Academia Sinica, headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan. It supports research activities in a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from mathematical and physical sciences, to life sciences, to humanities and social sciences; as an educational institute, it provides PhD training and scholarship through its English-language Taiwan International Graduate Program in biology, chemistry, physics and earth and environmental sciences. Academia Sinica is ranked 144th in Nature Publishing Index - 2014 Global Top 200 and 22nd in Reuters World's Most Innovative Research Institutions; the current president since 2016 is James C. Liao, an expert in metabolic engineering, systems biology and synthetic biology; as the most preeminent academic research institution in Taiwan, Academia Sinica is directly responsible to the Presidential Office, unlike other government-sponsored research institutes which are responsible to relevant Executive Yuan ministries. Thus AS enjoys autonomy in formulating its own research objectives.
In addition to academic research on various subjects in the sciences and humanities, its major tasks include providing guidelines, channels of coordination, incentives with a view to raising academic standards in the country. Academia Sinica has its main campus located in Nangang District of Taipei City and runs over 40 research stations distributed across the country and throughout the world; the main campus in Nangang was constructed in 1954. In addition to the Central Office of Administration and 28 institutes and research centers, the main campus has 10 museums or memorial halls open to the public, as well as an ecological pond, a forest park, a temple of Earth God, the Sih-Fen Brook that runs through the campus and in the north by the National Biotechnology Research Park; the National Biotechnology Research Park, finished in 2017 and inaugurated in October 2018 by the Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, is located about 500 m north of the main campus and 500 m south of the Nankang Software Park, with the Nangang station to the west and the Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center MRT station to the east.
It is home to four Academia Sinica centers for translational medicine, innovation and bioinformatics service, as well as the Biotechnology Development Center of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Food and Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Laboratory Animal Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Three physical sciences institutes, Mathematics and Atomic and Molecular Sciences, are located in the main campus of National Taiwan University in Gongguan, Da'an District, Taipei. A joint office between the two institutions was established in 2014. A campus in the Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City, near the Tainan High Speed Rail station, Guiren District, Tainan, is under construction and is expected to be finished in 2021; the groundbreaking ceremony took place in May 2018 after seven years of planning. The Southern Campus is part of an effort to promote regional balance in the academic landscape of Taiwan and will prioritize research on agricultural biotechnology, sustainable development, archaeology of early Taiwanese history and culture.
The Academia Sinica was founded in 1928 in Nanking, Republic of China, with the first meeting held in Shanghai. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it relocated to Taiwan. In 1954, its main campus was constructed in Jiouhjuang, Taipei; the institutes at that time were Mathematics and Botany. The second Convocation was held in 1957. In the 2000s, many of the current institutes and research centers were established through reorganization of the old ones; the first PhD program of the AS, the Taiwan International Graduate Program, was inaugurated in 2006. Similar to the Max Planck Institutes of Germany, Taiwan's Academia Sinica covers three major academic divisions: The research stations in Taiwan include: Southern Taiwan Science Park Archaeological Station Green Island Marine Station Yuanyang Lake Station, Hsinchu Marine Research Station, Yilan Dongsha Atoll Research Station, Kaohsiung The research sites abroad include: Global Navigation Satellite System, the Philippines Sesoko Station, Japan Yuan Tseh Lee Array, Mauna Loa, United States South-East Asian Time Series Study on the Southeast Asian Sea In general Academia Sinica is a non-teaching institution, but it has close collaboration with the top research universities in Taiwan, such as National Taiwan University, National Tsing Hua University, National Chiao Tung University, National Yang-Ming University and National Central University.
