Sherpa people

Sherpa is one of the ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal and the Himalayas. The term sherpa or sherwa derives from the Sherpa language words Shyar and Pa, which refer to their geographical origin of eastern Nepal. Most Sherpa people live in the eastern regions of Nepal. Sherpas establish gompas. Tengboche was the first celibate monastery in Solu-Khumbu. Sherpa people live in China and the Indian states of Sikkim and the northern portion of West Bengal the district of Darjeeling; the Sherpa language belongs to the south branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages, mixed with Eastern Tibet and central Tibetan dialects. However, this language is unintelligible to Lhasa speakers; the number of Sherpas migrating to Western countries has increased in recent years to the United States. New York City has the largest Sherpa community in the United States, with a population of 3,000; the 2011 Nepal census recorded 312,946 Sherpas within its borders. Some members of the Sherpa population are known for their skills in mountaineering as a livelihood.

The Sherpa were nomadic people. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated from Kham in Tibet to Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi and Chawa; these four groups split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today. Mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration out of Tibet in the 13th and 14th centuries and arrived in Khumbu regions of Nepal. Sherpa migrants travelled before crossing the Himalaya. By the 1400s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained autonomy within the newly formed Nepali state. In the 1960s, as tension with China increased, Nepali government influence on the Sherpa people grew. In 1976, Khumbu became a national park, tourism became a major economic force. Gautam concluded that the Sherpa migrated from Tibet to Nepal 600 years ago through Rongshar to the west and later through the Nangpa La pass, it is presumed that the group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called "Shyar Khamba", the place where they settled was called "Shyar Khumbu".

As the time passed, the "Shyar Khamba", inhabitants of Shyar Khumbu, were called Sherpa. A recent Nepal Ethnographic Museum study postulated that present-day Nepal became an integral part of the kingdom of Nepal. Since ancient times, like other indigenous Kirat Nepalese tribes, would move from one place to another place within the Himalayan region surviving as Alpine pastoralists and traders. Genetic studies shows that much of the Sherpa population has allele frequencies which are found in other Tibeto-Burman regions, in tested genes, the strongest affinity was for Tibetan population sample studies done in Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. Genetically, the Sherpa cluster closest with the sample Han populations. Additionally, the Sherpa had exhibited affinity for several Nepalese populations, with the strongest for the Rai people, followed by the Magars and the Tamang. Released in 2010 by UCLA at Berkeley, a study identified more than 30 genetic factors that make Tibetans' bodies well-suited for high-altitudes, including EPAS1, referred to as the "super-athlete gene" which regulates the body's production of hemoglobin, allowing for greater efficiency in the use of oxygen.

A 2016 study of Sherpas in China suggested that a small portion of Sherpas' and Tibetans' allele frequencies originated from separate ancient populations, which were estimated to have remained somewhat distributed for 11,000 to 7,000 years. A 2014 study observed that considerable genetic components from the Indian Subcontinent were found in Sherpa people living in China; the western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, F*-M89 comprise 17% of the paternal gene pool in tested individuals. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, U from the west count up to 8% of people in given Sherpa populations. However, a study from 2015 did not support the results from the 2014 study. In a 2015 study of 582 Sherpa individuals from China and Nepal, haplogroup D-M174 was found most followed by Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup F-M89 and Haplogroup K-M9; the Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution for Sherpas follow a pattern similar to that for Tibetans. Sherpa mtDNA distribution shows greater diversity, as Haplogroup A was found most followed by Haplogroup M9a, Haplogroup C4a, Haplogroup M70, Haplogroup D.

These haplogroups are found in some Tibetan populations. However, two common mtDNA sub-haplogroups unique to Sherpas populations were identified: Haplogroup A15c and Haplogroup C4a3b1. Many Sherpa are regarded as elite mountaineers and experts in their local area, they were immeasurably valuable to early explorers of the Himalayan region, serving as guides at the extreme altitudes of the peaks and passes in the region for expeditions to climb Mount Everest. Today, the term is used by foreigners to refer to any guide or climbing supporter hired for mountaineering expeditions in the Himalayas, regardless of their ethnicity; because of this usage, the term has become a slang byword for a mentor in other situations. Sherpas are renowned in the international climbing and mountaineering community for thei

