Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military ground force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. S. Military Academy and colonel of a regiment during the Mexican War. In March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a more permanent Confederate States Army, the better estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include a number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications. Since these figures include estimates of the number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate naval forces, although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of Union soldiers who were conscripts.
Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable, one estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from causes such as accidents. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16,1865 and June 28,1865, by the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted. The Confederacys government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April, by the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4,1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. The Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U. S. Army forts, Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T, Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14.
The Northern states were outraged by the Confederacys attack and demanded war and it rallied behind Lincolns call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the Union intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army and it was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, very little was done to organize the Confederate regular army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army
John M. Palmer (politician)
Palmer switched political parties throughout his life, starting out a Democrat. He became in turn an anti-Nebraska Democrat, a Republican, a Liberal Republican, returned to being a Democrat and he said, I had my own views. I was not a slave of any party, and added, I thought for myself, born at Eagle Creek in Scott County, Palmers family in 1831 moved to Alton, Illinois. They were very poor, but he worked his way through college. In 1839, he was admitted to the bar in that state, Palmer married Malinda Ann Neely in 1842 and had ten children with her. His early careers included being a lawyer, school teacher, Palmer was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1848. Between 1852 and 1855, he was a Democratic member of the Illinois Senate and he presided over the 1856 Illinois Republican Convention in Bloomington that founded the party in his home state. In 1859 he was the Republican candidate in an election to a vacancy in the 36th Congress caused by the death of Thomas L. Harris. He became a Republican presidential elector in 1860, and was one of the people who got his friend Abraham Lincoln nominated for the presidency at the national convention in Chicago.
In 1861, he was appointed by Lincoln to be a delegate to the convention in Washington. It failed when no compromise could be reached, during the American Civil War, Palmer served in the Union army, rising from the rank of colonel to that of major general in the volunteer service. He enlisted in 1861 and was commissioned Colonel of the 14th Illinois Infantry, fremont in an expedition to Springfield, Missouri, to put down the rebellion in that state. On December 20,1861, he was promoted to brigadier general, Palmer took part in the capture of New Madrid and Island No. 10, commanding a division in the latter campaign, taken ill in the field, he returned home to recuperate and raised a new regiment, the 122nd Illinois Infantry. Taking the field again in September, he was assigned by William S. Rosecrans to command the first division of the Army of the Mississippi in Alabama and Tennessee. On November 29,1862, he was promoted to general of volunteers, and was conspicuous in the Battle of Stones River.
Palmer effectively led his troops during the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863 and he commanded the XIV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland during the Chattanooga Campaign, and served under George Henry Thomas in the Atlanta Campaign. Palmers corps was a part of William T. Shermans movement at the Railroads at East Point and his corps was placed under the command of Major General John M. Schofield and ordered to cross North Utoy Creek
Interstate 64 in Kentucky
In the U. S. state of Kentucky, Interstate 64 travels for 191 miles passing by the major towns and cities of Louisville, Frankfort and Ashland. It has several major junctions within the state, Interstate 65, Interstate 71, Interstate 264 and Interstate 265 in Louisville, the interstate is host to two exceptionally significant structures indicated by the Federal Highway Administration. One is the Cochran Hill Tunnel, a tube at Cherokee Park in Louisville built in 1974. In Downtown Louisville, the interstate passes under a public plaza called the Riverfront Plaza/Belvedere, between the Indiana state line and Lexington, the interstate is named the Daniel Boone Expressway. The tunnels, which opened in 1974, are one of three sites in Kentucky deemed exceptionally significant by the Federal Highway Administration, the designation meant that it will be very difficult for the stretch of interstate running through Cherokee Park ever to be widened. Construction began on a Kentucky Route 180 interchange improvement project in the summer of 2006, the $34 million project entailed the rebuilding of six bridges, the widening of Kentucky Route 180 to four-lanes in the vicinity of the interchange and the conversion of the ramps into a diamond.