Many research fellows from Academia Sinica have a second appointment or joint professorship at these universities. In addition, Academia Sinica established joint Ph. D. programs in biological sciences with Taiwan's universities, such as the Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology with National Taiwan Ocean University. Through these mechanisms, the faculty at the Academia Sinica give lecture courses and supervise graduate students. Since 2002, Academia Sinica set up the Taiwan International Graduate Program, open to local and international students for Ph. D. programs. All courses at TIGP are conducted in English. Students can choose their advisor among a faculty selected for the program out of outstanding researchers and professors appointed at Academia Sinica or at one of the partner universities. Admittance to the programme guarantees a monthly stipend of 34,000 NTD $1,200 or €1,050. Applications can normally
Jiang Zemin is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2004, as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003. Jiang has been described as the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party leaders since 1989. Jiang came to power unexpectedly as a'compromise candidate' following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, when he replaced Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary after Zhao was ousted for his support for the student movement. With the waning influence of Eight Elders due to old age and with the death of Deng Xiaoping in 1997, Jiang consolidated his hold on power and became the "paramount leader" of the party and the country in the 1990s. Urged by Deng's southern tour in 1992 to accelerate "opening up and reform", Jiang introduced the term "socialist market economy" in his speech during the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China held that year, ending a period of ideological uncertainty and economic stagnation following 1989.
Under Jiang's leadership, China experienced substantial economic growth with the continuation of reforms, saw the peaceful return of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom in 1997 and Macau from Portugal in 1999, improved its relations with the outside world while the Communist Party maintained its tight control over the government. His contributions to party doctrine, known as the "Three Represents," were written into the party's constitution in 2002. Jiang vacated the post of party General Secretary and Politburo Standing Committee in 2002, but did not relinquish all of his leadership titles until 2005, continued to influence affairs until much later. At the age of 92 years, 239 days, Jiang is the longest-living paramount leader in the history of the PRC, surpassing Deng Xiaoping on 14 February 2019. Jiang Zemin was born in the city of Jiangsu, his ancestral home was Jiangwan in Jiangxi. This was the hometown of a number of prominent figures in Chinese academic and intellectual establishments. Jiang grew up during the years of Japanese occupation.
His uncle his foster father, Jiang Shangqing, died fighting the Japanese in World War II and is considered in Jiang Zemin's time to be a national hero. Since Shangqing had no heirs, Shangqing's elder brother, Jiang's biological father Jiang Shijun, the vice officer of the publicity department of Japanese-ruled Nanking government, let Jiang become the adopted son of Shangqing's wife, his aunt, Wang Zhelan, whom he referred to as "Niang". There is some doubt if Jiang was adopted at the time: Shangqing's daughter Zehui once said her family was too poor to have enough food after his death, which indicated that Jiang Zemin’s father, despite his wealth and power, never supported Shangqing’s family it was unlikely that Jiang Zemin’s father would have allowed Jiang Shangqing to adopt Zemin, because per Chinese traditions, Zemin, as an eldest son, could not be adopted Jiang attended the Department of Electrical Engineering at the National Central University in Japanese-occupied Nanjing before transferring to National Chiao Tung University.
He graduated there in 1947 with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. He claims. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Jiang received his training at the Stalin Automobile Works in Moscow in the 1950s, he worked for Changchun's First Automobile Works. He was transferred to government services, where he began to rise in prominence and rank becoming a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Minister of Electronic Industries in 1983. In 1985 he became Mayor of Shanghai, subsequently the Party Secretary of Shanghai. Jiang received mixed reviews as mayor. Many of his critics dismissed him as a "flower pot", a Chinese term for someone who only seems useful, but gets nothing done. Many credited Shanghai's growth during the period to Zhu Rongji. Jiang was an ardent believer, in Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms. In an attempt to curb student discontent in 1986, Jiang recited the Gettysburg Address in English in front of a group of student protesters. Jiang was described as having a passable command of several foreign languages, including Romanian and English.
One of his favorite activities was to engage foreign visitors in small talk on arts and literature in their native language, in addition to singing foreign songs in the original language. He became friends with Allen Broussard, the African-American judge who visited Shanghai in 1987 and Brazilian actress Lucélia Santos. Jiang was elevated to national politics in 1987, automatically becoming a member of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee because it is customarily dictated that the Party Secretary of Shanghai would have a seat in the Politburo. In 1989, China was in crisis over the Tiananmen Square protest, the central government was in conflict on how to handle the protesters. In June, Deng Xiaoping dismissed liberal Zhao Ziyang, considered to be too conciliatory toward the student protestors. At the time, Jiang was the top figure in China's new economic center. In an incident with the World Economic Herald, Jiang closed down the newspaper, deeming it to be harmful; the handling of the crisis in Shanghai was noticed by Beijing, by paramount leader Deng Xiaoping.
