The Liao dynasty known as the Liao Empire the Great Liao, or the Khitan State, was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Northern and Northeast China and portions of the Russian Far East and North Korea. The empire was founded by Yelü Abaoji, Khagan of the Khitans around the time of the collapse of Tang China and was the first state to control all of Manchuria. After its founding, the Khitan Empire began a process of territorial expansion, with Abaoji leading a successful conquest of Balhae. Emperors would gain the Sixteen Prefectures by fueling a proxy war that led to the collapse of the Later Tang and would establish tributary relationships with Goryeo after losing in Goryeo–Khitan Wars against Goryeo. In 1004, Liao Dynasty launched an imperial expedition against the Northern Song. After heavy fighting and large casualties between two countries, the two sides worked out the Chanyuan Treaty. Through the treaty Liao forced the Northern Song to recognize them as peers.
Tension between traditional Khitan social and political practices and Chinese influence and customs was a defining feature of the dynasty. This tension led to a series of succession crises. So different were Chinese practices that Abaoji set up two parallel governments; the Northern Administration governed Khitan areas following traditional Khitan practices, while the Southern Administration governed areas with large non-Khitan populations, adopting traditional Chinese governmental practices. Differences between Chinese and Khitan society included gender roles and marital practices: the Khitans took a more egalitarian view towards gender, in sharp contrast to Chinese cultural practices that segregated men's and women's roles. Khitan women were taught to hunt, managed family property, held military posts. Many marriages were not arranged, women were not required to be virgins at their first marriage, women had the right to divorce and remarry; the Liao dynasty was destroyed by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1125 with the capture of Emperor Tianzuo of Liao.
However, the remnant Khitan, led by Yelü Dashi, established the Qara Khitai, which ruled over parts of Central Asia for a century before being conquered by the Mongols. Although cultural achievements associated with the Liao dynasty are considerable, a number of various statuary and other artifacts exist in museums and other collections, major questions remain over the exact nature and extent of the influence of the Liao Khitan culture upon subsequent developments, such as the musical and theatrical arts; the Liao dynasty was known as the Khitan or Khitan state in 916. The name "Great Liao" began to appear as the country name between 936 and 947; the dynasty name "Liao" refers to the Liao River in southern Manchuria, the traditional Khitan homeland. Since 983, the state became again known as the Khitan, but "Great Liao" reappeared as the country name in 1066, which lasted until the end of the dynasty. Neither the origins, ethnic makeup, nor early history of the Khitans are well documented in historical records.
The earliest reference to a Khitan state is found in the Book of Wei, a history of the Northern Wei Dynasty, completed in 554. Several books written after 554 mention the Khitans as being active during the late third and early fourth centuries; the Book of Jin, a history of the Jin dynasty, refers to the Khitans in the section covering the reign of Murong Sheng. Samguk Sagi, a history of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, mentions a Khitan raid taking place in 378. According to sinologists Denis C. Twitchett and Klaus-Peter Tietze, it is held that the Khitans emerged from the Yuwen branch of the Xianbei people. Following a defeat at the hands of another branch of the Xianbei in 345, the Yuwen split into three tribes, one of, called the Kumo Xi. In 388 the Kumo Xi itself split, with one group remaining under the name Kumo Xi and the other group becoming the Khitans; this view is backed up by the Book of Wei, which describes the Khitans as being of Xianbei origins. There are several competing theories on the origin of the Khitans.
Beginning in the Song dynasty, some Chinese scholars suggested that the Khitans might have descended from the Xiongnu people. While modern historians have rejected the idea that the Khitan were Xiongnu in origin, there is some support for the claim that they are of mixed Xianbei and Xiongnu origin. Beginning with Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in the fourteenth century, several Western scholars have theorized that the Khitans were Mongolic in origin, in the late 19th century Western scholars made the claim that the Khitans were Tungusic in origin—modern linguistic analysis has discredited this claim. Many similar words exist between Khitan and Koreanic languages that are not found in Tungusic or Mongolic languages. By the time the Book of Wei was written in 554, the Khitans had formed a state in what is now China's Jilin and Liaoning Provinces; the Khitans suffered a series of military defeats to other nomadic groups in the region, as well as to the Chinese Northern Qi and Sui Dynasties. Khitan tribes at various times fell under the influence of Turkic tribes such as the Uighurs and Chinese dynasties such as the Sui and Tang.
