Willimantic is a census-designated place, former city and borough. It is located in the city of Windham in Connecticut. Known as "Thread City" for the American Thread Company's mills along the Willimantic River, it was a center of the textile industry in the 19th century. Incorporated as a city in 1893, it entered a period of decline after the Second World War, culminating in the mill's closure and the city's reabsorption into the town of Windham in the 1980s. Heroin use, present since the 1960s, became a major public health problem in the early 2000s, declining somewhat by the 2010s. Though the city was a major rail hub, an Interstate Highway has never passed within ten miles, despite early plans to connect it. Willimantic was populated by a series of ethnic groups migrating to the city to find work at the mills Western European and French Canadian immigrants Eastern Europeans and Puerto Ricans. Architecturally, it is known for its collection of Victorian-era houses and other buildings in the hill section, the Romanesque Revival town hall and two crossings of the Willimantic River: a footbridge and the "Frog Bridge".
It is home to the Windham Textile and History Museum. As of 2016, Willimantic had an estimated population of 17,339 people. Willimantic is named for the Willimantic River; the word was first attested in English writing as Waramanticut in 1684, as Wallamanticuk and Weammantuck before being standardized as Willimantic. The word is of either Mohegan-Pequot or Narragansett, it is translated as "land of the swift running water", but the word more means "place near the evergreen swamp". The town of Windham, which includes Willimantic, was incorporated in 1693; until it was industrialized, the area was called "Willimantic Falls". After being industrialized in the 1820s, it was incorporated as a borough in 1833. Willimantic became known as "Thread City" for the proliferation of textile mills thread, along the river. Willimantic became a city when its charter was revised in 1893. Up to the outbreak of World War II, it continued to be a center for the production of silk and cotton thread. Various groups of immigrants arrived over the years to work in the mills.
The city was a major rail hub. Ornate Victorian homes were built in the town's Prospect Hill section, the town prospered, growing from a population of less than 5,000 in 1860 to more than 12,100 by 1910, but hard times followed. In 1983, the city and the town became one town again; the poverty rate, at 25.9%, was more than double the state average in 2010. In 2002, The Hartford Courant ran an investigative series called "Heroin Town" describing rampant heroin use in Willimantic, disproportionate to the town's small size, followed by a 60 Minutes segment in 2003; the coverage upset local residents, the state appointed a task force to study the issue. The Hotel Hooker, long known for drug use and prostitution, was renamed to the Seth Chauncey Hotel and put under new management in 2004 renamed Windham House in 2005. Drug and prostitution arrests peaked in the late 2000s with increased enforcement, began to fall by 2010. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.5 square miles.
4.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The Willimantic River and the Natchuag River converge to form the Shetucket River in southeastern Willimantic; the Hop River flows into the Willimantic River at the western border. Willimantic is in part bordered by rivers, its western border follows the Willimantic River. The CDP borders the towns of Coventry, Mansfield and Lebanon, it borders the CDPs of South Windham and Mansfield Center. Immigrants of many national origins populated the city. First, Europeans arrived to work in the mills—Irish, Poles and French Canadians. Estonian, Latvian and Puerto Rican immigrants moved to the town in search of mill jobs; as a mark of how newcomers identified with their places of origin, Willimantic has many churches several from the same denomination: for example, one Catholic church for French Canadians, another for Irish and Italian immigrants. As of the 2010 US Census, there were 17,737 people, 5,812 households, 3,324 families residing in the CDP.
The population density was 4,031 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,282 housing units at an average density of 1,428 per square mile; the racial makeup of the CDP was 66.0% White, 7.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 20.2% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39.8% of the population Puerto Ricans. Of the 5,812 households, out of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.6% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.21. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 31.0% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26.5 years.
For every 100 females, there were
New London County, Connecticut
New London County is in the southeastern corner of Connecticut and comprises the Norwich-New London, Connecticut Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Hartford-West Hartford, Connecticut Combined Statistical Area. There is no county government and no county seat, as is the case with all eight of Connecticut's counties. New London County contains reservations of four of the five state-recognized Indian tribes, although the Paugassett were located farther west; the population was 274,055 as of the 2010 census. Southeastern New England was dominated by the Pequot people at the time of English colonization, they spoke the Mohegan-Pequot language and were one of the Algonquian-speaking tribes in the coastal areas. After years of conflict, the Colonists and their Indian allies defeated the Pequots in the Pequot War of 1637, ending their dominance. Two descendant Pequot tribes are recognized by the state today. New London County was one of four original counties in Connecticut that were established on May 10, 1666 by an act of the Connecticut General Court, which states: This Court orders that from the Paukatuck River wth Norridge to ye west bounds of Homonoscet Plantation shalbe for future one County, wch County is called the County of N: London.
