click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shelby County, Tennessee

Shelby County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 927,644, it is the state's largest county both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis, a port on the Mississippi River and the second most populous city in Tennessee; the county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. Shelby County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Located within the Mississippi Delta, the county was developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, cotton continued as an important commodity crop well into the 20th century; the economy has become more diversified. This area along the Mississippi River valley was long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, the Chickasaw controlled much of this area, they are believed to be descendants of the important Mississippian culture, which established fortified and complex cities. The largest of these was Cahokia, active from about 950CE into the 15th century.

It was developed on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day southern Illinois on the same latitude as present-day St. Louis, Missouri; the Shelby County area was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819 and named for Isaac Shelby, the former governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition. From 1826 to 1868, the county seat was located at Tennessee, on the Wolf River. After the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis and its importance to the state economy, the seat was moved there; the lowlands in the Mississippi Delta, closest to the Mississippi River, were developed before the war for large cotton plantations. Well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black, most of whom were slaves. Memphis developed with many brokers. After the war and emancipation, many freedmen stayed on these lands by working as sharecroppers.

Tennessee continued to have competitive politics. The eastern part of the state supported the Republican Party. Blacks in the west supported the Republican Party. Most conservative whites supported the Democrats. From 1877-1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, the highest number of any county in the state. Most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration. Blacks were closed out of the political system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers at a time when industries and railroads in the North were recruiting workers; the Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work and social and political opportunities. After World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap.

Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, drawing population out of the city. With continued residential and suburban development, the population of the metropolitan area became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated. Residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 785 square miles, of which 763 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Tennessee by area. The lowest point in the state of Tennessee is located on the Mississippi River in Shelby County, where the river flows out of Tennessee and into Mississippi. Loosahatchie River Mississippi River Nonconnah Creek Wolf River Tipton County Fayette County Marshall County, Mississippi DeSoto County, Mississippi Crittenden County, Arkansas As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 927,644 people living in the county. 52.1% were Black or African American, 40.6% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% of some other race and 1.4 of two or more races.

5.6 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 897,472 people, 338,366 households, 228,735 families living in the county; the population density was 1,189 people per square mile. There were 362,954 housing units at an average density of 481 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 48.56% Black, or African American, 47.34% White, 0.20% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 2.60 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 338,366 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.80% were married couples living together, 20.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28

Rod Mackenzie

Roderick Alexander Mackenzie OAM is an Australian politician. He was a member of the Victorian Legislative Council from 1979 to 1992, representing Geelong Province for the Labor Party and as an independent. A minister in the Cain government and President of the Victorian Legislative Council from 1985 to 1988, he resigned from the Labor Party in December 1987 and unsuccessfully recontested his seat in 1992 as part of the Geelong Community Alliance, a team of local independent candidates. Mackenzie was born in Melbourne, was educated at Geelong South, Geelong West and Forrest State Schools, Geelong High School, the Gordon Institute of Technology, he was variously a plumber, plumbing inspector for the Geelong Water and Sewerage Trust, an architectural plumbing designer, a technical officer for the Commonwealth Department of Science, a plumbing consultant before entering politics. He was a member of Australian Antarctic expeditions in 1966, 1967, 1968, 1973 and 1974, he served as president of the Matthew Flinders Girls' High School Parents and Citizens and the Geelong Movement Against Uranium Mining, was a youth club leader in the Geelong suburbs of Belmont and Highton for 24 years.

Mackenzie joined the Labor Party in 1971 over opposition to conscription for the Vietnam War, was president of the Geelong branch from 1973 to 1974, established a party regional office in Geelong. He contested the Geelong Province seat in the Legislative Council at the 1976 election, losing to Liberal Glyn Jenkins, but ran again at the 1979 election, he served as party spokesperson on public works from 1979 to 1982 when Labor was in opposition, served as Minister for Soldier Settlement, Minister for Forests and Minister For Lands, Minister for Conservation and Lands in the first term of the Cain government after their 1982 election victory. Mackenzie was appointed President of the Victorian Legislative Council, serving as the first Labor member to chair the traditionally conservative chamber from 1985 to 1988. In 1987, Mackenzie crossed the floor to vote with the conservative parties against Labor electoral reforms that he viewed as "blatantly political"; the party moved to expel him for voting against the Labor caucus, he resigned from the party in December, one day before the planned vote on his expulsion.

He stepped down as President of the Legislative Council in 1988 when Labor refused to support him continuing in the role, served out his term as an independent. Mackenzie sought to run for re-election at the 1992 state election under the banner of the Geelong Community Alliance, a group of independents he had founded and formally registered as a political party; the alliance, which included radio announcer Roger Kent and former Geelong trades hall secretary Malcolm Brough, received significant local media attention, but was unsuccessful, as Mackenzie was soundly defeated by Liberal candidate Bill Hartigan and only Kent in the Legislative Assembly seat of Geelong polled well enough for his preferences to affect the outcome. Mackenzie subsequently contested the 1996 local government elections for the Shire of Golden Plains, but was unsuccessful. A long-time campaigner for voluntary euthanasia, he has served as patron of Dying With Dignity Victoria and has been a frequent spokesperson in favour of law reform in this area.