This influence would shape Khitan language and culture. In the Suishu th
108 Stars of Destiny
The 108 Stars of Destiny are at the core of the plot of the Chinese classical novel Shui Hu Zhuan, written by Shi Nai'an in the 14th century and is translated as Water Margin, Outlaws of the Marsh, or All Men Are Brothers. Suikoden, the Japanese translation of Shui Hu Zhuan, has been made into a series of role-playing video games. Based on the Taoist concept that each person's destiny is tied to a Star of Destiny, the 108 Stars of Destiny represent 108 demonic overlords who were banished by Shangdi, a supreme god in Chinese folk religion. Having repented since their banishment, the stars are released from imprisonment by accident, are reborn in the world as 108 heroes who band together for the cause of justice; the 108 Stars of Destiny are divided into two groups: the 36 Heavenly Spirits and the 72 Earthly Fiends. Other titles for the Stars of Destiny include 108 Stars of Heavenly Earth and 108 Stars of Heaven and Earth. One Heavenly Spirit, Lu Zhishen, is represented in a folktale as a sworn brother of Zhou Tong.
According to The Oral Traditions of Yangzhou Storytelling, several popular folktales about Wu Song, a Heavenly Spirit, from the "Wang School" of Yangzhou storytelling, state that he killed the tiger "in the middle of the tenth month" of the "Xuanhe year ". In Iron Arm, Golden Sabre, Sun Li, an Earthly Fiend, is portrayed as a fellow student of Zhou Tong and Luan Tingyu. In Louis Cha's wuxia novel The Legend of the Condor Heroes, Guo Sheng, an Earthly Fiend, is said to be the ancestor of the protagonist, Guo Jing. Li, Mengxia. 108 Heroes from the Water Margin, page 27. EPB Publishers Pte Ltd, 1992. ISBN 9971 0 0252 3
Song Jiang was the leader of a group of outlaws who lived during the Song dynasty of China. The group was active in the present-day provinces of Shandong and Henan before they surrendered to the Song government; the historical Song Jiang is fictionalised in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels in Chinese literature, as one of the 108 Stars of Destiny and the chief of the outlaw band at Liangshan Marsh. Song Jiang is mentioned in the History of Song, the authoritative source for the history of the Song dynasty; the biography of Emperor Huizong states: " Song Jiang, a bandit from Huainan, led an attack on government forces in Huaiyang. The Emperor sent troops to capture the bandit leader. Song Jiang attacked the east of the capital and Hebei before moving to the borders of Chu and Haizhou; the Emperor ordered Zhang Shuye, the Prefect of Haizhou, to offer them amnesty." Another account, from Zhang Shuye's biography in the History of Song, records the following: "Song Jiang started a rebellion in Heshuo and conquered some ten commanderies.
Government forces did not dare to directly confront him. When Zhang Shuye received news of Song Jiang's approach, he asked his scouts where the rebels were heading to, they told him that the rebels had made their way to the coast and seized more than ten large vessels to transport their loot. Zhang Shuye recruited about 1,000 warriors, set up an ambush in a nearby city, sent lightly-armed troops to lure the rebels to attack them, he ordered his best soldiers to station themselves along the coast. When the rebels showed up, the soldiers set fire to the rebels' vessels and dealt a heavy blow to their morale; the warriors waiting in ambush seized the opportunity to attack the rebels and capture their leaders. Song Jiang surrendered." The History of Song recorded a memorial written by the official Hou Meng to Emperor Huizong. It says: "36 others cross Qi and Wei at will. Government forces, numbering tens of thousands, do not dare to stand up to him. Therefore, there must be something extraordinary about him.
