Etobicoke is an administrative district and former city that makes up the western part of Toronto, Canada. Etobicoke was first settled by Europeans in the 1790s. Several independent villages and towns developed within the area of Etobicoke, only to be absorbed into Etobicoke during the era of Metro Toronto. Etobicoke was dissolved in 1998, when it was amalgamated with other Metro Toronto municipalities into the City of Toronto. Etobicoke is bordered on the south by Lake Ontario, on the east by the Humber River, on the west by Etobicoke Creek, the city of Mississauga, Toronto Pearson International Airport, on the north by Steeles Avenue West. Etobicoke has a diversified population, it is suburban in development but heavily industrialized, resulting in a lower population density than the other districts of Toronto. Much of its cityscape is characterized by larger main streets, shopping malls, cul-de-sac housing developments. Etobicoke contains several expressways, including Highways 427, 401, 409, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Gardiner Expressway.
Etobicoke is the western terminus of Line 2 Bloor-Danforth of the Toronto subway and served by four suburban rail stations of GO Transit. Humber College is located in Etobicoke, encompassing two campuses, one of, home to the University of Guelph-Humber. Different groups of First Nations peoples used the land, now Etobicoke at different times; as the Algonquins moved west from the Atlantic to Lake Erie, it is certain that they would have occupied this land at some point. By the time they were settled on the shores of Georgian Bay, the Huron-Wendat were the primary residents of the north shore of Lake Ontario. During the 17th century they were pushed out by the powerful Haudenosaunee confederacy, made up of nations based to the south of the lake. After continued harassment from the Iroquois to the south, a coalition of the Ojibway and Potawatomi Algonquin nations, known as the Three Fires pushed the Haudenosaunee off this land; the Algonquian-speaking Mississaugas settled here by 1695, fishing and growing crops more locally in the summer and hunting farther afield in the winter.
The name "Etobicoke" was derived from the Mississauga word wah-do-be-kang, meaning "place where the alders grow". This was the way they described the area between the Humber River; the first provincial land surveyor, Augustus Jones spelled it as "ato-be-coake." Etobicoke was adopted as the official name in 1795 at the direction of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe. The British officials intended Etobicoke to be included in the Toronto Purchase of 1787. However, the Mississauga and government disagreed as to whether the western boundary of the purchase was the Humber River or the Etobicoke River; the Mississauga Indians allowed British surveyor Alexander Aitkin to survey the disputed land, the British paid an additional 10 shillings for the purchase, although the purchase was never formally agreed to. The dispute was settled between the Government of Canada and the Mississauga First Nation in 2010. Immigrants from the British Isles were among the new settlers, as well as Loyalists who had left the rebellious Thirteen Colonies, by the new United States.
Early settlers included many of the Queen's Rangers, who were given land in the area by Simcoe to help protect the new capital of Upper Canada and to develop this frontier area. In 1793-95, the Honourable Samuel Smith, a colonel in the Queen's Rangers, received land grants of 1,530 acres, extending from today's Kipling Avenue to Etobicoke Creek, north to Bloor Street; the first land patent was issued to Sergeant Patrick Mealey on March 18, 1797, for a plot on the west side of Royal York Road on Lake Ontario. This was part of the First Military Tract, or "Militia Lands", which extended from today's Royal York Road to Kipling Avenue, south from Bloor Street; the Crown was providing land to Loyalists in compensation for property they left behind in the US and to veterans of the American Revolution in payment for service. In other parts of Ontario, the Crown granted land to the Iroquoian First Nations who had served as allies during the war and were forced to cede most of their land in New York to the state.
The Crown granted more land to the members of the Queen's Rangers in the First Military tract, but most Rangers did not occupy their land. Many sold their acreage to others after a short time; the census of 1805 counted 84 people in the township of Etobicoke. In 1806, William Cooper built a grist mill and saw mill on the west bank of the Humber river, just south of Dundas Street; the 1809 census counted 137 residents. The Dundas Street bridge opened in 1816. On May 18, 1846, the Albion Road Company was incorporated, its purpose was to build and maintain a road to the north-west corner of Etobicoke, where a new community was planned. At the same time, John Grubb, who had founded Thistletown, hired land surveyor John Stoughton Dennis to plan a community at the intersection of Islington Avenue and Albion Road, to be named Saint Andrew's. Plan 6 for this community was registered on October 15, 1847; the French master of Upper Canada College, Jean du Petit Pont de la Haye, contracted land surveyor James McCallum Jr to create a plan for the community planned by the Albion Road Company, Plan 28 was registered for Claireville on October 12, 1849.
The township of Etobicoke was incorporated on January 1, 1850. The first meeting of the town council was held on January 21. Present at the meetin
Holt, Renfrew & Co. Limited known as Holt Renfrew or Holt's, is a chain of high-end Canadian department stores. Compared to Barneys, Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States, Holt Renfrew is controlled by Selfridges Group Limited, under the chairmanship of W. Galen Weston, which owns Selfridges in the United Kingdom, Brown Thomas in Ireland, de Bijenkorf in the Netherlands. Once "Furriers in Ordinary" to Queen Victoria, the chain was founded in 1837 as a fur shop in Quebec City. In 1837, William S. Henderson, an Irish-born merchant, bought his partners' interest in their Quebec City fur shop and went into business for himself, thereby marking the traditional founding date of Holt Renfrew. Three years earlier, Henderson had arrived by ship from Londonderry with a load of caps; the merchandise sold well and other overseas crossings followed. Henderson set up shop at Quebec under the name William Ashton & Co. An early company advertisement noted a line of wholesale and retail garments and accessories that included Ladies' fur muffs and tippets, in addition to Buffalo Robes and Bear skins, procured as well as "manufactured on this premises."
By 1847, the store renamed William S. Henderson & Co. had established itself at 12 Buade Street. The store moved to larger premises at 35 Buade where it remained for many years. Over the decades that followed, the store's ownership changed hands, as various partners came and went, the firm's name underwent revision. W. S. Henderson sold the store to his brother John, a Montreal businessman, it became John Henderson & Co. In 1862, with the addition of business partner George Richard Renfrew, the store's name changed to Henderson and Company. By the time of Confederation, in 1867, Henderson had retired and Renfrew and V. H. Marcou, whom Henderson had sent to Quebec to manage the business, had become the new principals, with the firm renamed Renfrew & Marcou. By the middle of the 19th century, the company had begun promoting its fur garments beyond Quebec to a larger North American and European market. An 1890 mail order fur catalogue listed nine different medals and diplomas won at London and Philadelphia exhibitions from 1851 to 1888.
During its history, the store served many notable patrons. Admirers of Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada’s first Prime Minister, had decided the coat he had worn during an 1883 visit to Quebec City was not befitting his status as first minister and bought him a new fur coat from the company. In 1886, G. R. Renfrew & Co. received its most prestigious honour, being named "Furriers in Ordinary" by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. The Queen had purchased a number of fur items from the company’s display at the Indian & Colonial Exhibition held that year at London, England; the Quebec Daily Telegraph wrote at length about the appointment: Visitors to the late provincial exhibition in this city will remember that lithographed copies in duplicate were shown of the royal letters patent from the Mistress of the Robes at Windsor Castle, notifying Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. of their appointment as furriers to the Queen. At the same exhibition this firm exposed a duplicate set in sable to that purchased from them by Her Majesty the Queen in person, at the Indian & Colonial Exhibition in London.
In common with many of our readers, we are not of opinion that a firm, any more than a private individual is the better individually, for rubbing against royalty, but we are speaking of business affairs in a business sense, there is no doubt that Queen Victoria would not have patronized Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. when she wanted a new muff, nor appointed them as her special furriers, unless she was satisfied that their articles were the best of the kind manufactured, that she could not do as well elsewhere. It is upon the knowledge of these facts that we congratulate Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. and feel a legitimate pride in the success of our fellow citizens abroad. At home their success is exemplified by the large number of awards made their exhibits, by the splendid stock which they always keep on hand in the mammoth establishment, it was, in fact, the first of a series of royal warrants issued by members of the British Royal Family. In 1901, Renfrew & Co. was appointed furriers to Her Majesty Queen Alexandra and to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales King Edward VII, in 1903.
In 1910, the company was appointed by royal warrant furriers to His Majesty King George V. The last of the royal warrants was issued by the Prince of Wales King Edward VIII, in 1921. In 1889, the company established its first store outside of Quebec City with a new retail outlet at 71 and 73 King Street East, Toronto. William Henderson had by this time retired and his nephew, Allen E. Renfrew, had become partner. In 1900, John Henderson Holt, who began his career as a company clerk, was appointed president and the firm became known as Holt, Renfrew & Co. By 1908, the company's structure had changed again and it had become Holt, Renfrew & Co. Limited. Meanwhile, the company continued to display its furs at various international expositions, such as the Franco-British Exhibition, held in London, that same year. Described as a "great merger of fur firms" by the press, in 1910 Holt Renfrew acquired Dunlop, Cook Co. Limited, established new premises at Montreal, on fashionable St. Catherine St. W. in addition to taking over the firm of W. J. Hammond, "the largest fur house in the West," at Winnipeg, Manitoba.
With the death of John H. Holt in 1915, A. E. Renfrew was appointed company president, a position he held until his retirement in 1919. In 1937, in conjunction with the company’s 100th anniversary, Holt Renfrew unveiled a new six-storey Montre
St. Lawrence Market
St. Lawrence Market is a major public market in Toronto, Canada, it is located at Front St. East and Jarvis St in the Old Town district of Toronto; until 2015 there were two buildings in the complex, with different purposes. Until it was demolished to make way for redevelopment, St. Lawrence Market North, on the north side of Front St, hosted weekly farmer's markets and antique markets. A public market had been held on the north building site since 1803. Several buildings housed the market, the most recent built in 1968. Starting in 2015, the North building has shut to allow for redevelopment. While the North site is redeveloped, its market functions have moved to south of the South building in a temporary building. St. Lawrence Market South, on the south side of Front St, is open Tuesday to Saturday, featuring food stalls and the St. Lawrence Market Gallery; the South building dates to 1845, has been rebuilt twice, still incorporates a section of its original building, used as Toronto City Hall from 1845.
St. Lawrence Hall is an event and office building on King at Jarvis, built in 1850. St. Lawrence Market was named the world's best food market by National Geographic in April 2012. By 1803, the population in York, Upper Canada had increased to the point where a public market was needed. Upper Canada Lt. Governor Peter Hunter established a weekly market day and designated an area, his proclamation appeared in the November 3, 1803 issue of The Upper Canada Gazette saying, “Whereas great prejudice hath arisen to the inhabitants of the town and township of York and of other adjoining townships from no place or day having been set apart for exposing publicly for sale, sheep and other provisions and merchandise brought by merchants and others for the necessary supply of the town of York and whereas great benefit and advantage might be derived to the inhabitants and others by establishing a weekly market at a place and on a day certain for the purpose aforesaid. The market square was the center of the city's social life where auctions took place and public punishments were carried out.
In the earliest days of the town, when slavery was still legal, this included auctions of black slaves. Town bylaws prohibited the selling of butter, fish, meat and vegetables between the hours of 6am and 4pm on Saturdays, except at the market; the first market building, a temporary shelter, 24 feet by 36 feet was built in 1814. The first permanent structure was built in 1820. In 1823, the town's first public well was dug on the property. In 1831, the wooden market building was torn down and a quadrangular brick building with arched entrances at the sides was built; the building's office space served as temporary home to City Council until 1845. This building was used until the 1849 Toronto Great Fire destroyed the northern side of the building and it was torn down. After the fire, St. Lawrence Hall was built, along with a new market building between Front; the market building was replaced in 1904 and 1968. The present St. Lawrence Market South building was built in 1845 as Toronto City Hall and was rebuilt in 1850 and 1904 and renovated in 1972.
