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Shenyang

Shenyang known as Fengtian or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population, with an urban population of 6.3 million, while the total metropolitan population is up to 8.1 million. Shenyang is the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, with a total population over 23 million; the city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, two counties of Kangping and Faku. In the 17th century, Shenyang was conquered by the Manchu people and used as the capital of the Qing dynasty; the Battle of Mukden took place in 1905 as part of the Russo-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent victory allowed them to annex the region west of the old city and increase their influence on Shenyang.

After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold, but was captured by the Communists in 1948 after the Liaoshen Campaign. Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China, serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast—particularly with Japan and Korea. A center of heavy industry in China since the 1930s, the spearhead of the Chinese central government's Northeast Area Revitalization Plan, the city has been diversifying its industry, including expanding into the service sector. Growing industries include software and electronics. Shenyang means "the Yang side of the Shen River", referring to the location of the Hun River, on the southern side of the city. According to Chinese tradition, a river's north bank and a mountain's south slope are considered to be the "sunny" – or "Yang" – side. Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang as early as 8,000 years ago; the remains of the Xinle culture, a late neolithic period society over 6,800–7,200 years old, are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District.

It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world; the city, now known as Shenyang, was first established in about 300 BCE during the Warring States period by Yan general Qin Kai, who conquered the Liaodong region, was named Hou City. However, around 350 years during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han, the city was sacked and burnt by the Donghu nomads and subsequently abandoned; the area of modern Shenyang was divided between two prefectures called Liaodong and Xuantu around 107 CE. Liaodong was seized by a Han governor in 189. Liaodong and Xuantu were united under the Wei Dynasty and Jin Dynasty; the region was in disarray during the fourth century until the Koguryo occupied both prefectures in 404. They established the cities of Gaimoucheng in the region; the Sui dynasty recaptured the area and established a new prefecture called Liaodong in what is now modern Shenyang.

In 645, the Tang sent forces to fight against Koguryo and they captured Xuantucheng and Gaimoucheng. Soon after, Liaodong was administratively reorganized and enjoyed nearly 250 years of stability and development. In 916, the Shenyang region was ruled by the Liao dynasty and was known as the Shen Prefecture through to the end of Jin dynasty, became the Shenyang Circuit during the Yuan dynasty. During the Ming dynasty, it was designated as a "guard town" named Shenyang Central Guard and became one of the most important strongholds beyond the Shanhai Pass. In 1625, the Manchu leader Nurhaci captured Shenyang and decided to relocate his entire administrative infrastructures to the city, or Simiyan hoton as it is called in Manchu language; the official name was changed to Shengjing, or Mukden, in 1634. The new name derives from the Manchu word, meaning "to rise" as reflected by its Han Chinese name. Under Nurhaci's orders, the Imperial Palace was constructed in 1626, symbolizing the city's emerging status as the Jurchen political center.

The palace featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as a symbol of power and grandeur. After the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and the routing of the Shun army in the Battle of Shanhai Pass a day the Manchus entered the Shanhai Pass to establish the Qing dynasty in China proper, with the capital relocated to Beijing. However, Shenyang retained considerable importance as the secondary capital and the spiritual home of the Qing dynasty through the centuries. Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, the tombs of the early Qing rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture was established in the Shenyang area, Fengtian was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden. After the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan coerced the anne

Mistborn: The Final Empire

Mistborn: The Final Empire known as Mistborn or The Final Empire, is a fantasy novel written by American author Brandon Sanderson. It was published on July 17, 2006 by Tor Books and is the first novel in the Mistborn trilogy, followed by The Well of Ascension in 2007 and The Hero of Ages in 2008. Sanderson began work on the novel while trying to get his earlier novel Elantris published. After writing two early iterations, he shifted his focus to his Stormlight Archive series, but chose to delay its publication in favor of completing the Mistborn series, as he thought it would serve as a better follow-up to Elantris. Mistborn: The Final Empire is set on the dystopian world of Scadrial, where ash falls from the sky, all plants are brown, supernatural mists cloak the landscape every night. One thousand years before the start of the novel, the prophesied Hero of Ages ascended to godhood at the Well of Ascension in order to repel the Deepness, a terror threatening the world whose true nature has since been lost to time.

Though the Deepness was repelled and mankind saved, the world was changed into its current form by the Hero, who took the title "Lord Ruler" and has ruled over the Final Empire for a thousand years as an immortal tyrant and god. Under his rule, society is stratified into the nobility, believed to be the descendants of the friends and allies who helped him achieve godhood, the brutally oppressed peasantry descended from those who opposed him, known as skaa. Magic is central to the Mistborn world; the most known discipline of magic is called Allomancy, which allows users to gain supernatural abilities by swallowing and "burning" specific metals. Allomantic potential is a genetic trait concentrated in the nobility, though skaa Allomancers exist due to crossbreeding between the nobility and the skaa. Normal Allomancers have access to one Allomantic power, but an rare subset of Allomancers, called Mistborn, have access to every Allomantic power. Three years prior to the start of the novel, a half-skaa thief named Kelsier discovers that he is Mistborn and escapes the Pits of Hathsin, a brutal prison camp of the Lord Ruler.