X Reserve Corps (German Empire)

The X Reserve Corps was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I. X Reserve Corps was formed on the outbreak of the war in August 1914 as part of the mobilisation of the Army, it was commanded by General der Infanterie Günther Graf von Kirchbach President of the Military Tribunal. It was still in existence at the end of the war in the 4th Army, Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht on the Western Front. On formation in August 1914, X Reserve Corps consisted of two divisions, made up of reserve units. In general, Reserve Corps and Reserve Divisions were weaker than their active counterparts Reserve Infantry Regiments did not always have three battalions nor contain a machine gun company Reserve Jäger Battalions did not have a machine gun company on formation Reserve Cavalry Regiments consisted of just three squadrons Reserve Field Artillery Regiments consisted of two abteilungen of three batteries each Corps Troops consisted of a Telephone Detachment and four sections of munition columns and trains In summary, X Reserve Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 9 machine gun companies, 6 cavalry squadrons, 12 field artillery batteries and 3 pioneer companies.

Despite its name, 2nd Guards Reserve Division was not formed by units drawn predominantly from the Guards Corps but from II Corps District, VII Corps District and X Corps District. On mobilisation, X Reserve Corps was assigned to the 2nd Army as part of the right wing of the forces that invaded France and Belgium as part of the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914. X Reserve Corps had the following commanders during its existence: German Army order of battle German Army order of battle, Western Front Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. Busche, Hartwig. Formationsgeschichte der Deutschen Infanterie im Ersten Weltkrieg. Institut für Preußische Historiographie. Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919.

The London Stamp Exchange Ltd. 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3; the German Forces in the Field. Imperial War Museum and The Battery Press, Inc. 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X

Austinn Jones

Austinn "Aussie" Jones is a former Australian rules footballer who played with St Kilda in the Australian Football League. The 176 cm Jones played for the Collingwood reserves in the mid-1990s, but they were afraid to recruit him due to him weighing just 64 kilograms. "Aussie", as he is more known, refused to give up on his dream to play AFL football, was recruited to St Kilda in the 1994 AFL Draft. He made his debut in 1995 still weighing in at the high 60s. In 1996 and 1997, Jones established himself as one of the league's better wingers/half-back flankers, with his pace and hard-running a big advantage for the Saints. Jones played in St Kilda's 1996 pre-season final winning side – the club's first pre-season win. Jones played in 22 of 22 matches in the 1997 home and away rounds in which St Kilda qualified in first position for the 1997 AFL finals, winning the club’s second minor premiership. In 1997 he had Jones winning All-Australian selection. In fact, Jones put the Saints in a strong position, kicking a Goal of the Year contender with a magnificent long run and goal.

At that stage the Saints had a comfortable lead and the Jones goal looked like the team would run away with the game. It was not to be, with the Saints forfeiting a half-time lead to lose the match. Jones played in St Kilda's 2004 pre-season final winning side – St Kilda's second pre-season final win. Jones career suffered from inconsistency in the following years, however in 2004, the first year St Kilda made the finals since 1998, Jones again won All-Australian selection and was back to his best; however Jones then, doubted whether he would be able to cope with the mental pressures of AFL football, was considering retirement. In 2005 he suffered a major setback when he was dropped to the Victorian Football League midway through the year. Although he regained his form, Jones admitted that he was at his lowest ebb as a player at this stage, he fought his way back into the seniors and performed admirably during the Saints' late-season charge into the top four. Despite hinting at his retirement it was a huge shock when Jones called it quits from the game with one year to run on his contract, having just turned 29.

He cited the mental pressures, more than the physical toll, as the reason for his retirement. In 2006 he was the contracted as the playing coach at country football club, the Narre Warren Magpies, his venture as coach was a successful one. Jones coached Narre Warren again in 2007. Narre Warren, under the guidance of Aussie Jones in his last game as playing coach, won back to back premierships on 22 September 2007, he coached Gippsland Power in the 2008 TAC Cup season. In July 2012, Jones was appointed as head coach of the newly formed standalone VFL team Bendigo Gold, with his coaching stint to commence in Gold's inaugural year as a standalone VFL side in 2013. Austinn Jones's playing statistics from AFL Tables