A canopy was built between the north and south buildings and this was torn down in the 1950s. The most recent St. Lawrence Market North was a single floor building built in 1968, replacing the 1904 complex, designed to mimic the South Market, it was demolished in 2015 and a new building will be built at the same site. A temporary farmer's market is located in the parking lot south of the South Market. In the nineteenth century, Toronto had three public markets named after the wards within which they were located. St. Lawrence Market, founded in 1803, was the first, St. Patrick's Market at 238 Queen Street West was the second, created in 1836, still exists in the form of an organic food court within its current building, constructed in 1912, St. Andrew's Market on the block between Richmond, Adelaide and Maud streets was built in 1850 and is now a park; the City of Toronto is now proceeding with another market building on the site of the North building. A new four-storey building with atrium is to replace the 1968 North building.
The farmer's market has relocated to 125 The Esplanade, just south of the South building. Foundations of the 1831, 1851 and 1904 North Market buildings were found below the floor of the 1968 building. St. Lawrence, Toronto Hounsom, Eric Wilfrid. Toronto in 1810. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ISBN 978-0770003111. Notes Photo Essay from St. Lawrence Market Toronto's Marvellous Markets, ca. 1970s, Archives of Ontario YouTube Channel
Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in all of Canada, the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC has recovered about 70% of its operating costs from the fare box in recent years.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession; when the Harris Progressive Conservatives ended the provincial subsidies, the TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC.
As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives 10% of its operating budget from the provincial government, Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province; the fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service.
After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolley buses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the low-floor Orion V
Nordstrom Inc. is an American chain of luxury department stores operating in Canada and headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1901 by Swedish American John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin, the company began as a shoe retailer and expanded its inventory to include clothing, handbags, jewelry and fragrances. Select Nordstrom stores include wedding and home furnishings departments; the company has in-house cafes and espresso bars. Nordstrom, Inc.'s common stock is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol JWN. Nordstrom has 379 stores operating in 40 US states, Puerto Rico and Canada, a number which includes 122 full-line stores and 244 Nordstrom Rack stores, two clearance stores, six Trunk Club clubhouses, three Jeffrey boutiques and three Nordstrom Local stores. Nordstrom serves customers through nordstrom.com, nordstromrack.com, its online private sale site, HauteLook. In 1887, John W. Nordstrom immigrated to the United States at the age of 16, he was born in the village of Alvik, close to the city of Luleå in Northern Sweden.
His name at birth was Johan Nordström, which he anglicized to John Nordstrom. After landing in New York, he first began working in Michigan and was able to save enough money to purchase a 20-acre potato farm in Arlington, Washington. In 1897, he joined the Klondike Gold Rush in Canada's Yukon Territory. After two years of prospecting, he struck gold, but sold his disputed claim for $13,000. Returning to Seattle with his newfound wealth, he married Hilda Carlson and looked for a business venture settling on a shoe store that opened in 1901, called Wallin & Nordstrom. Carl F. Wallin, the co-founder of the store, was the owner of the adjacent shoe repair shop. John and Hilda had five children, three of whom would follow him into the family business, Everett W. Elmer J. and Lloyd N. Nordstrom. In 1928, John W. Nordstrom retired and sold his shares to two of his sons and Elmer. In 1929, Wallin retired and sold his shares to them; the 1930 grand opening of the remodeled Second Avenue store marked the change of name to Nordstrom.