Since the rebels from Qingxi County pose a threat to us, we could grant amnesty to Song Jiang and let him attack Fang La to redeem himself." The fictionalised persona of Song Jiang in Water Margin draws inspiration from historical sources, as well as local legends and folktales in the Shandong region. One legend, for example, speaks of "36 huge banners and 72 smaller banners of local bandits", which gave rise to the idea of the 108 Stars of Destiny in Water Margin. In Water Margin, Song Jiang is described as a diminutive, dark-complexioned man with eyes like those of a fenghuang and a big squarish mouth, he serves as a clerk under the county magistrate. His filial piety and generosity earn him the nickname "Timely Rain", his dark complexion earns him two other nicknames: "Filial and Righteous Dark Third Son" and "Dark Song Jiang". After the Grand Assembly of the 108 Stars of Destiny, his "official" nickname becomes "Protector of Justice", he is trained in both martial arts. Song Jiang is a close friend of the chief constables Zhu Tong and Lei Heng, Chao Gai, the headman of Dongxi Village in Yuncheng County.
After Chao Gai and his six friends rob a convoy of birthday gifts for the Imperial Tutor Cai Jing, the magistrate orders the constable He Tao to conduct an investigation and arrest the robbers. After hearing from He Tao that he has identified Chao Gai as one of the robbers, Song Jiang secretly leaves the county office and goes to Dongxi Village to warn Chao Gai. Chao Gai and his friends manage to evade arrest and escape to the outlaw stronghold at Liangshan Marsh. Song Jiang takes Yan Poxi as his mistress at her mother's insistence after he generously paid for a funeral for her deceased father. Although Yan Poxi has no feelings for Song Jiang, they get along without problems initially. Over time, Yan Poxi loathes Song Jiang because he tries to distance himself from her all the time, she gets attracted to Zhang Wenyuan, Song Jiang's assistant, has a secret affair with him. In the meantime, Chao Gai sends Liu Tang to deliver a letter and some gold pieces to Song Jiang to express his gratitude. Yan Poxi learns of Song Jiang's dealings with the outlaws.
She threatens to report him to the authorities unless he fulfils three conditions: divorce her and allow her to marry Zhang Wenyuan. Song Jiang agrees to the first two conditions but cannot fulfil the third because he only accepted one of the gold pieces. After Yan Poxi refuses to believe him and threatens to report him, Song Jiang turns furious and kills her in anger. With Zhu Tong and Lei Heng's help, he becomes a fugitive. Song Jiang takes shelter in Chai Jin's residence but moves to Qingfeng Fort at the invitation of his friend Hua Rong. Along the way, he befriends the chiefs of a bandit gang based on the nearby Mount Qingfeng, he stops Wang Ying, one of the bandit chiefs, from raping a woman he abducted, gets Wang Ying to release her. The woman turns out to be the wife of the official in charge of Qingfeng Fort. One evening, while Song Jiang is touring the fort, Liu Gao's wife recognises him and lies to her husband that Song Jiang was the bandit who abducted and tried to rape her. Liu Gao believes his wife and arrests Song Jiang.
After a series of confrontations and a battle between government forces and the bandits from Mount Qingfeng
Qingzhou or Qing Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China dating back to c. 2070 BCE that became one of the thirteen provinces of the Han dynasty. The Nine Provinces were first described in the Tribute of Yu chapter of the classic Book of Documents, with Qingzhou lying to the east of Yuzhou and north of Yangzhou. Qingzhou's primary territory included most of modern Shandong province except the southwest corner; the territory takes its name from the Tribute of Yu wherein Yu the Great wrote: "Between the sea and Mount Tai there is only Qingzhou". In around 5,000 BCE the area was the cradle of Dongyi culture. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, it was home to the Shuangjiu and Pangboling clans and the state of Pugu. Following the Duke of Zhou's c. 1040 BCE successful campaign against the Dongyi states allied with the revolting Three Guards and the rebellious Shang prince Wu Geng, the captured territory of Pugu was granted to Jiang Ziya as the marchland of Qi. In 106 BCE, Emperor Wu formally divided the Han Empire into 13 provinces and appointed a Regional Coordinator in Qingzhou.