The project was finished in the fall of 2008, in March 2007, Governor Ernie Fletcher signed Senate Bill 83 which allowed for an increase in speed limits on rural interstates and parkways. Speed limits on sections of Interstate 64 were increased from 65 MPH to 70 mph. New signage was installed in July On June 7,2007, the section of highway featured three-lanes of traffic in each direction on an elevated viaduct paralleling the Ohio River, carrying 90,000 vehicles-per-day. The closure was part of a $50 million refurbishment project that involved replacing 132 expansion joints and repaving more than four-miles of interstate, the Interstate was not finished because of the section between Frankfort and Lexington. The state could not attain the right of way here because of very famous horse parks northwest of Lexington, after a couple of tries to get the right of way, the state was able to get the right of way and began construction on this segment. It was the last segment of Interstate 64 to be completed in Kentucky, controversially, I-64 runs through Louisville Waterfront Park, a key part of the revitalization of Downtown Louisville, and portions of the park exist under it. 8664. org, a campaign with popular support but little apparent political momentum, aimed to re-route.
I-64 through Louisville would be re-signed as I-364, I-64 was to be widened over the park as a part of the Ohio River Bridges Project. But plans to widen the freeway over the park have been abandoned to reduce costs of the Ohio River Bridges Project, Interstate 264 Interstate 264 is an inner loop route in Metro Louisville. Along the way, it provides access to Louisville International Airport at its junction with I-65, Interstate 464 Interstate 464 was proposed as current Kentucky Route 4. It is currently signed as KY4, but more known as New Circle Road
Army of Cuban Occupation Medal
The Army of Cuban Occupation Medal was a military award created by the United States War Department in June 1915. The medal recognizes those members who performed garrison occupation duty in the United States Protectorate over Cuba. The Army of Cuban Occupation Medal was established by War Department General Order 40, to be awarded the Army of Cuban Occupation Medal, a service member must have served within the geographical borders of Cuba between the dates of 18 July 1898 and 20 May 1902. The medal was awarded to members of the United States Army. The first Army of Cuban Occupation Medal was awarded to Major General Leonard Wood, the Army of Cuban Pacification Medal was a similarly named decoration, but was awarded for the withdrawal of U. S. forces from Cuba seven years after the close of the Spanish–American War. The medal is a bronze disc 1 3/8 inches in diameter. On the obverse is the Coat of Arms of Cuba, around the edge is the inscription ARMY OF OCCUPATION MILITARY GOVERNMENT OF CUBA.
The dates 1898 and 1902 are on side of the Phrygian cap at the top of the coat of arms. The reverse depicts a spread winged eagle perched upon a trophy of a cannon, war flags, below the trophy are the words FOR SERVICE. Above the eagle are the words arched around the edge UNITED STATES ARMY, in the lower half at the edge are thirteen five-pointed stars. The medal is suspended from a ribbon 1 3/8 inches wide, United States Protectorate over Cuba Foster, Frank C. A Complete Guide to All United States Military Medals,1939 to Present, Philip K. United States Military Medals and Ribbons
United States Military Government in Cuba
This period was referred to as the First Occupation of Cuba, to distinguish it from a second occupation from 1906 to 1909. United States Army forces involved in the garrisoning of the island during this time were honored with the Army of Cuban Occupation Medal after its establishment in 1915,189815 February, The USS Maine explodes in Havana harbor. 20 April, President McKinley signs a joint resolution declaring war against Spain. It includes the Teller Amendment asserting U. S. intentions in declaring war on Spain exclude exercising sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over Cuba,10 December and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris. 18991 January, Military government installed by the United States,11 April, Spanish–American War officially ends. 190121 February, Constitution of the Republic of Cuba is adopted,31 December, Estrada Palma is elected the first president of the Republic of Cuba. 190220 May, The 1901 constitution takes effect, birth of the Republic of Cuba. The Platt Amendment, defined the terms by which the United States would cease its occupation of Cuba, the amendment, placed into an army appropriations bill was designed to give back control of Cuba to the Cuban people.