As the protests escalated and Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang was removed from office, Jiang was selected by the Party leaders as a compromise candidate over Tianjin's Li
Contract bridge, or bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck. In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other around a table. Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games among seniors; the World Bridge Federation is the governing body for international competitive bridge, with numerous other bodies governing bridge at the regional level. The game consists of several deals; the cards are dealt to the players, the players auction or bid to take the contract, specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract needs to take to receive points for the deal. During the auction, partners communicate information about their hand, including its overall strength and the length of its suits, although conventions for use during play exist; the cards are played, the declaring side trying to fulfill the contract, the defenders trying to stop the declaring side from achieving its goal.
The deal is scored based on the number of tricks taken, the contract, various other factors which depend to some extent on the variation of the game being played. Rubber bridge is the most popular variation for casual play, but most club and tournament play involves some variant of duplicate bridge, in which the cards are not re-dealt on each occasion, but the same deal is played by two or more sets of players to enable comparative scoring. For competition level, so called IMP score is of high significance. One theory is. Bridge departed from whist with the creation of Biritch in the 19th century, evolved through the late 19th and early 20th centuries to form the present game; the word biritch itself is a spelling of the Russian word Бирюч, an occupation of a diplomatic clerk or an announcer. However some experts think. Another theory is; the game "got its name from the Galata Bridge, a bridge spanning the Golden Horn and linking the old and new parts of European Istanbul, where they crossed every day to go to a coffeehouse to play cards."
Bridge is a four-player partnership trick-taking game with thirteen tricks per deal. The dominant variations of the game are rubber bridge; each player is dealt thirteen cards from a standard 52-card deck. A trick starts when a player leads, i.e. plays the first card. The leader to the first trick is determined by the auction; each player, in a clockwise order, plays one card on the trick. Players must play a card of the same suit as the original card led, unless they have none, in which case they may play any card; the player who played the highest-ranked card wins the trick. Within a suit, the ace is ranked highest followed by the king and jack and the ten through to the two. In a deal where the auction has determined that there is no trump suit, the trick must be won by a card of the suit led. However, in a deal where there is a trump suit, cards of that suit are superior in rank to any of the cards of any other suit. If one or more players plays a trump to a trick when void in the suit led, the highest trump wins.
For example, if the trump suit is spades and a player is void in the suit led and plays a spade card, he wins the trick if no other player plays a higher spade. If a trump suit is led, the usual rule for trick-taking applies. Unlike its predecessor Whist, the goal of bridge is not to take the most tricks in a deal. Instead, the goal is to estimate how many tricks one's partnership can take. To illustrate this, the simpler partnership trick-taking game of Spades has a similar mechanism: the usual trick-taking rules apply with the trump suit being spades, but in the beginning of the game, players bid or estimate how many tricks they can win, the number of tricks bid by both players in a partnership are added. If a partnership takes at least that many number of tricks, they receive points for the round. Bridge extends the concept of bidding into an auction, where partnerships compete to take a contract, specifying how many tricks they will need to take in order to receive points, specifying the trump suit.