With the coming of the Eastern Han dynasty in 25 CE, the seat of a local administration moved from Qingzhou to the former Qi capital of Linzi. During the Tang dynasty, Qingzhou held jurisdiction over the seven counties of Yidu, Linqu, Qiancheng and Shouguang with the administrative centre based in Yidu County; the administrative centre of Qingzhou remained in Yidu County during the Northern Song dynasty with the number of counties reduced to six by the removal of Beihai County. This article is based on a translation of 青州 in the Chinese Wikipedia
Water Margin translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an. Considered one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, the novel is written in vernacular Chinese rather than Classical Chinese; the story, set in the Song dynasty, tells of how a group of 108 outlaws gather at Mount Liang to form a sizable army before they are granted amnesty by the government and sent on campaigns to resist foreign invaders and suppress rebel forces. It has introduced to readers many of the best-known characters in Chinese literature, such as Wu Song, Lin Chong and Lu Zhishen. Water Margin was based on the exploits of his 108 companions; the group was active in the Huainan region and surrendered to the Song government in 1121. They were recorded in the historical text History of Song; the name of "Song Jiang" appeared in the biography of Emperor Huizong of Song, which stated: The outlaw Song Jiang of Huainan and others attacked the army at Huaiyang, sent generals to attack and arrest them.
Infringed on the east of the capital and entered the boundaries of Chu and Haizhou. The prefect Zhang Shuye was ordered to pacify them. Zhang Shuye's biography further described Song Jiang and the outlaws' activities and how they were defeated by Zhang. Folk stories of Song Jiang circulated during the Southern Song; the first source to name Song Jiang's 36 companions was Miscellaneous observations from the year of Guixin by Zhou Mi, written in the 13th century. Among the 36 were Lu Junyi, Guan Sheng, Ruan Xiao'er, Ruan Xiaowu, Ruan Xiaoqi, Liu Tang, Hua Rong and Wu Yong; some of the characters who became associated with Song Jiang appeared around this time. They include Yang Zhi, Lin Chong, Lu Zhishen and Wu Song. A palace memorial by Hou Meng is included in the historical record History of Song, which states: "Song Jiang and 36 others cross Qi and Wei at will. Government troops number tens of thousands but no one dare oppose him, his abilities must be extraordinary. Since we face plunders by Fang La and his outlaws from Qingxi, why not grant Song Jiang and his men amnesty and allow them to lead a campaign against Fang La to redeem themselves?"
A direct precursor of Water Margin was the Old incidents in the Xuanhe period of the great Song dynasty, which appeared around the mid 13th century. The text is a written version of storytellers' tales, based on supposed historical events, it is divided into ten chapters covering the history of the Song dynasty from the early 11th century to the establishment of the Southern Song regime in 1127. The fourth chapter covers the adventures of Song Jiang and his 36 companions, their eventual defeat by Zhang Shuye; some of the more well-known stories and characters in Water Margin are visible, including "Yang Zhi sells his precious sabre", "Robbing the convoy of birthday gifts", "Song Jiang kills Yan Poxi", "Fighting Fang La", among others. Song Jiang and his outlaws were said to operate in the Taihang Mountains. Stories about the outlaws became a popular subject for Yuan dynasty drama. During this time, the material on which Water Margin was based evolved into what it is in the present; the number of outlaws increased to 108.
Though they came from different backgrounds, all of them came to occupy Mount Liang. There is a theory that Water Margin became popular during the Yuan era as the common people resented the Mongol rulers; the outlaws' rebellion was deemed "safe" to promote as it was a negative reflection of the fallen Song dynasty. Concurrently, the rebellion was a call for the common people to rise up against corruption in the government; the Chongzhen Emperor of the Ming dynasty, acting on the advice of his ministers, banned the book as a means of preventing revolts. The novel, praised as an early "masterpiece" of vernacular fiction, is renowned for the "mastery and control" of its mood and tone; the work is known for its use of vivid and racy language. However, it has been denounced as "obscene" by various critics since the Ming dynasty. "These seduction cases are the hardest of all. There are five conditions. First, you have to be as handsome as Pan An. Second, you need a tool as big as a donkey's. Third, you must be as rich as Deng Tong.