It had eight conditions to which the Cuban Government needed to adhere to full sovereignty would be transferred. The main conditions of the amendment prohibited Cuba from signing any treaty allowing foreign powers to use the island for military purposes. The United States maintained the right to interfere with Cuban independence in order to maintain a level of protection of life. Most significant, the amendment forced the Cuban Government to sign a treaty officially binding the amendment to law, the United States reasoning behind the amendment was based on the significant commercial interests held on the island. Spain had previously been unable to preserve U. S. interests and maintain law, at the end of military occupation, the amendment served as the primary method of ensuring a permanent presence. Due to the previously enacted Teller Amendment, The United States was forced to grant Cuba its independence after Spanish rule ended, since the Platt Amendment was successfully incorporated into the constitution in Cuba, influence was maintained without direct U. S. involvement in the country
Spencer County, Kentucky
Spencer County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,061, the county was founded in 1824 and named for Spier Spencer. Spencer County is part of the Louisville/Jefferson County, KY–IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, Taylorsville Lake, located primarily within Spencer County, serves as a major economic resource for the area. Spencer was a dry county until 2009 when the residents voted to overturn the ban on alcohol sales. From 2000 to 2005, Spencer County ranked 19th out of all U. S. counties in percent growth, with a 33% increase, Spencer County was formed in January 1824, by the 32nd Kentucky General Assembly. The land that now makes up Spencer County was taken from Bullitt County, Shelby County, Spencer County became Kentuckys 77th county. The county was named for Kentuckys Captain Spier Spencer, who fought, that year, in December 1824, Taylorsville was made the county seat. In 1829, the city was incorporated, during the American Civil War, the courthouse at Taylorsville was burned by Confederate guerrillas in January 1865, but the countys records were saved.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 192 square miles. The population density was 63 per square mile, there were 4,555 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97. 50% White,1. 13% Black or African American,0. 22% Native American,0. 08% Asian,0. 27% from other races,1. 12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was out with 27. 00% under the age of 18,7. 70% from 18 to 24,33. 50% from 25 to 44,22. 70% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 101.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males, the median income for a household in the county was $47,042, and the median income for a family was $52,038. Males had an income of $36,638 versus $24,196 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,848, about 7. 70% of families and 8. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8. 90% of those under age 18 and 10. 50% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
Interstate 64 is an Interstate Highway in the Eastern United States. Its western terminus is at I-70, U. S. Route 40 and its eastern terminus is at an interchange with I-264 and I-664 at Bowers Hill in Chesapeake, Virginia. At 953.74 miles, I-64 is the second longest interstate highway not ending with a 5 or 0, the Missouri Department of Transportation has completed extending I-64 to I-70 in Wentzville, Missouri. I-64 overlaps with I-55, I-57, I-75, I-77, I-81, I-64 does not maintain exit number continuity for any of the overlaps, as each of the six north-south routes maintain their exit numbering on their respective overlaps with I-64. This road is the southernmost portion of the Avenue of the Saints, an interchange at Highway N OFallon, Missouri opened on December 13,2004. This interchange accommodates the tie-in of the Missouri Route 364 freeway to I-64, in April 2007, construction started to rebuild 10.5 miles of I-64 in St. Louis, from Spoede Road to Kingshighway. This project included repaving the road, rebuilding the overpasses and interchanges.
Construction resulted in the closure of portions of the expressway in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, I-64 was closed from I-270 to I-170, re-opening December 15,2008, beginning December 15,2008, I-64 from I-170 to Kingshighway was closed. The portion of Interstate 64 in St. Louis has been named the Jack Buck Memorial Highway, I-64 enters Illinois from St. Louis, via the Poplar Street Bridge, where it overlaps I-55 as it crosses the Mississippi River. After crossing the city of East St. Louis and the rest of suburban St. Clair County, shortly after passing Mid-America Airport at Exit 23, I-64 enters Clinton County, Washington County. After providing access to such as Carlyle, Breese and Centralia. East of Mt. Vernon in Illinois, services along I-64 are few, the freeway crosses Jefferson and White counties as it progresses east toward Indiana and the Evansville area. East of the St Louis area, there are numerous oil wells dotting the landscape, the section from IL127 to I-57 opened on October 4,1974. The section from IL161 to IL127 opened in December 1973, the section in the Metro East, except for a short section near I-55/70, opened on December 23,1975.
The section from US460 to US45 opened on August 7,1975, I-64 crosses the Wabash River and enters the state of Indiana. Near milepost 61, there is a change from Central Time Zone to Eastern Time Zone. As with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, the 123-mile route in Indiana can be described as being somewhat winding, especially the farther east one travels within the state
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle