Port of entry
In general, a port of entry is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It has border security staff and facilities to check passports and visas, inspect luggage to assure that contraband is not imported. International airports are ports of entry, as are road and rail crossings on a land border. Seaports can be used as ports of entry; the choice of whether to become a port of entry is up to the civil authority controlling the port. An airport of entry is an airport that provides customs and immigration services for incoming flights; these services allow the airport to serve as an initial port of entry for foreign visitors arriving in a country. The word "international" in an airport's name means that it is an airport of entry, but many airports of entry do not use it. Airports of entry can range from large urban airports with heavy scheduled passenger service, like John F. Kennedy International Airport, to small rural airports serving general aviation exclusively. Smaller airports of entry are located near an existing port of entry such as a bridge or seaport.
On the other hand, some "former" airports of entry chose to leave their name with the word "international" in it though they no longer serve international flights. One example is Osaka International Airport; when it had ended all international services and became a purely domestic airport after the opening of Kansai International Airport in 1994, it kept its original name of "Osaka International Airport". Many airports in the nearby region have the same situation, like Taipei Songshan Airport. Songshan retained its official Chinese name, Taipei International Airport, after Chiang Kai-shek International Airport opened. Similar cases of transitions of international airports such as Seoul, Nagoya, Hong Kong, Tehran, etc. For the European Union, flights between countries in the Schengen Area are considered domestic regarding passport and immigration check. Several international airports have only intra Schengen-flights. Several of these have occasional charter flights to foreign countries; some cases of statelessness have occurred in airports of entry, forcing people to stay there for an extended period.
A famous case was of Mehran Karimi Nasseri, an expelled Iranian who lived in the Charles de Gaulle Airport in France for eighteen years after being denied entry to the country. There are two films about Tombés du ciel and The Terminal. Another case is Zahra Kamalfar who lived in the Sheremetyevo International Airport for many months before getting refugee status in Canada; the formal definition of a port of entry in the United States is something different. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, "the terms'port' and'port of entry' incorporate the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a port director." In other words, a port of entry may encompass an area that includes several border crossings, as well as some air and sea ports. This means that not every border crossing is a port of entry. There are two reasons for this: Every port of entry must have a Port Director, a higher pay grade than a typical border inspector; the U. S. government has determined. As a result, border stations like Churubusco and Fort Covington, New York are considered "stations" within the Trout River Port of Entry.
Many roads entering the U. S. had no border inspection station. Before September 11, 2001, it was permissible for persons entering the U. S. to do as long as they proceeded directly to an open border inspection station. In fact, the U. S. Customs Service and U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service rented property in houses, post offices, storefronts far from the physical border, people entering the U. S. were expected to travel to these locations without stopping so they could make their declarations. This policy has since changed, most of the roads entering the U. S. at locations other than an open and staffed border inspection station have since been barricaded. In some countries, immigration procedures are carried out by the armed forces rather than specific immigration officers. However, in most, the levying of duty on imports is still carried out by customs officers. Immigration clearance in some ports of entry have automated sections open to the country's own residents or citizens, such as the E-Channel found in Hong Kong and Macau, Global Entry found at some airports in the United States.
On some international borders, the concept of a port of entry does not exist. Travelers may cross the border wherever and whenever convenient, for example within the Schengen Area. In some cases this may be restricted to citizens of specific countries and to travelers who are not carrying goods over the customs limits. Border Border checkpoint Border control Customs Schengen Agreement
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Hong Kong West Kowloon railway station
West Kowloon station known as Hong Kong West Kowloon and West Kowloon, is the terminus of the Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link. It is the only station in the Hong Kong section and connects to the mainland China section through a dedicated tunnel, it was constructed by MTR Corporation. The terminal railway station is located in Jordan, West Kowloon, north of the proposed West Kowloon Cultural District between the Airport Express and Tung Chung Line's Kowloon Station and the West Rail Line's Austin Station; the footprint of the new station extends into the basement of the West Kowloon Cultural District. The original scheduled opening date of 2012 was delayed until 2015 following the shake-up of high-speed rail construction across China after the 2011 Wenzhou train collision. While construction of the station was still planned for completion in 2015, major flooding occurred in the railway tunnels under construction on 30 March 2014; this resulted in great damage to the tunnel boring machines.
Internal MTR reports suggested causes were incomplete tender drawings, site surveys and planning before construction began. The station was formally opened on 4 September 2018 and high speed trains started to run to destinations in Mainland China from 23 September 2018. RTHK reported; the area delineated and coloured orange on Plan No. 1 and Annex 1 to Plan No. 1 in Schedule 2 of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link Ordinance is declared as the Mainland Port Area. It comprises the designated areas on B2 and B3 levels, the platform areas on B4 level as well as the connecting passageways. A train compartment of a passenger train in operation on the Hong Kong Section of the Express Rail Link is to be regarded as part of the Mainland Port Area; this arrangement will facilitate mainland border control preclearance in Hong Kong. Reports in the British press suggested this area amounts to a cession of 1,000,000 square feet of the station for a token annual rent of HK$ 1 000; the West Kowloon Station Mainland Port Area is a border control point between mainland China and Hong Kong.
It is part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link. It works similar to the Shenzhen Bay Control Point, it began operation in September 2018. Except for reserved matters, the Mainland Port Area is to be regarded as an area lying outside Hong Kong but lying within Mainland China for the purposes of the application of the laws of Mainland China, of the laws of Hong Kong, in the Mainland Port Area, it does not affect the boundary of the administrative division of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The joint meeting on 8 August 2017 of the Panel on Transport, the Panel on Security and the Panel on Administration of Justice and Legal Services of the Legislative Council passed the motion supporting the implementation of the "co-location arrangement" at the West Kowloon Station; the meeting on 15 November 2017 of the Legislative Council passed the motion on taking forward the follow-up tasks of the co-location arrangement at the West Kowloon Station. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region signed the Co-operation Arrangement between the Mainland and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Establishment of the Port at the West Kowloon Station of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link for Implementing Co-location Arrangement with the People's Government of Guangdong Province on 18 November 2017.
On 27 December 2017, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress approved the Co-operation Arrangement and stated that it is consistent with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China and the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Bill passed by the Legislative Council on the meeting on 14 June 2018; the Ordinance gazetted on 22 June 2018 and come into operation on a day to be appointed by the Secretary for Transport and Housing by notice published in the Hong Kong Government Gazette. After a ceremony to "mark the commissioning of the Mainland Port Area" was held jointly by Frank Chan, Secretary for Transport and Housing, "and a leading Communist party official from Guangdong province", democracy activists noted that it constituted an erosion of the SAR's autonomy, with Tanya Chan reported as telling local radio that "the unlawful and unconstitutional joint checkpoint has been implemented forcefully — it has caused an irreparable damage to our legal system and rule of law."
Chief Executive Carrie Lam, however denied that there was any attempt to cover up the event, despite the ceremony being closed to press and being held without advance notice to news media or to members of the Legislative Council. In the Court of First Instance of the High Court, Judge Anderson Chow refused the applications for leave to apply for judicial review by his decision dated 27 September 2017 and 18 April 2018, he refused the applications for interim relief by his decision dated 14 August 2018. He granted the applications for leave to apply for judicial review but dismissed the substantive applications for judicial review by his judgment dated 13 December 2018. Construction of the West Kowloon Station project was divided into two parts, XRL810A and XRL810B; the northern construction area was awarded to Leighton Contractors & Gammon Construction responsible for joint operations. The southern part of the project was awarded to a consortium of Laing O'Rourke, HCCG & Paul Y jointly responsible for the construction.
West Kowloon St
Dongguan railway station
Dongguan railway station known as New Shilong railway station is a railway station on the Guangzhou–Shenzhen Railway, located between Chashan and Shilong, Guangdong in China. The station is designed by He Jingtang, a prominent Chinese architect and professor at the South China University of Technology's school of architecture, it started to operate on January 8, 2014, which replaced Shilong railway station for the passenger train services. This station has Guangzhou-Shenzhen intercity Multiple unit train services and long-distance train services, it connected with Line 2 of the Dongguan Rail Transit
Shanghai railway station
Shanghai station is one of the four major railway stations in Shanghai, the others being Shanghai South, Shanghai Hongqiao, Shanghai West. The station is located on Moling Road, to the North of the city centre, it is governed by Shanghai Railway Bureau and is one of the most important hubs of the railway network in China. Shanghai station is called "the new railway station" by locals since it replaced Shanghai North railway station as the city's main train station in 1987. In the late'80s, the old North railway station was inadequate to handle the increasing railway traffic in Shanghai; the government decided to pull down the Shanghai East railway station and build a new railway station at the same place. On 28 December 1987, the North railway station was closed. At the same time, the new Shanghai railway station was started its operation. In 2006, some railway lines of the station were moved to the reopened Shanghai South railway station, which lessened the increasing pressure of passenger traffic.
In August 2006, a decision was made to renovate its surrounding area. Many new ticket machines were installed to increase efficiency. In June 2008, in order to co-operate with the opening of World Expo Shanghai 2010, Shanghai Government and Zhabei District carried out a new renovation called the "Shanghai Railway Station North Plaza Comprehensive Transportation Hub Project" with a total investment over 4.1 billion RMB. On May 29, 2010, the renovation was completed, it expanded the north building from 1,000 square meters to 15,560 square meters, refurbished the south building and added a new designed wave-shaped roof over the platform. In late 2015, rumours of the demolition of the Shanghai railway station arose. Many locals had believed this because of the many residential developments and needlessness of the station as there are the Shanghai Hongqiao, Shanghai South, Shanghai West stations. However, this rumour has been rejected by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai station serves north–south and westward locations.
It is the terminus of the main Beijing-Shanghai railway line. There are two Z trains to Xi'an every day. Most long-haul, non high-speed trains bound for Jiangsu Province, Anhui Province and the North depart from Shanghai railway station, it offers regional high-speed CRH trains to Nanjing and Hefei as well as overnight high-speed trains to Beijing and Xi’an. It offers T trains to Dalian, Beijing, Ürümqi, Yangzhou, Xian, Jinan, Tianjin and Ningbo in mainland China, as well as across the border to Kowloon in Hong Kong. K trains to Anyang, Changsha, Kunming, Yinchuan, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Yichang, Fuyang, Shijiazhuang, Qingdao, Taiyuan and Jilin. In addition, a lot of pass-by trains from the north to the south of China use Shanghai station as an intermediate stop. Shanghai station can be reached by taking Shanghai Metro Line 1, 3 or 4. Due to its pervasive connections with the Shanghai street network, the station is accessible by numerous bus lines and by taxi. Taxis are not at an underground taxi stop.
Shanghai Hongqiao railway station Shanghai South railway station Shanghai West railway station Rapid transit in the People's Republic of China Shanghai Train Guide - Timetables, tips and schedules
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers less than those of a province. Shenzhen, which follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China's first special economic zone. Shenzhen's registered population as of 2017 was estimated at 12,905,000. However, the Shenzhen Municipal Party Committee estimates that the population of Shenzhen is about 20 million, due to the large unregistered floating migrant population living in the city. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top 10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet. Shenzhen's cityscape results from its vibrant economy - made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of "reform and opening-up" in 1979.
The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley. Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Hytera, CIMC, SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei, DJI and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 14th in the 2019 Global Financial Centres Index, it has one of the busiest container ports in the world. The earliest known recorded mention of the name Shenzhen could date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty. Local Hakka people call the drains in paddy fields “zhen”. Shenzhen means “deep drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains within the paddy fields; the character 圳 is limited in distribution to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty. Due to the city's growing economy in the technological industry, the city has been referred by media as "China's Silicon Valley".
The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed in the Shenzhen area are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special imperial protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District; the settlement at Nantou was the political center of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or "jun" named Dongguan with its administrative center at Nantou; as well as being a center of the politically and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off point for international trade. The main shipping route to India and the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou; as early as the eighth century, chronicles recorded the Nantou area as being a major commercial center, reported that all foreign ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there.
It was as a naval defense center guarding the southern approaches to the Pearl River. Nantou was a major naval center at the mouth of the Pearl River in the Ming Dynasty. In this capacity it was involved in 1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de Andrade; this battle, called the Battle of Tunmen, was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island. This area was involved in the events surrounding the end of the Southern Song dynasty; the imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized all was lost and knew the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty, he jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged 7, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan, an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him.