Lloyd Nordstrom subsequently joined the company in 1933, the three brothers ran the business together for forty years. By 1958, Nordstrom still sold only shoes, their expansion was based on deep product offerings and full size ranges. Apparel came with its purchase of Best Apparel of Seattle in 1963, the company's name was changed to Nordstrom's Best. In 1971, the company was taken public on NASDAQ, it was moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1999 under the ticker symbol JWN after John W. Nordstrom, its founder. By 1975, Nordstrom expanded into Alaska by purchasing Northern Commercial Company and opened its first Nordstrom Rack clearance store in Seattle. A strong northwest regional retailer with sales approaching $250 million making it the third-largest specialty retailer in the United States, the company opened its first Southern California store at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa in 1978. By the early 1990s, it had opened 26 stores plus Racks in California. Subsequent expansion relied on creating a decentralized regional structure, beginning with the Northeast in the Tysons Corner Center in Virginia, the Midwest in the Oakbrook Center in Illinois, the Southeast in Atlanta, the Southwest in Dallas.
In a new region, the initial store was used as a base for training and recruitment for subsequent expansion, was backed by its own distribution center. From 1978 to 1995, Nordstrom opened a total of 46 full-line department stores. In 1976, Nordstrom opened a series of stores called Place Two to sell a more limited selection of apparel in smaller markets. By 1983, there were ten Place Two stores, but the cost of upgrading the smaller stores from a systems perspective, outweighed the benefit, the division was discontinued; the company expanded into direct sales in 1993, beginning with a catalog division led by John N.'s son Dan, followed by an e-commerce business. Nordstrom.com's fulfillment and contact centers are located in Iowa. It has distribution centers in Ontario, California. Nordstrom FSB, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nordstrom, Inc. is a federally chartered savings bank doing business as Nordstrom Bank. It was formed in 1991 in Scottsdale, with its customer contact center in Centennial, Colorado.
Nordstrom FSB was known as Nordstrom National Credit Bank and changed its name to Nordstrom FSB in March 2000. The bank offers various banking and credit products, such as Nordstrom Signature VISA, Nordstrom retail credit and debit cards, interest-bearing checking accounts, check cards, certificates of deposits, it offers Nordstrom customers cards under Nordstrom Rewards – its customer loyalty program – where customers earn points when making purchases with the card at Nordstrom and other retailers. Other rewards include Nordstrom Notes which are redeemed or used like cash in stores for new purchases and the Nordstrom Signature VISA card has an optional travel/leisure rewards feature; the Nordstrom Rewards program features 4 levels of status depending on annual spending and offers various promotional times throughout the year to earn double and ten-times points. Beginning in 1995, the fourth generation of brothers and cousins served as co-presidents for a time. After John Whitacre served as the first non-Nordstrom CEO in 1997, In 1998, Nordstrom replaced its downtown Seattle store with a new flagship location in the form
A skylight is a light-transmitting structure that forms all or part of the roof space of a building for daylighting purposes. Open skylights were used in Ancient Roman architecture, such as the oculus of the Pantheon. Glazed'closed' skylights have been in use since the Industrial Revolution made advances in glass production manufacturing. Mass production units since the mid-20th century have brought skylights to many contexts. Energy conservation has brought new motivation, design innovation, transmission options, efficiency rating systems for skylights. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, it was France that had the leading technology in architectural glass. One of the earliest forms of the glass skylight can be seen at the Palace of Versailles in the Galerie des Batailles, added onto the existing palace by Louis Philippe in the year 1830. Another form that displays early sky lighting technology is the Halle aux blés built in 1763-67; this form of natural overhead lighting allowed for illumination while decoration could cover the entire interior wall, it is the option least obstructed by other buildings.
