Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Monty Python and the Holy Grail
Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 British independent comedy film concerning the Arthurian legend and performed by the Monty Python comedy group of Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin, directed by Gilliam and Jones. It was conceived during the hiatus between the third and fourth series of their BBC television series Monty Python's Flying Circus. In contrast to the group's first film, And Now for Something Completely Different, a compilation of sketches from the first two television series, Holy Grail draws on new material, parodying the legend of King Arthur's quest for the Holy Grail. 30 years Idle used the film as the basis for the musical Spamalot. Monty Python and the Holy Grail grossed more than any British film exhibited in the US in 1975. In the US, it was selected as the second best comedy of all time in the ABC special Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time. In the UK, readers of Total Film magazine ranked it the fifth greatest comedy film of all time.
In 932 AD, King Arthur and his squire, travel throughout Britain searching for men to join the Knights of the Round Table. Arthur recruits Sir Bedevere the Wise, Sir Lancelot the Brave, Sir Galahad the Pure, Sir Robin the Not-Quite-So-Brave-as-Sir-Lancelot, Sir Not-Appearing-in-this-Film, along with their squires and Robin's troubadours. Arthur leads the men to Camelot, but sets off elsewhere; as they turn away, God gives Arthur the task of finding the Holy Grail. Arthur and his men search the land for clues to the Grail, they come to a castle occupied by French soldiers who claim to have the Grail and insult the Englishmen. Arthur and his men come up with a plan to sneak in using a Trojan Rabbit, but they mishandle its execution and are forced away. Arthur decides that the knights should go their separate ways to search for clues to the Grail's whereabouts. A modern-day historian being filmed for a documentary describing the Arthurian legends is abruptly killed by a knight on horseback, triggering a modern-day police investigation.
On the knights' travels and Bedevere attempt to satisfy the strange requests of the dreaded Knights Who Say Ni. Sir Robin avoids a fight with a Three-Headed Giant by running away. Sir Galahad is led by a grail-shaped beacon to Castle Anthrax, populated by 150 nubile young women, but to his chagrin is "rescued" by Lancelot. Lancelot, after finding a note from Swamp Castle believed to be from a lady being forced to marry against her will, rushes to the castle and kills nearly the entire wedding party, only to discover that the note was sent by an effeminate prince. Arthur and his knights regroup and are joined by three new knights as well as Brother Maynard and his monk followers, they meet Tim the Enchanter, who directs them to a cave where the location of the Grail is said to be written, but it is guarded by the deadly Rabbit of Caerbannog. After the Rabbit kills Sirs Gawain and Bors, Arthur uses the Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch, provided by Maynard, to destroy the creature. Inside, they find the inscription from Joseph of Arimathea.
After evading a giant monster, they arrive at the Bridge of Death and must answer three questions from the bridge-keeper to pass. Lancelot answers first and and passes on. Robin and Galahad fail to answer and are thrown over the bridge; when Arthur and Bedevere reach the bridge's end, they cannot find Lancelot, unaware he was arrested by the modern-day policemen investigating the historian's death. Arthur and Bedevere find the Castle of Aarrgh, they amass a large army of knights to assault the castle, when a large police force shows up, arrests Arthur and Bedevere for the historian's death, shuts down the film's production. Fifteen months before the BBC visited the set in May 1974, the Monty Python troupe assembled the first version of the screenplay; when half of the resulting material was set in the Middle Ages, half was set in the present day, the group opted to focus on the Middle Ages, revolving on the legend of the Holy Grail. By the fourth or fifth version of their screenplay, the story was complete, the cast joked the fact that the Grail was never retrieved would be "a big let-down... a great anti-climax".