He has campaigned with former opponent and Liberal minister Glyn Jenkins around issues of water supply to the Geelong region. In retirement, Mackenzie has been an occasional columnist for the Geelong Advertiser, he received the Medal of the Order of Australia in 1999 for his services to the Geelong community

Proctacanthus

Proctacanthus is a genus of robber flies. There are about 18 described species in Proctacanthus. Proctacanthus brevipennis Proctacanthus coquillettii Hine, 1911 Proctacanthus distinctus Proctacanthus duryi Hine, 1911 Proctacanthus fulviventris Macquart, 1850 Proctacanthus gracilis Bromley, 1928 Proctacanthus heros Proctacanthus hinei Bromley, 1928 Proctacanthus longus Proctacanthus micans Schiner, 1867 Proctacanthus milbertii Macquart, 1838 Proctacanthus nearno Martin, 1962 Proctacanthus nigriventris Macquart, 1838 Proctacanthus nigrofemoratus Hine, 1911 Proctacanthus occidentalis Proctacanthus philadelphicus Macquart, 1838 Proctacanthus rodecki James, 1933 Proctacanthus rufus Williston, 1885

Isaac Webb (shipbuilder)

Isaac Webb - shipbuilder, owner of shipyard Isaac Webb & Co. that he founded. This shipyard was renamed Webb & Allen due to Isaac taking a partner. In 1843 his son William Henry Webb bought out his father's old partner John Allen and subsequently renamed the business William H. Webb. In September 1810, Henry Eckford took on 16-year-old Isaac Webb as an apprentice at his shipyard in New York. In the following years, Eckford would take on many other apprentices who would become important naval architects and shipbuilders, including Jacob Bell, William Bennett, David Brown, Andrew Craft, John Dimon, John Englis, Thomas Megson, Stephen Smith, Sidney Wright. After completing his training he opened his own shipyard, Isaac Webb & Co. near Corlears Hook in about 1818 relocating to Stanton Street. Isaac took on a partner and the firm was renamed Webb & Allen, it looks like two other apprentices Jacob Bell and David Brown founded Brown & Bell shipyard in New York and built the famous sidewheel steamer USS Jacob Bell.

William Henry Webb, son of Isaac Webb, was born in New York on June 19, 1816. William was educated and at Columbia College Grammar School, demonstrating a natural aptitude for mathematics, he built his first boat, a small skiff, at the age of twelve, in spite of his parents' wishes to the contrary, secured an apprenticeship at his father's shipyard at the age of fifteen. At twenty, he was awarded a subcontract for the New York-Liverpool packet ship Oxford, his first commercial contract. After completing his six-year apprenticeship, William decided to further his education by traveling to Scotland in 1840 to visit the famous shipyards of the Clyde. However, during this journey his father Isaac Webb died at the age of 46 and 23-year-old William returned home to assume management of the shipyard. Upon examining the accounts, William discovered that his father's business was technically insolvent, thus one of his first duties was to settle his father's debts. Having done so, he set about reinvigorating the business.

William Henry Webb was a "born mathematician" in an era when shipbuilding was considered as much an art as a science. He brought new levels of professionalism to the craft by combining the art of design with the discipline of careful mathematical calculation. For this reason, William has been described as America's first true naval architect. William was content to start small, however. For the first couple of years at the helm, the Webb & Allen shipyard, now located between Fifth and Seventh Streets on the East River, built a variety of small sailing ships, including ferries and schooners. William bought out his father's old partner John Allen in 1843 and subsequently renamed the business William H. Webb

HMS Firm (1804)

HMS Firm was a 12-gun Archer-class gun-brig of the Royal Navy, launched on 2 July 1804. She served in the Channel, where she engaged in one action that would result in her crew qualifying for the Naval General Service Medal, she grounded in 1811 and her crew had to destroy her before abandoning her. Lieutenant Cornellius Collett commissioned Firm in July or August 1804. On 9 January 1805 she left on a cruise. Early in the morning of 24 April 1805, HMS Leda sighted twenty-six French vessels rounding Cap Gris Nez. Honyman ordered Fury, Railleur, Gallant, Locust, Watchful, Monkey and Starling to intercept. After a fight of about two hours and Locust had captured seven armed schuyts in an action within pistol-shot of the shore batteries on Cap Gris Nez; the schuyts were all of 25 to 28 tons burthen, carried in all 117 soldiers and 43 seamen under the command of officers from the 51st Infantry Regiment. The French convoy had been bound for Ambleteuse from Dunkirk. On the British side the only casualty was one man wounded on Archer.