Players take turns to call in a clockwise order: each player in turn either passes, doubles—which increases the penalties for not making the contract specified by the opposing partnership's last bid, but increases the reward for making it—or redoubles, or states a contract that their partnership will adopt, which must be higher than the previous highest bid. The player who bid the highest contract—which is determined by the contract's level as well as the trump suit or no trump—wins the contract for their partnership. In the example auction on the right, the East-West pair secures the contract of 6♠. Note that six tricks are added to contract values, so the six-level contract would be a contract of twelve tricks. In practice, establishing a contract without enough information on the other partner's hand is difficult, so there exist many bidding systems assigning meanings to bids, with common ones including Standard American, 2/1 game forcing. Con
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
National Taiwan University
National Taiwan University is a national university in Taipei City, Taiwan. NTU is the most prestigious comprehensive university in Taiwan and one of the top ranked universities in the world, it consists of 11 colleges, 56 departments, 112 graduate institutes, four research centers and a school of professional education and continuing studies. The University was founded in 1928 during Japanese rule as one of the Imperial Universities, the Taihoku Imperial University, it is older than Imperial Osaka Nagoya University. After World War II, Taiwan's government assumed the administration of the university and renaming it National Taiwan University on November 15, 1945. Notable alumni include Tsai Ing-Wen, the current President of the Republic of China, former presidents Lee Teng-hui, Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-jeou, Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate Yuan T. Lee. NTU is affiliated with National Taiwan Normal University and National Taiwan University of Science and Technology as part of the NTU System.
In 2016, there were 15,284 graduate students. National Taiwan University has its origins in the Taihoku Imperial University founded in 1928 during Japanese rule as a member of the imperial university system administered by the Empire of Japan; the school's first president was Taira Shidehara. The Taihoku Imperial University began with a Faculty of Liberal Arts and Law and a Faculty of Science and Agriculture serving 60 students; the University was intended for Japanese nationals. The Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Engineering were added in 1943, respectively. After World War II, the Republic of China government reorganized the school as an institution for Chinese-speaking students; the school was renamed National Taiwan University on 15 November 1945 and Lo Tsung-lo was appointed as its president. The Literature and Politics division was divided into the College of Liberal Arts and the College of Law. Additionally, colleges of Science, Medicine and Agriculture were established. There were six colleges with 22 departments.
In 1945, student enrollment was 585. In 1960, the night school was initiated on a trial basis, in 1967 a new night school was established. In 1987, the College of Management was established, followed by the College of Public Health in 1993 and the College of Electrical Engineering in 1997; the College of Electrical Engineering was reorganized as the College of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. In 1999, the College of Law was renamed the College of Social Sciences, the Night Division and the Center for Continuing Education were combined to form the School for Professional and Continuing Studies. In 2002, the College of Agriculture was renamed the College of Bio-resources and Agriculture, in 2002 a College of Life Sciences was added. NTU has a main campus in Da'an District, Taipei City and has additional campuses in Taipei, New Taipei City, Hsinchu County, Yunlin County, Nantou County; the main campus is home to most college administrative buildings. The University governs farms and hospitals for education and research purposes.
The five campuses are: Main Campus Shuiyuan Campus College of Medicine Campus Yunlin Campus Zhubei Campus Visiting professor residences University Farm Wenshan Botanical Garden Highland Experimental Farm Experimental Forest Office Experimental Forest The University has 11 colleges, with 56 departments and 112 graduate institutes, plus four university-level research centers. The total number of students, including those enrolled at the School of Professional and Continuing Studies, has grown to over 33,000, including over 17,000 university students and 15,000 graduate students; the president heads the University. Each college is headed by a dean, each department by a chairman. Students elect their own representatives each year to attend administrative meetings. Kuan Chung-ming: since 8 January 2019 Tei-Wei Kuo: October 2017 – January 2019 Yang Pan-Chyr: June 2013 – June 2017 Lee Si-Chen: August 2005 – June 2013 Chen Wei-Jao: 22 June 1993 – June 2005 Kuo Kuang-hsiung: March 1993 – June 1993 Sun Chen: August 1984 – February 1993 Yu Chao-chung: August 1981 – July 1984 Yen Cheng-hsing: June 1970 – July 1981 Chien Szu-liang: January 1951 – May 1970 Shen Kang-po: December 1950 – January 1951 Fu Szu-nien: January 1949 – December 1950 Chuang Chang-kung: June 1948 – December 1948 Lu Chih-houng: August 1946 – May 1948 Lo Tsung-lo: August 1945 – July 1946 Kazuo Ando: March 1945 – August 1945 Masatsugu Ando: April 1941 – March 1945 Sadanori Mita: September 1937 – April 1941 Taira Shidehara: March 1928 – September 1937 Kuan Chung-ming was named university president-elect in January 2018 but soon became embroiled in scandals related to plagiarism, academic misconduct, violations of civil code stipulating that Taiwanese public servants were not permitted to deliver lectures or to be involved in any mainland China-related academic domain due to Taiwanese security concerns.