Graham Chapman said. Neither Terry Gilliam nor Terry Jones had directed a film before, described it as a learning experience in which they would learn to make a film by making an entire full-length film; the cast humorously described the novice directing style as employing the level of mutual disrespect always found in Monty Python's work. The film's initial budget of £200,000 was raised by convincing 10 separate investors to contribute £20,000 apiece. Three of those investors were the rock bands Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, Genesis, who were persuaded to help fund the film by Tony Stratton-Smith, head of Charisma Records. According to Terry Gilliam, the Pythons turned to rock stars like Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin and Elton John for finance as the studios refused to fund the film and rock stars saw it as "a good tax write-off" due to UK income tax being "as high as 90%" at the time. Monty Python and the Holy Grail was shot on location in Scotland around Doune Castle, Glen Coe, the owned Castle Stalker.
The many castles seen throughout the film were either Doune Castle shot from different angles or hanging miniatu
The Ochil Hills is a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Kinross and Perth. The only major roads crossing the hills pass through Glen Devon/Glen Eagles and Glenfarg, the latter now replaced except for local traffic by the M90 Edinburgh-Perth motorway cutting through the eastern foothills; the hills are part of a Devonian lava extrusion whose appearance today is due to the Ochil Fault which results in the southern face of the hills forming an escarpment. The plateau is undulating with the highest point being Ben Cleuch at 721 m; the south-flowing burns have cut deep ravines including Dollar Glen, Silver Glen and Alva Glen only passable with the aid of wooden walkways. The hills, combined with the town being built at the lowest bridge-point on the River Forth, led to Stirling's importance as a main gateway to the Highlands, they acted as a boundary to the Kingdom of Fife. Castle Campbell was built at the head of Dollar Glen in the late 15th century as a visible symbol of the Campbell domination of the area.
Sheriffmuir, the site of the 1715 battle of the Jacobite rising is on the northern slopes of the hills. In the early Industrial Revolution, several mill towns such as Tillicoultry and Menstrie grew up in the shadow of the Ochils to tap the water power; some of the mills are open today as museums. Blairdenon Hill was the site of one of the Beacons of Dissent during the G8 protests in July 2005. A proposal for an 18 turbine development at Green Knowes, south of Auchterarder, north of Glendevon was approved in June 2006; the development will be situated about 400 m north of the Ben Thrush summit. This is now complete. In early 2007 approval was given for the construction of a wind farm consisting of thirteen 102 m turbines on Burnfoot Hill, which lies north of Tillicoultry and Ben Cleuch and to the south of the Upper Glendevon Reservoir. Construction of this site has begun. Andrew Gannel Hill Ben Buck Ben Cleuch Ben Ever Ben Shee Blairdenon Burnfoot Hill Colsnaur Hill Tarmangie White Wisp The Law Kings Seat Greenforet Hill Innerdownie Mickle Corum Scad Hill Bengengie Hill Grodwell Hill Core Hill Sauchanwood Hill Wood Hill Craig Leith Wether Hill Bald Hill Elistoun Hill Craigentaggert Hill Steele's Knowe Sim's Hill Glentye Hill Eastbow Hill Commonedge Hill Hillfoot Hill The Nebit The Seat Kinpauch Hill Dumyat Loss Hill Craig Rossie Myreton Hill Black Hill Bank Hill Seamab Hill Interactive Photographic Panorama of the Ochils – Ochil Hills interactive panorama Computer generated summit panoramas North from Ben Cleuch South from Ben Cleuch index Clacksweb - Ochil Hills Ochils Mountain Rescue Team Ochil Hills Pronunciation Ochils Mountaineering Club Ochils Landscape Partnership Friends of the Ochils Alva Glen Heritage Trust
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Battle of Sheriffmuir
The Battle of Sheriffmuir was an engagement in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rising in England and Scotland. The battlefield has been included in the Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009. Sheriffmuir was and is a remote elevated plateau of heathland lying between Stirling and Auchterarder on the north fringe of the Ochil Hills. John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar, standard-bearer for the Jacobite cause in Scotland, mustered Highland chiefs, on 6 September declared James Francis Edward Stuart as King of Scots. With an army of about 12,000 men Mar proceeded to take Perth, commanded much of the northern Highlands. Following unsuccessful skirmishes against John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Mar was persuaded to lead his full army south, on 10 November. Spies informed Argyll of Mar's actions, he moved his army of about 4,000 to Sheriffmuir, near Dunblane; the two armies met on the battlefield on 13 November 1715.
