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Shelby Daytona

The Shelby Daytona Coupe is an American sports-coupé. It is related to the Shelby Cobra roadster, loosely based on its chassis and drive-train developed and built as an advanced evolution of which, it was engineered and purpose built for auto racing to take on Ferrari and its 250 GTO in the GT class. The original project had six Shelby Daytona Coupes built for racing purposes between 1964 and 1965, as Carroll Shelby was reassigned to the Ford GT40 project to compete at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, again to beat Ferrari in the highest level prototype class. With the Shelby Daytona, Shelby became the first American constructor to win a title on the international scene in the FIA International Championship for GT Manufacturers in 1965; the Shelby Daytona has been chosen for historic preservation as a significant vehicle in the history of auto racing. During 1964 and 1965, Ford entered their six Shelby Daytona Coupes in numerous races through the British Alan Mann Racing Ford factory team, as well as a temporarily selling or leasing to other racing teams such as "Tri-Colore" of France and Scuderia Filipinetti of Switzerland.

During this period, Shelby Daytona Coupes raced in GT Division III, for engine displacements over 2000 cc. They competed at numerous 500 km, 1000 km, 2000 km, 12 hour and 24 hour races on the International Championship for GT Manufacturers series, including events at Le Mans, Sebring, Reims, Spa Francorchamps, Goodwood Circuit, Oulton Park, Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, the multi-race Tour de France Automobile, Rouen, Nürburgring; the Shelby Daytona Coupes, in their first year of competition, finished second in GT III class in the 1964 International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The Shelby Daytona Coupes won the GT III class for the 1965 International Championship for GT Manufacturers. A partial list of competitions and results includes: 1964 12 Hours of Sebring 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans 1964 RAC Tourist Trophy 1965 24 Hours of Daytona 1965 12 Hours of Sebring 1965 Italian Grand Prix at Monza 1965 Nürburgring 1000 km 1965 12 Hours of Reims 1965 Enna-Pergusa 1965 25 land speed records at Bonneville Carroll Shelby, after winning Le Mans in 1959, wanted to return to Europe to beat Enzo Ferrari at Le Mans with a car of his own design.

Having developed the AC Cobra/Shelby Cobra into a successful GT race car, he realised that the weakness of the open-cockpit sports cars at Le Mans was the aerodynamic drag which limited top speed on the 3.7 miles long Mulsanne Straight to around 157 miles per hour, nearly 30 miles per hour less than the Ferrari 250 GTO, which itself could hold speeds of circa 186 miles per hour. Given the length of this straight, this speed differential represented a loss of over 10 seconds per lap which could negate any power and acceleration advantage that the Cobra had in the slower sections. Shelby asked employee Pete Brock to design the Daytona's aerodynamic bodywork and Bob Negstad to design the car's suspension. Negstad designed the chassis and suspension for the GT40 and the CSX 3000 series Shelby Cobra referred to as the "coil-Spring Cobra" chassis. After sketching the proposed design on the floor of the Shelby America workshop, starting with the roadster chassis crashed at the 1963 Le Mans race, Brock removed the bodywork and placed a seat and steering wheel in alignment of where he felt that they should be.

He placed driver Ken Miles in the car, using scrap wood and gaffer tape, designed the windscreen - the first component to be manufactured for the car. He interspaced wooden formers and, using these as a guide, hand-made the aluminum bodywork for chassis #CSX2287 around them. Shelby conferred with an aerodynamics consultant from Convair who said that the design needed to be extended on the tail by at least 3 feet, but Brock stood by his design. Miles took the car to the Riverside Raceway, on the 1 mile main straight, took the car on his first five laps to 186 miles per hour, admittedly after it had been found to have "almost flown, lightening the steering a great deal" at speeds above 160 miles per hour, it took another 30 days of development before Miles signed off the car, clocked at that point capable of speeds over 190 miles per hour. CSX2287 was transported to Daytona Speedway for its debut race in the February 16, 1964 Daytona Continental 2000 km. Driver Dave MacDonald earned the pole position with a time of 2:08.200 and average speed of 106.464 MPH.

The first Shelby Daytona Coupe was built at the Shelby American race shop in California. The remaining five were built at Carrozzeria Gransport in Italy. A seventh semi-related car, the 427 "Type 65" Shelby Daytona Super Coupe # CSB3054 prototype, developed but never completed by Shelby, is not included in this article. Owned and vintage raced by S. Robson Walton, but crashed at Laguna Seca Raceway in August 2012; the car has since been repaired and restored. Chassis #CSX2287 was the first prototype Cobra Daytona Coupe, is the only coupe, built at the Shelby American race shop in Venice, California, it has an extensive race history, competing at Daytona, Reims, Spa Francorchamps, Oulton Park TT, Le Mans, Tour de France and Bonneville Salt Flats. It was driven by Dave MacDonald, Bob Holbert, Jo Schlesser, Phil Hill, Jochen Ne

Skaugum Tunnel

The Skaugum Tunnel is a 3,790-meter long railway tunnel in Asker, Norway, on the Asker Line. The tunnel runs between Asker Station and Solstad and was built as part of the first stage of the Asker Line, between Asker and Sandvika. Construction started in February 2002 and the tunnel opened on 27 August 2005; the tunnel was built by Mika for the Norwegian National Rail Administration using the drilling and blasting method with one crosscut. During construction there was one blasting accident. Since the tunnel opened, there have been problems with leaks damaging the infrastructure; the tunnel has double track, is electrified and allows for a maximum speed of 160 kilometers per hour. The cost to build the tunnel, excluding the infrastructure, was 450 million Norwegian krone; the tunnel has accelerated intercity and regional traffic west of Oslo and freed up capacity for the Oslo Commuter Rail on the old Drammen Line. The Skaugum Tunnel is a 3,790-meter long tunnel with a cross-section varying between 105 and 115 square meters.