This means that sky lighting as we know it, in many forms today, was pioneered in France during the early 18th century or late 17th century. According to architectural glass, the earliest functional skylights would have been formed by either glass casting, crown glass, cylinder blown sheet, machine drawn cylinder sheet, or fourcault process. Skylighting types include roof windows, unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices, sloped glazing, custom skylights. Uses include: daylighting elements used to allow direct and/or indirect sunlight, via toplighting. Providing a visual connection to the outdoor environment to interior occupants. Sustainable building — passive solar heating, with operable units. Open skylightAn unglazed hole in a roof. Fixed unit skylightA fixed skylight consists of a structural perimeter frame supporting glazing infill. A fixed skylight is non-operable. Operable skylightAn operable unit skylight uses a hinged sash attached to and supported by the frame; when within reach of the occupants, this type is called a roof window.
Retractable skylight A retractable skylight rolls - on a set of tracks - off the frame, so that the interior of the facility is open to the outdoors, i.e. not impeded by a hinged skylight. The terms retractable skylight and retractable roof are used interchangeably, though skylight implies a degree of transparency. Tubular daylight device Active daylighting uses a tubular daylighting device—TDD, it is a roof-mounted fixed unit skylight element, condensing sunlight, distributed by a light conveying optic conduit to a light diffusing element. Being small in diameter, they can be used for daylighting smaller spaces such as hallways, bounce light in darker corners of spaces. TDDs harvest daylight through a roof-mounted dome with diameters ranging from about 10 inches for residential applications to 22 inches for commercial buildings. Made from acrylic or polycarbonate formulated to block ultraviolet rays, the dome captures and redirects light rays into an aluminum tubing system that resembles ductwork.
Image:Skylight on the roof terrace of Liverpool Central Library. JPG|TDD skylight on the roof terrace of Liverpool Central Library Sloped glazingSloped glazing differs from other “skylights” in that one assembly contains multiple infill panels in a framing system designed for a specific project and installed in sections on site. Pavement lightsPavement lights are walk-on skylights, they are set into sidewalks, open areas, well-lit interior floors. Prism lightsPrism lights are sometimes used as skylights. Skylights are used in designing daylighting for residential and commercial buildings. Increased daylighting can result in less electrical lighting use and smaller sized window glazing, saving energy, lowering costs, reducing environmental impacts. Daylighting can cut lighting energy use in some buildings by up to 80%. Toplighting works well with sidelighting to maximize daylighting: toplighting is able to bring light into centralized areas of a building daylight is available throughout the day from both ambient lighting from the sky and direct exposure to the sun.
Modern transparent and/or translucent glazing can be utilized to avoid glare, aid in capturing sunlight at low angles and diffuse light to wider areas of floor space. On overcast days, toplighting from skylights is three to ten times more efficient than sidelighting. Many recent advances in both glass and plastic infill systems have benefited all skylight types; some advances increase thermal performance, some are focused on preserving and utilizing daylight potential, some are designed to enhance strength, fire resistance and other performance measures. Contemporary skylights using glass infill use sealed insulating glass units made with two panes of glass; these types of products are NFRC-ratable for visible transmittance. Assemblies with three panes can sometimes be cost-justified in the coldest climate zones, but they lose some light by adding the third layer of glass. Glass units include at least one low emissivity coating applied to one or more glass surfaces to reduce the U-factor and SHGC by suppressing radiant heat flow.
Many varieties of Low-E coatings reduce daylight potential to different degrees. High purity inert gas is used in the space between panes, advances in thermally effic
Downtown Toronto is the city centre and main central business district of Toronto, Canada. Located within the district of Old Toronto, it is 14 square kilometers in area, bounded by Bloor Street to the north, Lake Ontario to the south, the Don Valley to the east, Bathurst Street to the west, it is the governmental centre of the City of Toronto and the Province of Ontario. The area is made up of the Canada’s largest concentration of skyscrapers and businesses that form Toronto's skyline. Downtown Toronto has the third most skyscrapers in North America exceeding 200 metres in height, behind New York City and Chicago; the retail core of the downtown is located along Yonge Street from Queen Street to College Street. There is a large cluster of retail centres and shops in the area, including the Toronto Eaton Centre indoor mall. There are an estimated 600 retail stores, 150 bars and restaurants, 7 hotels. In recent years the area has been experiencing a renaissance as the Business Improvement Area has brought in new retail and improved the cleanliness.