Argyll was outnumbered by the Jacobite army, his left wing, commanded by General Thomas Whetham, was far shorter than the Jacobites' opposing right. Argyll's right wing attacked, managed to drive the Highlanders back, but Whetham's soldiers were overpowered by a much larger force. Argyll came to the aid of Whetham's men. By evening, both armies were reduced, although Mar had a great advantage in numbers, he refused to risk the entirety of his army, allowing Argyll to withdraw; the battle was inconclusive, with both sides claiming victory. However, in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance; those government regiments present that were titled'King's' were awarded the White Horse of Hanover as a badge of battle honour. The engagement only served to demoralize the Jacobite army who, with their superior numbers, felt they should have decisively won. Mar's French and Spanish supporters in particular withdrew their forces; the modern Scottish archaeologist and TV commentator Neil Oliver states that in hindsight the Jacobite failure of the rising of 1715 seems astonishing in that the Jacobite leader, the Earl of Mar, could have moved past the Duke of Argyll to link up with the English Jacobites and Catholics in the north of England, had he had the merest sense of how to fight a campaign rather than lead a parade.
On 23 December, the Old Pretender, exiled in France, landed at Peterhead, his cause lost. He was unable to rouse the disheartened army. Argyll and invigorated, soon advanced north, while the Jacobite army fled to Montrose, the Pretender returned to France; the Army moved to Ruthven, dispersed. The period was fatal in the extreme to the Jacobite Pretender; the whole body of his adherents in the south had fallen into the hands of generals Willis and Carpenter at Preston, Inverness, with all the adjacent country, had been recovered to the government, through the exertions of pro-government clans including the Earl of Sutherland, Fraser Lord Lovat, the Rosses, the Munros, the Forbeses. The number of the slain on the side of the rebels has been stated to have been eight hundred, among whom were John Lyon, 5th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, several others of distinction. James Maule, 4th Earl of Panmure and Drummond of Logie were among the wounded.
It meant. Argyll struck a medal to commemorate his feat. Of the government army, there were killed, wounded, upwards of six hundred. Archibald Douglas, 2nd Earl of Forfar was the only person of eminence killed on that side. A famous Jacobite song, "Sheriffmuir fight", was written about the battle; as with many such songs, the battle is presented as a noble victory for the Jacobite army. The song was collected by, written by, James Hogg in 1819; the Battle was the subject of "The Battle of Sherramuir", one of the most famous songs written by Robert Burns. The song was written when Burns toured the Highlands in 1787 and was first published in The Scots Musical Museum, appearing in volume III, 1790, it was written to be sung to the "Cameronian Rant". Burns knew that the battle ended so inconclusively that it was unclear which side had won and the poem is the account of the battle by two shepherds taking contrary views. One of the shepherds believes that "the red-coat lads wi' black cockades" routed the rebels, painting a fearful picture of how they managed to "hough the Clans like nine-pin kyles".