The tomb, since restored, is still at the same location. Contrary to a common misconception of Shenzhen being a fishing village prior to becoming a city, Shenzhen was a regional market town, the county town of Bao'an since 1953. In November 1979, Bao'an County was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province, it was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town. The administrative centre of the county stood around present location of the Dongmen. Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of the five Special Economic Zones in May 1980; the SEZ comprised an area of only 327.5 km2 of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian and Yantian districts. The SEZ was promoted by Deng Xiaoping and created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community guided by the ideals of "socialism with Chinese characteristics". In 1982 Bao'an County was re-established; the county was converted to become Bao'an District, out of the Special Economic Zone.
Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial City in March 1983 and w
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge, is a 55-kilometre bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, four artificial islands. It is the longest open-sea fixed link on earth; the HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta. The HZMB was designed to cost 127 billion yuan to build; the cost of constructing the Main Bridge was estimated at 51.1 billion yuan funded by bank loans and shared among the governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. Set to be opened to traffic in late 2016, the structure was completed on 6 February 2018 and journalists were subsequently taken for a ride over the bridge. On 24 October 2018, the HZMB was opened to the public after its inauguration a day earlier by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. Hopewell Holdings founder and then-managing director Gordon Wu proposed the concept of a bridge-tunnel linking China, Hong Kong and Macau in the 1980s.
Wu stated. In 1988, Wu pitched the concept to Beijing officials, he envisaged a link farther north than the current design, beginning at Black Point near Tuen Mun, Hong Kong and crossing the Pearl River estuary via Neilingding Island and Qi'ao Island. His proposed bridge would have ended at the Chinese village of Tangjia, a new road would have continued south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau. Discussions stalled after the Tiananmen Square massacre in mid-1989 "unnerved" Wu and other foreign investors, caused Hopewell's Hong Kong share prices to plunge; the route proposed by Wu was promoted by the Zhuhai government under the name Lingdingyang Bridge. In the mid-1990s, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi'ao Island, intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese or Hong Kong governments at the time. China's central government showed support for this project on 30 December 1997; the new Hong Kong government was reticent, stating that it was still awaiting cross-border traffic study results, Hong Kong media questioned the environmental impact of the project with regard to air pollution and marine life.
In December 2001, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong and Macao. In September 2002, the China/Hong Kong Conference on Co-ordination of Major Infrastructure Projects agreed to a joint study on a transport link between Hong Kong and Pearl River West. To coordinate the project, the Advance Work Coordination Group of HZMB was set up in 2003. Officials from three sides solved issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operation of the Border Crossing Facilities, project financing. In August 2008, China's Central Government, the governments of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 42 percent of the total costs; the remaining 58% consisted of loans from the Bank of China. In March 2009, it was further reported that China's Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22 percent of the total costs; the remaining 78 percent consisted of loans from a consortium of banks led by Bank of China.
Construction of the HZMB project began on 15 December 2009 on the Chinese side, with then-Politburo Standing member and Vice Premier of China Li Keqiang holding a commencement ceremony. Construction of the Hong Kong section of the project began in December 2011 after a delay caused by a legal challenge regarding the environmental impact of the bridge; the last bridge tower was erected on 2 June 2016, the last straighted-element of the 4,860-metre-long straight section of the undersea tunnel was installed on 12 July 2016, while the final tunnel joint was installed on 2 May 2017. Construction of the Main Bridge, consisting of a viaduct and an undersea tunnel, was completed on 6 July 2017, the entire construction project was completed on 6 February 2018; the 55-km HZMB consists of three main sections: the Main Bridge in the middle of the Pearl River estuary, the Hong Kong Link Road in the east and the Zhuhai Link Road in the west of the estuary. The Main Bridge, the largest part of the HZMB project, is a bridge-cum-tunnel system constructed by the mainland Chinese authorities.
It connects an artificial island, housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau in the west, to the Hong Kong Link Road in the east. This section includes a 22.9-km viaduct and a 6.7-km undersea tunnel that runs between two artificial islands. The viaduct crosses the Pearl River estuary with three cable-stayed bridges spanning between 280 and 460 metres, allowing shipping traffic to pass underneath. Under Hong Kong jurisdiction, the Hong Kong Link Road was built by Highways Department to connect the Main Bridge to an artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities; this section includes a 9.4-km viaduct, a 1-km Scenic Hill Tunnel and a 1.6-km at-grade road along the east coast of the Hong Kong International Airport. The Zhuhai Link Road starts from an artificial island housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau, passes through the developed area of Gongbei via a tunnel towards Zhuhai, connects to three major express