He returns to Luthadel, the capital city of the Final Empire, where he rounds up his old thieving crew for a new job: to overthrow the Final Empire by stealing its treasury and collapsing its economy. At the beginning of the novel, the reader is introduced to Vin, a wary and abused street urchin, recruited by Kelsier's crew after Kelsier is notified by his brother Marsh that she is a Mistborn. Vin is trained by Kelsier's crew to develop her Allomantic powers, which include burning pewter to strengthen the body, burning tin to enhance the senses, burning steel to gain a limited form of telekinesis over metal, she is given the duty of spying on the nobility by attending opulent balls in Luthadel, where she poses as Valette Renoux, niece to Lord Renoux, a nobleman working with Kelsier's crew. During these balls, she meets and falls in love with Elend Venture, heir to House Venture, the most powerful of the Luthadel noble houses. Elend flouts the rules of nobility culture and secretly plans to build a better society with his noble friends when they ascend to their respective house titles.

Kelsier hopes to conquer the city by destabilizing it with a house war between the nobility and invading with a skaa army. Once in control, he hopes to overthrow the Final Empire by stealing the Lord Ruler's hoard of atium, a precious metal, the cornerstone of the Final Empire's economy; the crew succeeds in starting a house war by assassinating several powerful nobles and recruiting about seven thousand soldiers to join their cause. However, about three quarters of the soldiers are slaughtered when they foolishly attack an unimportant Final Empire garrison, with the hopes of divine protection from Kelsier, who has spread rumors of his "supernatural" powers; the remaining soldiers are smuggled into Luthadel by Kelsier. Marsh is discovered and killed, Lord Renoux and his estate are seized and he is brought to be executed by the Canton of Inquisition, the police arm of the Final Empire; this Canton is made up of Steel Inquisitors indestructible Allomancers with steel spikes driven through their eyes.

Though Kelsier's crew manage to free most of Renoux's group and kill an Inquisitor, Kelsier is killed by the Lord Ruler himself, in a dramatic confrontation in Luthadel's city square. Though these events appear to leave Kelsier's plan in shambles, it is revealed that his real plan was to become a martyred symbol of hope for Luthadel's superstitious skaa population; the skaa population reacts to his death by rising up and overthrowing the city, with the help of Kelsier's army. Before his death, Kelsier had attempted to unlock the potential of the "Eleventh Metal" that he had acquired, rumored to be the Lord Ruler's weakness, he was unable to do so before his death, left it to Vin to finish the job. With the Eleventh Metal, Vin goes to the imperial palace to kill the Lord Ruler, she is captured by the Canton of Inquisition and left in a cell to be tortured, but Sazed, her faithful servant, comes to her rescue. Using a magical discipline called Feruchemy, he helps Vin recover her possessions. Marsh is revealed to be alive, having been made into a Steel Inquisitor.

Vin fights the Lord Ruler, revealed to be both an powerful Allomancer and a Feruchemist, the combination of which grants him incredible healing powers and eternal youth. Vin is destroyed by the Lord Ruler, but with hints from the Eleventh Metal and the unexpected magical aid of the mists, she manages to separate th

Berliner Verkehrsblätter

The Berliner Verkehrsblätter with the subtitle Informationsschrift des Arbeitskreises Berliner Nahverkehr e. V. has been published since 1954. It will be published in its 65th year in 2018 and more than 700 issues have been published to date; the magazine was founded in 1954 by Siegfried Münzinger and Wolfgang Kramer and was published in 1954 and 1955 under the name Der Berliner Verkehrsamateur. The aim of the journal was to record and document the modernisation in the transport sector that began with the reconstruction with new technology and new vehicles in a traffic chronicle to be updated; the information brochure has been published monthly since the beginning and began with a free, three-page and hectographed edition of 30 copies. At the beginning of the 1970s, the volume was 20 pages and the print run was over 500 copies, still written on a hand-held matrix and duplicated by hand. Since January 1972, the Verkehrsblätter have been produced in offset printing and are now available online.

Today, the magazine has 20 to 24 pages in DIN A4 format and is distributed by subscription or through specialist shops. According to the Berliner Verkehrsblätter, the reports cover current and historical topics: Line chronicle, tariffs, museum vehicles, technology and current short news from the areas of S-Bahn, U-Bahn, tram and passenger shipping. Photos and illustrations supplement the reports; the topics of issue 1/2012 include, for example: Berlin steam tram 1886-1898 and milestones at the main and cemetery railway. A series of publications supplements the publications of the Berliner Verkehrsblätter; the books include a tram line chronicle from 1945 to 1993, a chronicle of the Berlin subway and a compendium of Berlin S-Bahn stations. In addition to its publishing activities, the Berliner Verkehrsblätter participate in exhibitions, special trips and information events. Official website