The other shepherd is just as convinced that the Jacobites "did pursue / The horsemen back to Forth, man" with the eventual result that "...mony a huntit, poor Red-coat / For fear amaist did swarf, man." Dissatisfied with the first published version of the poem, Burns re-wrote it sometime after 1790. The revised version was published after Burns' death by his editor, James Currie MD in The Complete Poetical Works of Robert Burns: With Explanatory and Glossarial Notes. Smurthwaite, Ordnance Survey Complete Guide to the Battlefields of Britain, Webb & Bower Ltd. 1984 Mileham, Difficulties Be Damned: The King's Regiment - A History of the City Regiment of Manchester and Liverpool, Fleur de Lys ISBN 1-873907-10-9 Robinson, Roger E. R.. The Bloody Eleventh: History of the Devonshire Regiment. Volume I: 1685-1815. Exteter: The Devon and Dorset Regiment. ISBN 0-9512655-0-4. Battle of Sheriffmuir at ScotWars.com Battle of Sherrifmuir at BattlefieldTrust.com Battle of Sheriffmuir at Clan Cameron.com John Campbell, 2nd
A monument is a type of three-dimensional-structure three-dimensional, explicitly created to commemorate a person, thing or event. A monument can be something that has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, political, technical or architectural importance. Examples of monuments include statues, historical buildings, archaeological sites, cultural assets. If there is public interest in its preservation, a monument may be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the origin of the word "monument" comes from the Greek mnemosynon and the Latin moneo, which means'to remind','to advise' or'to warn', suggesting a monument allows us to see the past thus helping us visualize what is to come in the future. In English the word "monumental" is used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but to mean anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art.
Monuments have been created for thousands of yiffs, they are the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric tumuli and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are the source of much of our information and art from those cultures; as societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy like the Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Indian Taj Mahal or the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states; the term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument. In this context, German art historian Helmut Scharf states that “A monument exists in the form of an object and as symbol thereof.
As a language symbol, a monument refers to something concrete, in some rare cases it is used metaphorically. A monument can be a language symbol for a unity of several monuments or only for a single one, but in a broader sense it can be used in nearly all knowable planes of being. What is considered a monument always depends on the importance it attributes to the prevailing or traditional consciousness of a specific historical and social situation.” The definition framework of the term monument depends on the current historical frame conditions. Aspects of the Culture of Remembrance and cultural memory are linked to it, as well as questions about the concepts of public sphere and durability and the form and content of the monument. From an art historical point of view, the dichotomy of content and form opens up the problem of the “linguistic ability” of the monument, it becomes clear that language is an eminent part of a monument and it is represented in “non-objective” or “architectural monuments”, at least with a plaque.
In this connection, the debate touches on the social mechanisms. These are acceptance of the monument as an object, the conveyed contents and the impact of these contents. Monuments are used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as Washington D. C. New Delhi and Brasília are built around monuments. For example, the Washington Monument's location was conceived by L'Enfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one; as Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias", the purpose of monuments is often to impress or awe. Structures created for others purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may be regarded as monuments; this can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of Oradour-sur-Glane in France.
Many countries use Ancient monument or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or archeological sites which may have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings. Monuments are often designed to convey historical or political information, they can thus develop an active socio-political potency, they can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the column of Trajan or the numerous statues of Lenin in the Soviet Union. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building, after former Postmaster General James Farley. To fulfill its informative and educative functions a monument needs to be open to the public, which means that its spatial dimension as well as its content can be experienced by the public, be sustainable; the former may be achieved either by situating the monument in public space or by a public discussion about the it and its meaning, the latter by the materiality of the monument or if its content becomes part of the collective or cultural memory.
The social meanings of monuments are fixed and certain and are frequently'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of'protection' from the ideological impurity
A9 road (Scotland)
The A9 is a major road running from the Falkirk council area in central Scotland to Scrabster Harbour, Thurso in the far north, via Stirling, Bridge of Allan and Inverness. At 273 miles, it is the fifth-longest A-road in the United Kingdom, it was the main road between Edinburgh and John o' Groats, has been called the spine of Scotland. The road's origins lie in the military roads building programme of the 18th century, further supplemented by the building of several bridges in years; the A9 route was formally designated in 1923, ran from Edinburgh to Inverness. The route was soon extended north from Inverness up to John O'Groats. By the 1970s the route was hampered by severe traffic congestion, an extensive upgrading programme was undertaken on the 138 mile section between Bridge of Allan and Inverness; this involved the bypassing of numerous towns and villages on the route, the building of several new bridges, notably the Kessock Bridge which shortened the route north out of Inverness by 14 miles.