And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe held at N. London the first Wednesday in June and the third Thursday in Septembr yearly. New London County in 1666 consisted of the towns of Stonington, New London, Saybrook; the "Homonoscet Plantation" was settled in March 1663, at first as Kenilworth. Several new towns were incorporated and added to New London over the next few decades: Preston in 1687, Colchester in 1699, Lebanon in 1700; the settlements along the Quinebaug Valley were placed in New London County in 1697, incorporated as Plainfield in 1699. By 1717, more towns were established in northeastern Connecticut and added to New London County between the Quinebaug Valley and the Rhode Island border. Windham County was constituted from Hartford and New London counties on May 12, 1726, consisting of towns in northeastern Connecticut. New London County lost the towns of Voluntown, Killingly, Canterbury and Lebanon to the newly formed county. In 1785, Middlesex County was constituted, consisting of towns along the lower Connecticut River Valley, taking away the towns of Killingworth and Saybrook from New London County.
Several additional boundary adjustments took place in the 19th century: the establishment of the town of Marlborough in 1803, the transfer of the town of Lebanon from Windham County in 1824, the transfer of the town of Voluntown from Windham County in 1881. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 772 square miles, of which 665 square miles is land and 107 square miles is water; the terrain of the county is level, becoming more elevated only in its northern extreme. The highest point in the county is Gates Hill in the Town of Lebanon at 660 feet above sea level, the lowest point is sea level. Windham County Kent County, Rhode Island Washington County, Rhode Island Middlesex County Tolland County Hartford County Suffolk County, New York As of 1960, counties in Connecticut do not have any associated county government structure. All municipal services are provided by the towns. Regional councils of governments were established throughout the state in 1989 in order to address regional issues concerning infrastructure, land use, economic development.
Most of the towns of New London County are part of the Southeastern Connecticut Council of Governments, the exceptions being the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme, Lebanon. Lyme and Old Lyme are part of the Connecticut River Estuary Regional Planning Agency, while Lebanon is part of the Windham Regional Council of Governments; the geographic area of the county is coterminous with the New London judicial district, with the superior courts located in the cities of New London and Norwich. Law enforcement within the geographic area of the county is provided by the respective town police departments. Prior to 2000, a County Sheriff's Department existed for the purpose of executing judicial warrants, prisoner transport, court security; these responsibilities have now been taken over by the Connecticut State Marshal System. Fire protection in the county is provided by the towns. Several towns have fire districts that provide services to a section of the town. Water service to 12 of the 21 towns of New London County is provided by a regional non-profit public corporation known as the Southeastern Water Authority.
The Southeastern Water Authority supplies water to participating towns within New London County and is one of only two such county-wide public water service providers in the state. Seven towns receive water service from one or more private corporations; the city of Norwich and most of the town of Groton provide for their own water service. Several towns in New London County have organized the Southeastern Connecticut Regional Resources Recovery Authority; the participating towns are East Lyme, Groton, Montville, New London, North Stonington, Preston, Sprague and Waterford. Education in the county area is provided by the individual town governments; the less populated towns of Lyme and Old Lyme have joined together to form a single, regional school district. As of the census of 2000, there were 259,088 people, 99,835 households, 67,188 families residing in the county; the popul
Route 169 (Connecticut–Massachusetts)
Route 169 is a state highway in the U. S. states of Massachusetts. It begins in the city of Norwich and runs 38 miles through Northeastern Connecticut, continuing across the state line into Southbridge, Massachusetts; the route ends in Charlton after another nine miles. A portion of the route in the town center of Pomfret is on the National Register of Historic Places as Pomfret Street Historic District, 32.10 miles of the road is designated as the Connecticut State Route 169 National Scenic Byway. Route 169 begins at an intersection with Route 2 and Route 32 in Norwich and heads northeast to the Taftville section of Norwich, where it overlaps Route 97 and turns south before crossing the Shetucket River into Lisbon. In Lisbon, Route 169 continues northeast, intersecting I-395 before continuing into Canterbury. In Canterbury, Route 169 continues north parallel to the Quinebaug River although not along it, before crossing into Brooklyn. In Brooklyn, it continues north, before crossing into Pomfret.
In Pomfret, it continues north, overlapping US 44 through the center of town, before continuing north into Woodstock. In Woodstock, it continues north past the Woodstock Airport overlapping Route 171, before heading northwest to the Massachusetts state line. In Massachusetts, Route 169 is an undivided two-lane highway through the towns of Southbridge and Charlton, it begins as North Woodstock Road overlaps Route 131 as part of East Main Street splits north on Mechanic Street at the American Optical rotary, bypassing Southbridge center. At the north end of Mechanic Street, the highway follows Worcester Street north to the Charlton town line, where it changes its name to Southbridge Road, it ends at U. S. Route 20 in a village in Charlton. A 32.10-mile stretch of Route 169, running from Rocky Hollow Road in Lisbon to the Massachusetts state line, is a designated National Scenic Byway and state scenic road known for its vibrant autumn foliage and historic communities. The entire route within Connecticut is designated the General Israel Putnam Highway.
