than 100 children's books, he worked with writers Eduard Uspensky and Andrei Usachev. Юбилейный альбом «Виктор Чижиков. Мои истории о художниках книги и о себе». Издательский Дом Мещерякова. 333 Kота Доктор Айболит Петя и Потап Аля, Кляксич и буква `А` Площадь картонных часов Винни-Пух и все-все-все Было у бабушки сорок внучат Приключения Чиполлино. Сказка Забытый день рождения Вниз по волшебной реке Приключения волшебного лебедя Victor Chizhikov biography in Russian

Markus Flanagan

Markus Flanagan is an American actor. In 1990, he starred in the short-lived ABC police drama Sunset Beat.alongside George Clooney, Michael Deluise and Erik King. He was a series regular again on NBC's Nurses for season two playing Luke the rebel nurse. Flanagan co-starred in the Nickelodeon series Unfabulous as Jeff Singer, the father of Emma Roberts' character, from 2004 to 2007, his other television credits include CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, Judging Amy, Northern Exposure. He played Phoebe's most memorable boyfriend in the television sitcom Friends in the third season where she broke-up with him because his genitals kept falling out of his shorts, he had a recurring role as Harry Dean on Fox's Melrose Place and is a recurring character on the Peabody award winning show Better Things. He has appeared in over 125 television episodes with roles on, his film roles include Biloxi Blues directed by Mike Nichols, Blue Steel directed by Katherine Bigelow, Born on the 4th of July directed by Oliver Stone, The Kingdom directed by Peter Berg among others.

Flanagan studied with Sanford Meisner in the last class taught by Meisner at Neighborhood Playhouse Acting School in New York City. He is the author of One Less Bitter Actor: An Actor's Survival Guide a staple among actors and required reading in many university theater programs. Markus created the play series; this one-day play format creates 5 one act plays in a single day. The plays are written and performed in the same day; this series has been running monthly for over 13 years in Santa Monica. Markus Flanagan on IMDb Flanagan, Markus. One Less Bitter Actor: An Actor's Survival Guide. Boulder, Colorado: Sentient Publications. ISBN 978-1591810636


Year 646 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 646 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Arab-Byzantine War: Alexandria is recaptured by the Muslim Arabs after a Byzantine attempt to retake Egypt fails, ending nearly 1,000 years of rule by Greco-Roman states in the city. Gregory the Patrician, Byzantine exarch of Africa, begins a rebellion against Constans II and proclaims himself emperor; the revolt finds broad support among the populace. Caliph Uthman ibn Affan founds the city of Jeddah on the coast of the Red Sea, he establishes a port for Muslim pilgrims making the required Hajj to Mecca. Battle of Nikiou: The Rashidun army under Amr ibn al-'As defeats a smaller Byzantine force, near the fortified town of Nikiou. Amr ibn al-'As builds fortifications in Alexandria and quarters in the vicinity a strong garrison, which twice a year is relieved from Upper Egypt.

Summer – Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty destroys the Xueyantuo state, during the campaign against the Xueyantuo. Emperor Kōtoku makes a decree about the policies of building tombs, he discontinues the old customs of sacrificing people in honor of a dead man, forbids ill-considered rituals about purgation. A Great Reform edict changes Japan's political order, it will lead to the establishment of a centralized government with Kōtoku ruling from his palace, Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace, in Osaka. Xuanzang completes his book Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, which becomes one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central Asia and India. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Muslim Caliph Li Sujie, prince of the Tang Dynasty Sun Guoting, Chinese calligrapher Tonyukuk, military leader of the Göktürks Gallus, Irish missionary Liu Ji, chancellor of the Tang Dynasty Sulpitius the Pious, bishop of Bourges Zhang Liang, general of the Tang Dynasty