In the south the road's importance has been eclipsed by: the A90 across the Forth Road Bridge and the M90 motorway, which now link Edinburgh more directly with Perth, bypassing Stirling and Bridge of Allan as important bridge points, the M9, now the main road between Edinburgh and Bridge of Allan. Between Edinburgh and Falkirk the old A9 route has been reclassified into the A803 and the B9080 amongst others. Between Falkirk and Bridge of Allan, the A9 survives as a more or less parallel road to the M9; the link between the M9 and the A9, by Bridge of Allan, is the Keir Roundabout. The A9's origins lie in the military roads building programme carried out by General Wade in the 18th century to allow deployment of forces in key locations within the Highlands. At this time there was an existing road between Perth and Dunkeld, between 1727 and 1730 a roadway was constructed between Dunkeld in Perthshire and Inverness. However, Wade had still to bridge the River Tay at Aberfeldy. Construction began in 1733 to a design by William Adam.
The bridge was completed within the year, but Wade wrote "The Bridge of Tay... was a work of great difficulty and much more expensive than was calculated." At a cost of over £4,000, the bridge became the most expensive item on Wade's road building programme. For most of its length between Perth and Inverness, the route was identical to the A9 prior to the commencement of the major upgrading works in the 1970s. In 1802, Thomas Telford was requested by the Lords of the Treasury to carry out a survey of the interior of the Scottish Highlands. In his report, he highlighted the inadequacy of the old military roads to meet the requirements of the general population. In particular, he noted the difficulties caused by the absence of bridges over some of the principal rivers; as part of the improvements to the road system that were carried out in the following years, a bridge was built at Dunkeld, designed by Telford. The original cost estimate was £15,000 with costs to be split between the government and the landowner, the 4th Duke of Atholl.
However, costs spiralled up to around £40,000. The government refused to increase their financial contribution, so the Duke of Atholl had to finance the extra cost; as a result, tolls were placed on the completed bridge to recoup costs. The realigned road north out of Dunkeld would evolve into the A9, the bridge carried the bulk of the traffic into the Highlands until the new A9 by-pass was opened in 1977; the formal scheme of classification of roads in Great Britain was first published on 1 April 1923. The original route of the designated A9 began in Edinburgh at the Corstorphine junction in the west of the city, branching north off the A8; the route went through onwards to Polmont and Falkirk. The road followed the now familiar route to Stirling and up to Perth and onwards to Inverness, going through numerous villages en route; the original A9 terminated at Inverness, but in the years that followed it was extended all the way up to John O'Groats. By the 1970s, the A9 went north-west out of Inverness in what had been classified as the A88, following the Beauly Firth coast westwards through Kirkhill and Muir of Ord.
Continuing north through Dingwall, the road began to follow the Cromarty Firth coast, where it followed the modern alignment, going through Alness and Tain. The A9 from here followed west along the south side of the Dornoch Firth coast before reaching Bonar Bridge where the road turned eastwards on the north side of the Dornoch Firth. On reaching the village of Dornoch, the A9 headed north along the coast, going through several villages before reaching the town of Wick; the final stretch continued north along the coast before it reached John O'Groats. The 138 mile section between Bridge of Allan and Inverness, via Perth, was rebuilt during the 1970s and 80s, but it follows the same route except where it bypasses towns and villages instead of running through their centres. Between Perth and Inverness, the road has been dubbed Killer A9, because of accidents and fatalities where dual-carriageway sections merge into single-carriageway - the principal cause being motorists driving at excessive speeds to overtake lines of slower-moving vehicles before the dual carriageway ends.
Dangerous overtaking manoeuvres on the long single-carriageway stretches of the road are common causes of accidents, as are the non-grade separated junctions along the northern sections, where drivers make a right turn across th