It carries the double-tracked Asker Line between Asker Solstad. The tunnel runs through Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary slate, nodular limestone and shale, with local occurrences of Permian igneous rock; the line is electrified at 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC and allows for maximum speeds of 160 kilometers per hour. The tunnel has frost isolation 300 meters into the tunnel from each end and frost fans which ensure that the air stays put in the middle of the tunnel to hinder cold air from reaching in past the frost isolation; the Asker Line runs from Lysaker Station via Sandvika Station to Asker Station, in the municipalities of Bærum and Asker. The line was built to increase the traffic on the west corridor. Traditionally, the only railway west of Oslo was the Drammen Line, which has limited capacity, a mix of local, regional and freight trains; this caused many delays and poor utilization of tracks, as some trains make many stops and others only a few. The Asker Line allows regional and intercity trains to by-pass the local stations east of Asker, by running local trains and freight trains on the Drammen Line, while faster trains run on the new track.

The Asker Line was built in two stages: the first from Asker to Sandvika was built from 2001 to 2005, the second stage, from Sandvika to Lysaker, between 2007 and 2011. The other two tunnels on the Asker Line are the 3.8-kilometer long Tanum Tunnel and the 5.5-kilometer long Bærum Tunnel. Work on geological surveys in the area started prior to 2001, with surveys being performed by the Geological Survey of Norway; the contract to build the tunnel and all other earthwork on the section from Solstad to Hønsveien was awarded to Mika, with the tunneling costing NOK 425 million. The tunnel was built using the drilling and blasting method using two points of entry, the entrance on the Asker side and from a crosscut at Skaugum. Work started in February 2002 and was concluded in May 2005. Construction involved blasting 450,000 cubic meters of earthwork and drilling 275 kilometers of holes for pre-injection; the construction used 14,000 cubic meters of gunite, 14,000 cubic meters of concrete, 24,000 bolts, 35,000 cubic meters of water- and frost protection, 25,000 cubic meters of noise- and frost isolation and 9.4 kilometers of cable conduit.

Near the entrance at Asker, the tunnel is closest to the surface, is between 2 and 3 meters below the basements of residential houses. During the construction of this part, the construction was as slow as 8 to 10 meters per week, of which half the time was used for injections to choke the tunnel. During the construction there was an accident where a worker driving a wheeled loader was only 20 to 30 meters from a blasting, he became disabled, but did not receive any compensation because he was working for the contractor as a sole proprietor, not as a wage earner. The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority criticized Mika for improper safety routines and required them to improve them, but concluded that no criminal offenses had been committed. A concern from people living along the tunnel was; the municipalities of Asker and Bærum had demanded that residents be subject to a maximum of 27 decibel A-weighting, but the National Rail Administration appealed the requirements and was permitted to allow up to 32 dBA.

In March 2004, a test was done in the tunnel to insure that the requirements would be met, as low-frequency sound is difficult to predict. Measurements after the opening of the tunnel showed background noise of 30 dBA, that no-one was subject to 32 dBA or higher, that it was nearly impossible to measure the passing of trains. Among the major concerns were leaks. One of the main aims in the Skaugum Tunnel project was therefore to avoid similar leaks, the criteria were set to 4 liters per minute per 100 meters; this was achieved by using sufficient time for the pre-injection, as well as continuous pregrouting through the entire tunnel. However, water still dripped into the tunnel. In some places, it dripped onto the track causing it to rust, while in other places it fell onto electrical equipment. There were issues with water running down the walls and collecting in the cable conduit, the limestone in the water mixing with the ballast. By 2011, the emergency lighting system had to be replace