The portion of Route 169 in Pomfret Center between Bradley Road and Woodstock Road is a historic district known as the Pomfret Street Historic District. The Norwich and Woodstock Turnpike was a private toll road incorporated in 1801 connecting the city of Norwich to the town center of Woodstock; the corporation was dissolved in 1846. The turnpike left Norwich using Canterbury Turnpike, crossing the Shetucket River at Occum and continuing northeast on Kinsman Hill Road to Route 169; the turnpike followed Route 169 all the way to Woodstock and the Massachusetts state line. In 1923, state routes were first designated in Massachusetts; the route from downtown Norwich to Taftville and Baltic along Harland Road and modern Route 97 was designated as State Highway 187. A loop route of New England Route 12 between Taftville and Jewett City via the village of Newent was designated as State Highway 356. In northeastern Connecticut, the route from Putnam to Woodstock and beyond to the Massachusetts state line was assigned State Highway 142.
In Massachusetts, the road from Southbridge center via Charlton along modern Route 169 to West Auburn along modern US 20, was assigned as State Highway 124. By 1931, Highway 124 was relocated along modern I-84 from the Connecticut state line in Holland via Sturbridge center to Charlton continuing along its original route to West Auburn; the former alignment of Highway 124 was redesignated as Highway 124A. In 1932, most of the turnpike route was renumbered as Route 93 as part of a major statewide renumbering of roads. Portions of old Highways 187 and 356 were utilized for the new Route 93. At the same time, Massachusetts renumbered Highway 124A as Route 93 to maintain number continuity across the state line. On January 1, 1959, Route 93 was renumbered to Route 169 in both Connecticut and Massachusetts because the route number was to be used for I-93. In April 1991, the Connecticut Department of Transportation designated Route 169 as a Connecticut Scenic Road; this designation ran between the Massachusetts state line in Woodstock.
Two years the highway was named to the country’s top 10 scenic byways by Scenic America. The highway was designated a National Scenic Byway in September 1996. Connecticut portal Massachusetts portal U. S. Roads portal Highway photos from Mile by mile
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object, intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since about 8,100 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 4,900 remain in orbit, of those about 1,900. 500 operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit, the rest are in geostationary orbit. A few large satellites have been assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, a comet and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, take pictures of planets they are launched into.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are satellites. Satellite orbits vary depending on the purpose of the satellite, are classified in a number of ways. Well-known classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, geostationary orbit. A launch vehicle is a rocket, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea aboard a plane. Satellites are semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, attitude control and orbit control. "Newton's cannonball", presented as a "thought experiment" in A Treatise of the System of the World, by Isaac Newton was the first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite. The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.
The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune. In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft, he calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, that a multi-stage rocket fuelled by liquid propellants could achieve this. In 1928, Herman Potočnik published The Problem of Space Travel -- The Rocket Motor, he described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments. In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications, he suggested. The US military studied the idea of what was referred to as the "earth satellite vehicle" when Secretary of Defense James Forrestal made a public announcement on 29 December 1948, that his office was coordinating that project between the various services.
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the United States. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere; the unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika. In May, 1946, Project RAND had released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century." The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy.
The United States Air Force's Project RAND released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program." In February 1954 Project RAND released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle," written by R. R. Carhart; this expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H. K. Kallmann and W. W. Kellogg. In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year, the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U. S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Army and Navy were worki
Thames River (Connecticut)
The Thames River is a short river and tidal estuary in the state of Connecticut. It flows south for 15 miles through eastern Connecticut from the junction of the Yantic River and Shetucket River at Norwich, Connecticut, to New London and Groton, Connecticut which flank its mouth at Long Island Sound; the Thames River watershed includes a number of smaller basins and the 80-mile-long Quinebaug River, which rises in southern Massachusetts and joins the Shetucket River about four miles northeast of Norwich. The river has provided important harbors since the mid-17th century, it was known as the Pequot River after the Pequot Indians who dominated the area. Other early names for the river have included Frisius, Great River of Pequot, Little Fresh, New London, Pequod; the town was named New London in 1658 and the estuary river was renamed Thames after the River Thames in London, England. The United States Coast Guard Academy, Connecticut College, a U. S. Navy submarine base, the Electric Boat submarine shipyard are located on the river at New London and Groton.
The USS Nautilus was launched into the river on January 21, 1954 from Electric Boat, becoming the world's first nuclear-powered submarine. Two historic forts overlook the mouth of the river at New London harbor, now Connecticut State Parks: Fort Griswold on the eastern Groton Heights, Fort Trumbull on the New London side; the Yale-Harvard Boat Race is held annually in New London. New London's Sailfest is an annual event which includes OpSail, a gathering of large sailing vessels, including the U. S. Coast Guard training ship Eagle. List of Connecticut rivers River Thames—London, United Kingdom
Little River (Shetucket River tributary)
The Little River is a river that runs through the towns of Hampton, Canterbury and Sprague, Connecticut. It begins at Hampton Reservoir in northern Hampton, CT and snakes its way down into the Shetucket River at the town borders of Norwich and Lisbon, CT Whole River is in Connecticut