The area has seen the opening of the Dundas Square public square, a public space for holding performances and art displays. The area includes several live theatres, a movie complex at Dundas Square and the historic Massey Hall. Historical sites and landmarks include the Arts & Letter Club, the Church of the Holy Trinity, Mackenzie House, Maple Leaf Gardens, Old City Hall, the Toronto Police Museum and Discovery Centre; the Financial District, centred on the intersection of Bay Street and King Street is the centre of Canada's financial industry. It contains the Toronto Stock Exchange, the largest in Canada and seventh in the world by market capitalization; the construction of skyscrapers in downtown Toronto had started to increase during the 1960s. The area of St. Lawrence to the east of the financial district is one of the oldest area of Toronto, it features heritage buildings, music and many pubs. It is a community of distinct downtown neighbourhoods including the site of the original Town of York, Toronto's first neighbourhood, dating back to 1793.
The area boasts one of the largest concentrations of 19th century buildings in Ontario. Of particular note are the St. Lawrence Hall, St. James' Cathedral, St. Michael's Cathedral, St. Paul's Basilica, the Enoch Turner School House, the Bank of Upper Canada, Le Royal Meridien King Edward Hotel, the Gooderham Building. On Saturday there is a farmers market. Other historical districts in downtown Toronto include Cabbagetown, the Distillery District, Old Town. To the west of the financial district is the Entertainment District, it is home to hundreds of restaurants, sporting facilities, hotels and live theatre. The district was an industrial area and was redeveloped for entertainment purposes in the early 1980s, becoming a major centre for entertainment; the redevelopment started with the Mirvish family refurbishing of the Royal Alexandra Theatre and their construction of the Princess of Wales Theatre. The area is now the site of the Canadian Broadcasting Centre; the Yorkville area, to the north, north of Bloor Street and the Mink Mile, has more than 700 designer boutiques, restaurants and world class galleries.
It is a former village in its own right and since the early 1970s has developed into an up-scale shopping district. The intersection of Bloor and Yonge Streets is the intersection of the city's subway lines and is one of the busiest intersections in the city. At the intersection of Avenue Road and Bloor Street is the Royal Ontario Museum, the largest museum of the city, with a diverse anthropological and natural history collection; the Harbourfront area to the south was an industrial and railway lands area. Since the 1970s, it has seen extensive redevelopment, including the building of the Rogers Centre stadium, numerous condominiums and the Harbourfront Centre waterfront revitalization; the area to the east of Yonge Street is still in transition, with conversion of industrial lands to mixed residential and commercial uses planned. Among the important government headquarters in downtown Toronto include the Ontario Legislature, the Toronto City Hall. In the 1970s, Toronto experienced major economic growth and surpassed Montreal to become the largest city in Canada.
Many international and domestic businesses relocated to Toronto and created massive new skyscrapers downtown. All of the Big Five banks constructed skyscrapers beginning in the late 1960s up until the early 1990s. Today downtown Toronto contains dozens of notable skyscrapers; the area's First Canadian Place is the tallest building in Canada at height of 298 metres. The CN Tower, once the tallest free-standing structure in the world, remains the tallest such structure in the Americas, standing at 553.33 metres. Other notable buildings include Scotia Plaza, TD Centre, Commerce Court, the Royal Bank Plaza, The Bay's flagship store, the Fairmont Royal York Hotel. Since 2007, urban consolidation has been centred in downtown Toronto and as a result has been undergoing Manhattanization with the construction of new office towers and condos. Downtown Toronto is home to three public universities, OCAD University, Ryerson University, the University of Toronto. OCAD University is Canada's oldest post secondary institution for art and design.
Ryerson University is a research university. The University of Toronto is a collegiate research university, whose St. George campus is situated downtown. Established in 1827, the University of Toronto is the oldest university in the province of Ontario. In ad