1955 TANFL season

The 1955 Tasmanian Australian National Football League premiership season was an Australian Rules football competition staged in Hobart, Tasmania over fifteen roster rounds and four finals series matches between 9 April and 17 September 1955. Clarence District Football Club New Town District Football Club Hobart Football Club New Norfolk District Football Club North Hobart Football Club Sandy Bay Football Club Les McClements Jack Rough Bill Williams Rex Garwood John Leedham Gordon Bowman Hobart 16.14 v Sandy Bay 4.8 – Att: 1,779 at North Hobart OvalNote: This match was played one week after the senior Grand Final due to a drawn Preliminary Final. State Schools Old Boys Football Association South East 7.4 v North West 4.17 – New Town OvalNote: South East affiliated to Sandy Bay, North West affiliated to North Hobart. Ulverstone: 3.10 | 7.19 | 9.24 | 12.29 New Town: 2.3 | 4.9 | 5.12 | 7.15 Attendance: 5,307 at Ulverstone Recreation Ground Ulverstone: 5.4 | 9.6 | 14.8 | 19.12 Longford: 3.3 | 5.5 | 12.7 | 12.13 Attendance: 10,004 at York Park Jubilee Shield NWFU 14.10 v TANFL 13.12 – Att: 6,127 at West Park OvalJubilee Shield TANFL 19.16 v NTFA 16.22 – Att: 8,711 at North Hobart OvalJubilee Shield NWFU 15.18 v TANFL 13.25 – Att: 11,047 at North Hobart OvalJubilee Shield TANFL 15.11 v NTFA 9.13 – Att: 6,304 at York ParkInter-Association Match Huon FA 13.13 v TANFL II 13.9 – Att: 1,400 at Huonville Recreation GroundInter-Association Match Midlands FA 15.12 v TANFL III 8.16 – Att: 1,970 at North Hobart Oval Interstate Match Tasmania 20.19 v Canberra 9.7 – Att: 3,329 at Manuka OvalInterstate Match Tasmania 21.18 v New South Wales 7.12 – Att: 4,671 at Manuka Oval Ian Westell – 85 Terry Brain – 54 Max Griffiths – 50 Neville Legro – 47 Paddy Cooper – 45 Rex Garwood – William Leitch Medal A.

Peterson – George Watt Medal Dennis Lester – V. A Geard Medal Max Griffiths – Weller Arnold Medal Nth Hobart 14.16 v Hobart 8.16 – Att: 5,703 at North Hobart Oval New Town 22.19 v New Norfolk 10.9 – Att: 4,041 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 16.16 v Clarence 10.14 – Att: 4,431 at North Hobart Oval Nth Hobart 19.10 v New Norfolk 12.9 – Att: 2,218 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 14.15 v New Town 13.13 – Att: 3,670 at Queenborough Oval Hobart 21.26 v Clarence 9.13 – Att: 1,328 at Bellerive Oval Nth Hobart 16.8 v Sandy Bay 12.7 – Att: 5,986 at North Hobart Oval New Town 17.11 v Clarence 11.14 – Att: 1,380 at New Town Oval Hobart 21.20 v New Norfolk 7.11 – Att: 1,173 at Boyer Oval Hobart 17.14 v New Town 8.14 – Att: 3,973 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 8.16 v New Norfolk 8.7 – Att: 1,380 at Queenborough Oval Clarence 17.9 v Nth Hobart 12.17 – Att: 1,575 at Bellerive Oval Hobart 18.13 v Sandy Bay 16.17 – Att: 3,397 at North Hobart Oval Nth Hobart 15.17 v New Town 15.14 – Att: 3,293 at New Town Oval New Norfolk 13.12 v Clarence 13.9 – Att: 1,231 at Bellerive Oval Hobart 15.15 v Nth Hobart 7.15 – Att: 6,085 at North Hobart Oval New Town 11.13 v New Norfolk 9.8 – Att: 1,713 at New Town Oval Sandy Bay 15.21 v Clarence 12.14 – Att: 1,645 at Bellerive Oval Hobart 17.21 v Clarence 11.8 – Att: 1,625 at North Hobart Oval New Town 12.14 v Sandy Bay 7.11 – Att: 3,532 at New Town Oval Nth Hobart 15.16 v New Norfolk 8.6 – Att: 1,427 at Boyer Oval Hobart 13.23 v New Norfolk 10.16 – Att: 1,441 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 11.13 v Nth Hobart 7.12 – Att: 2,915 at Queenborough Oval New Town 14.8 v Clarence 10.10 – Att: 1,366 at Bellerive Oval Nth Hobart 16.15 v Clarence 4.10 – Att: 1,944 at North Hobart Oval New Town 21.22 v Hobart 16.10 – Att: 3,763 at New Town Oval Sandy Bay 11.8 v New Norfolk 10.12 – Att: 1,152 at Boyer Oval New Town 15.12 v Nth Hobart 12.13 – Att: 4,163 at North Hobart Oval Hobart 19.18 v Sandy Bay 12.7 – Att: 2,558 at Queenborough Oval New Norfolk 13.15 v Clarence 12.11 – Att: 1,040 at Boyer Oval Hobart 11.11 v Nth Hobart 8.11 – Att: 2,504 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 10.11 v Clarence 7.9 – Att: 754 at Queenborough Oval New Town 8.13 v New Norfolk 6.5 – Att: 839 at Boyer Oval Nth Hobart 18.9 v New Norfolk 9.10 – Att: 2,199 at North Hobart Oval Sandy Bay 13.9 v New Town 12.13 – Att: 3,357 at New Town Oval Hobart 16.15 v Clarence 14.11 – Att: 896 at Bellerive Oval Nth Hobart 16.7 v Sandy Bay 5.16 – Att: 5,183 at North Hobart Oval New Town 18.18 v Clarence 8.17 – Att: 1,557 at New Town Oval Hobart 13.13 v New Norfolk 8.12 – Att: 810 at Boyer OvalNote: Round postponed on 30