The seven schyuts were: Schuyt No. 52, under the command of a Sub-Lieutenant of Infantry Loriol, armed with three 24-pounders. 48, under the command of A. Joron of the 51st the Infantry, armed with two 6-pounders, one 24-pounder and one brass howitzer. 57, under the command of Lieutenant Loriol of 51st Infantry, armed with one 24-pounder and two 6-pounders. Under the command of Mr. Calder, the senior commander, who left her before the British took possession of her. 54, under the command of Sub-Lieutenant Bragur of the 51st Infantry, armed with one 24-pounder and two 6-pounders. The next day Archer brought in two more schuyts, No.s 44 and 58, each armed with one 24-pounder and two 12-pounders. On 25 April 1805 Railleur towed eight of the French schuyts into the Downs. Starling, which had received a great deal of damage, followed Railleur in; as part of the British squadron, Firm shared in the prize money for eight Dutch armed schuyts and the unarmed Transport No.3. At the end of April 1806 Firm detained and sent into Dover both the Danish galiot Mercurius, the Prussian Mercurius.

On 28 August 1807, still under Collett's command, captured the Dutch vessel Baer. Firm was paid off that year. Lieutenant Henry Montressor recommissioned her in April 1808. Lieutenant John Little assumed command of Firm in August 1808, she was under the orders of Commodore Philippe d'Auvergne, was stationed at Guernsey. There he helped people secretly communicating with supporters of the House of Bourbon. On 6 January 1809 Firm captured the Amies. Ten months on 15 October 1809 Firm captured the Danish galiot Dageraag. On 20 April 1810 the boats of Firm and Sharpshooter, under the command of Lieutenant Hodgkins of Firm, Mr Lagaw, 2nd Master of Sharpshooter, cut out the French privateer cutter Alcide from the mouth of the Pirou River, where she had taken refuge after the British vessels had chased her. Alcide was moored under the protection of 400 troops on shore, who kept up an incessant fire while the boarding party carried her. Alcide had thrown her four 4-pounder guns overboard during the chase to lighten her.

One man was killed and another wounded, both from Firm. In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with the clasps "Firm 24 April 1810" and "Surly 24 April 1810", to all survivors of the action. Firm was at Jersey in July. There Little saved a marine by jumping into the water to rescue him. In October 1810 Firm detained and sent into Portsmouth the Christiana Elizabeth, master, a Swedish vessel sailing from Buenos Ayres. On 12 March 1811 Firm and Challenger were off the Île de Batz, with the rest of the British blockading squadron hull down on the horizon. Firm and Challenger sighted two strange sails, which turned out to be the French frigates Prégel and Revanche. Challenger sent Firm to carry the news to the nearest British port, while trying to sail so as to draw the French vessels towards the rest of the British squadron. After a chase of three hours and the loss of two men killed on Challenger, the French frigates succeeded in capturing her. On 28 June 1811, in company with the Fylla, she attacked two praams off Granville.

The praams were attempting to drive off British boats that were reconnoitering, but were unable to return to harbour. The praams were in water too shallow for Firm to approach and she was unable to engage them with much effect; the following night, while wearing round to sail out of Cancalle Bay, Firm grounded at the top of high water. Her crew set her on fire to avoid the French capturing her. Fylla took Lt. Little, his officers, crew to Jersey. A court martial acquitted him of blame. List of gun-brigs of the Royal Navy Notes Ctations References Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Hepper, David J.. British Warship Losses in the Age of Sail, 1650–1859. Rotherfield: Jean Boudriot. ISBN 0-948864-30-3. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1

Peftjauawybast

Peftjauawybast or Peftjaubast was an ancient Egyptian ruler of Herakleopolis Magna during the 25th Dynasty. He was installed as governor of the town during the coregency of pharaoh Osorkon III and his son Takelot III, in 754 BCE; some time after the death of Osorkon III, Peftjauawybast proclaimed himself king, adopting a royal titulary and starting to date monuments since his "coronation", which should have occurred in around 749 BCE. It is possible. Peftjauawybast married the princess Irbastudjanefu, a daughter of Rudamun, himself brother and successor of Takelot III, thus binding himself to the 23rd Dynasty. For this ruler two donation steles are known, both dated to his Year 10, around 740 BCE; the steles mention another wife, queen Tasheritenese, two daughters, one of which, Pediamennebnesttawy, was a Chantress of Amun. Peftjauawybast is attested on a golden statuette of the god Heryshaf, found in Herakleopolis, depicted on a bronze kneeling statuette now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

At the time of Piye's campaign of conquest and Lower Egypt were contended by two factions: Piye and his allies/vassals, the coalition led by the 24th Dynasty pharaoh Tefnakht. Since Peftjauawybast was faithful to the Kushite king, Tefnakht's troops besieged Herakleopolis. Piye, was marching to Lower Egypt and after capturing Hermopolis he came to help his vassal, who joyfully welcomed him. Peftjauawybast appears on Piye's Victory stele unearthed at Jebel Barkal, where he is depicted as one of the four "kings" submitted by the Kushite conqueror, his succession is obscure, since we have no records until the installation of Pediese as governor of Herakleopolis in the early 26th Dynasty, several decades later. Robert Morkot and Peter James, King of Nen-Nesut: Genealogy, Art History, the Chronology of Late Libyan Egypt, in: Antiguo Oriente 7, 13–55