Tei-Wei Kuo is serving as the interim president of the university while the appointment of the president-elect is undergoing legal
Student exchange program
A student exchange program is a program in which students from a secondary school or university study abroad at one of their institution's partner institutions. A student exchange program may involve international travel, but does not require the student to study outside their home country. Foreign exchange programs provide students with an opportunity to study in a different country and environment experiencing the history and culture of another country,as well as meeting new friends to enrich their personal development. International exchange programs are effective to challenge students to develop a global perspective; the term "exchange" means that a partner institution accepts a student, but does not mean that the students have to find a counterpart from the other institution with whom to exchange. Exchange students live with a host family or in a designated place such as a hostel, an apartment, or a student lodging. Costs for the program vary by the institution. Participants fund their participation via loans, or self-funding.
Student exchanges became popular after World War II, are intended to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. Student exchanges increased further after the end of the Cold War. An exchange student stays in the host country for a period of 6 to 10 months however, exchange students may opt to stay for one semester at a time. International students or those on study abroad programs may stay in the host country for several years; some exchange programs offer academic credit. A short-term exchange program is known as summer/intensive or cultural exchange program; these focus on language skills, community service, or cultural activities. High school and university students can apply for the programs through various government or non-governmental organizations that organize the programs. A short-term exchange lasts from one week to three months and doesn’t require the student to study in any particular school or institution.
The students are exposed to an intensive program that increases their understanding of other cultures and languages. A long-term exchange is one which lasts up to one full year. Participants attend high school through a student visa. Guest students coming to the United States are issued a J-1 cultural exchange visa or an F-1 foreign student visa. Students are expected to integrate themselves into the host family, immersing themselves in the local community and surroundings. Upon their return to their home country they are expected to incorporate this knowledge into their daily lives, as well as give a presentation on their experience to their sponsors. Many exchange programs expect students to be able converse in the language of the host country, at least on a basic level; some programs require students to pass a standardized test for English language comprehension prior to being accepted into a program taking them to the United States. Other programs do not examine language ability. Most exchange students become fluent in the language of the host country within a few months.
Some exchange programs, such as the Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange, are government-funded programs. The Council on Standards for International Educational Travel is a not-for-profit organization committed to quality international educational travel and exchange for youth at the high school level. Long-term exchange applications and interviews take place 10 months in advance of departure, but sometimes as little as four months. Students must be between the ages of 13 and 14; some programs allow students older than 18 years of age in a specialized work-study program. Some programs require a preliminary application form with fees, schedule interviews and a longer application form. Other programs request a full application from the beginning and schedule interviews. High school scholarship programs require a set GPA of around 2.5 or higher. Programs select the candidates most to complete the program and serve as the best ambassadors to the foreign nation. Students in some programs, such as Rotary, are expected to go to any location where the organization places them, students are encouraged not to have strict expectations of their host country.
Students may live at any spot within that country. The home country organization will contact a partner organization in the country of the student’s choice. Students accepted for the program may or may not be screened by the organization in their home country. Partner organizations in the destination country each have differing levels of screening they require students to pass through before being accepted into their program. For example, students coming to the U. S. may be allowed to come on the recommendation of the organization in their home country, or the hosting partner may require the student to submit a detailed application, including previous school report cards, letters from teachers and administrators, standardized English fluency exam papers. The U. S. agency may accept or decline the applicant. Some organizations have Rules of Participation. For example all U. S. organizations cannot allow an exchange student to drive an automobile during their visit. Some organizations require a written contract that sets standards for personal behavior and grades, while others may be less rigorous.
Lower cost programs can result in a student participating without a supervisor being available nearby to check on the student's well-being. Progra