SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shetland

Shetland called the Shetland Islands and Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated in the Northern Atlantic, between Great Britain, the Faroe Islands and Norway. The islands lie some 80 km to the northeast of Orkney, 170 km from the Scottish mainland and 300 km west of Norway, they form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2, the population totalled 23,210 in 2011; the islands comprise the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament. The local authority, Shetland Islands Council, is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick, the capital of Shetland since taking over from Scalloway in 1708. The largest island, known as "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2, making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands; the archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills.

Humans have lived in Shetland since the Mesolithic period. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences from Norway; the islands became part of Scotland in the 15th century. When Scotland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing continues to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day; the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s boosted Shetland's economy and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the Scottish and Norse heritage of the isles, including the Up Helly Aa fire festival and a strong musical tradition the traditional fiddle style; the islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry in the distinct Shetland dialect of the Scots language. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important sea bird nesting sites; the Shetland pony and Shetland Sheepdog are two well-known Shetland animal breeds. Other local breeds include the Shetland sheep, cow and duck.

The Shetland pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's coat of arms, is "Með lögum skal land byggja"; the Old Norse origin of this phrase is from the Norwegian provincial laws, such as the Frostathing Law. It is mentioned in Njáls saga, means "By law shall land be built"; the name of Shetland is derived from the Old Norse words and land. In AD 43 and 77 the Roman authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder referred to seven islands they called Haemodae and Acmodae, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another possible early written reference to the islands is Tacitus' report in Agricola in AD 98. After describing the discovery and conquest of Orkney, he wrote that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule, too". In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as Insi Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands; the Cat clan occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland. The oldest version of the modern name Shetland is Hetlandensis, the Latinised adjectival form of the Old Norse name, recorded in a letter from Harald, Count of Shetland, in 1190, becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations.

It is possible. It became Hjaltland in the 16th century; as Norn was replaced by Scots in the form of the Shetland dialect, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, the pronunciation of, identical to the original Norn sound, /hj/; when the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was replaced by the similar-looking letter z hence Zetland, the form used in the name of the pre-1975 county council. This is the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse Pictish or pre-Celtic names or elements. Shetland is around 170 kilometres north of mainland Scotland, covers an area of 1,468 square kilometres and has a coastline 2,702 kilometres long. Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 23,167 people live within 16 kilometres of the town. Scalloway on the west coast, the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.

Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as Mainland; the next largest are Yell and Fetlar, which lie to the north, Bressay and Whalsay, which lie to the east. East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour and Vaila are smaller islands to the west of Mainland; the other inhabited islands are Foula 28 kilometres west of Walls, Fair Isle 38 kilometres south-west of Sumburgh Head, the Out Skerries to the east. The uninhabited islands include Mousa, known for the Broch of Mousa, the finest preserved example in Scotland of an Iron Age broch. Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: Muness is the most northerly

Shamil Aladin

Shamil Aladin was a Crimean Tatar writer, poet and civil rights activist. Early in his career he wrote poetry moving on to prose and nonfiction works. Aladin was born on 12 July 1912 in Mahuldür to a Crimean Tatar family, his birth name was Kamil, but after falling badly ill as a young child he was given a new name, a custom based out of the ancient belief that renaming would help a child overcome an ailment. From on his name was Shamil. Starting when he was young he helped out on his family's farm, stacking firewood and planting tobacco. After primary education at a local school he attended a seven-year school in Bakhchisarai. There he developed a love for literature, by the age of 15 his first poem to be published reached the pages of the Crimean Tatar newspaper "Yash Kuvet". After completing secondary school he entered the Simferopol Pedagogical College, where he studied from 1928 to 1931, he went on to become a student at the correspondence department of the Moscow Literary Institute. In 1932 he published his first book of poems – "Топракъ кульди, кок кульди".

That year he was drafted into the Red Army, by the end of his service in 1934 he was in command of a cavalry platoon. In 1935 he published "Къызыл казакънынъ йырлары", a collection of poems inspired by his military years; the next year he became deputy editor of the Crimean Tatar newspaper "Янъы дюнья", but shortly thereafter he travelled to Dagestan to work as a schoolteacher and to Tajikistan to work as an excavator in construction of the Farkhad Dam as part of a 5-year plan. In 1939 he returned to Crimea, that year becoming a member of the Union of Writers of the USSR and head of the Union of Writers of Crimea, his first prose work "Омюр" was published in 1940. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Aladin volunteered to join the Red Army. After re-entering the military on 26 June 1941 he was made a platoon commander on the South-Western Front. Severe injuries sustained in February 1943 confined him to a hospital for two and a half months, but he was released and sent to the headquarters of the North Caucasian Front to the headquarters of the Crimean partisan movement.

In April 1944 he returned to Simferopol and was a member of the commission to assess the extent of the damage caused to Crimea by the war. Just a few days before the deportation he went to Alushta to recruit people for the Haytarma ensemble; when he returned to Simferopol he could not find his wife Fatima and young daughter Dilyara anywhere, since they had been deported to Uzbekistan. He travelled to Central Asia to search for them, when he found them in Chinabad they were ill from hunger, which afflicted many deported people, he lived with his family in Chinabad for about four months before getting permission to move to Andijan, where he worked for a local newspaper. In May 1945 they got permission to move to Tashkent, after Aladin's friend Aleksandr Fadeev, chairman of the Union of Writers of the USSR helped him get permission to move. While in Tashkent he directed a theater, the palace of railway workers, became executive secretary of the board for the Union of Writers of the Uzbek SSR. From 1953 to 1957 he studied at the Tashkent Pedagogical Institute, after which he became involved in the Crimean Tatar civil rights movement.

He travelled with delegations to Moscow and composed letters to the Central Committee of the Communist Party requesting the right of return –, granted to most deported nations, including Chechens and Karachays, but not Crimean Tatars. Because of his activism he was fired from his publishing jobs, but he managed to secure permission to create a Crimean Tatar language newspaper in exile - "Lenin Bairagy" as well as getting Crimean Tatar broadcasts on airwaves. From 1980 to 1985 he leaded the Uzbek "Yildiz" magazine, at the peak of his career he worked with many prominent Uzbeks including Komil Yashen and Sharaf Rashidov. After retiring in 1985 he left it incomplete. Having returned from exile to Crimea in 1994 he wrote essays on political matters including "Victims of the Kremlin" and "I Am Your Tsar and God", he died on 21 May 1996 and was buried in the Abdal cemetery

Oday Taleb

Oday Talib is an Iraqi goalkeeper who plays for Duhok SC in Iraq. Talib began his career with Al-Shorta in 2002 before earning a move the following season to Baghdad-based team Al-Zawraa. After spending three years there, Talib went on to play for Al-Minaa before being signed by his current club, Duhok, an Iraqi-Kurdish outfit based in Dohuk. Talib served as back-up to goalkeeper Noor Sabri throughout Iraq's run to the semi-finals of the Men's Olympic Football Tournament at Athens 2004. 4th place in 2004 Athens Olympics 2005 West Asian Games Gold medallist. Oday Taleb at National-Football-Teams.com