Fourth, you must be as forbearing as a needle plying through cotton wool. Fifth, you've got to spend time, it can be done only if you meet these five requirements." "Frankly, I think. First, while I'm far from a Pan An, I still can get by. Second, I've had a big cock since childhood." The opening episode in the novel is the release of the 108 Spirits, imprisoned under an ancient stele-bearing tortoise. The next chapter describes the rise of one of the primary antagonists of the story. Gao abuses his status as a Grand Marshal by oppressing Wang Jin. Wang Jin flees from the capital with his mother and by chance he meets Shi Jin, who becomes his apprentice; the next few chapters tell the story of Shi Jin's friend Lu Zhishen, followed by the story of Lu's sworn brother Lin Chong. Lin Chong is framed by Gao Qiu for attempting to assassinate him, die
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. The introduction of widespread woodblock printing during the Tang dynasty and the invention of movable type printing by Bi Sheng during the Song dynasty spread written knowledge throughout China. In more modern times, the author Lu Xun is considered the founder of baihua literature in China. Formation of the earliest layer of Chinese literature was influenced by oral traditions of different social and professional provenance: cult and lay musical practices, astronomy, exorcism. An attempt at tracing the genealogy of Chinese literature to religious spells and incantations was made by Liu Shipei. There is a wealth of early Chinese literature dating from the Hundred Schools of Thought that occurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty; the most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science and Chinese history.
Note that, except for the books of poems and songs, most of this literature is philosophical and didactic. However, these texts maintained their significance through both their prose style; the Confucian works in particular have been of key importance to Chinese culture and history, as a set of works known as the Four Books and Five Classics were, in the 12th century AD, chosen as the basis for the Imperial examination for any government post. These nine books therefore became the center of the educational system, they have been grouped into two categories: the Five Classics commented and edited by Confucius, the Four Books. The Five Classics are: Classic of Changes, a divination manual; the Four Books are: the Analects of Confucius, a book of pithy sayings attributed to Confucius and recorded by his disciples. Other important philosophical works include the Mohist Mozi, which taught "inclusive love" as both an ethical and social principle, Hanfeizi, one of the central Legalist texts. Important Daoist classics include the Dao De Jing, the Zhuangzi, the Liezi.
Authors combined Daoism with Confucianism and Legalism, such as Liu An, whose Huainanzi added to the fields of geography and topography. Among the classics of military science, The Art of War by Sun Tzu was the first to outline guidelines for effective international diplomacy, it was the first in a tradition of Chinese military treatises, such as the Jingling Zongyao and the Huolongjing. The Chinese kept consistent and accurate court records after the year 841 BC, with the beginning of the Gonghe Regency of the Western Zhou Dynasty; the earliest known narrative history of China was the Zuo Zhuan, compiled no than 389 BC, attributed to the blind 5th-century BC historian Zuo Qiuming. The Book of Documents is thought to have been compiled as far back as the 6th century BC, was compiled by the 4th century BC, the latest date for the writing of the Guodian Chu Slips unearthed in a Hubei tomb in 1993; the Book of Documents included early information on geography in the Yu Gong chapter. The Bamboo Annals found in 281 AD in the tomb of the King of Wei, interred in 296 BC, provide another example.
Another early text was the political strategy book of the Zhan Guo Ce, compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, with partial amounts of the text found amongst the 2nd century BC tomb site at Mawangdui. The oldest extant dictionary in China is the Erya, dated to the 3rd century BC, anonymously written but with commentary by the historian Guo Pu. Other early dictionaries include the Fangyan by the Shuowen Jiezi by Xu Shen. One of the largest was the Kangxi Dictionary compiled by 1716 under the auspices of the Kangxi Emperor. Although court records and other independent records existed beforehand, the definitive work in early Chinese historical writing was the Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian written by Han Dynasty court historian Sima Qian; this groundbreaking text laid the foundation for Chinese historiography and the many official Chinese historical texts compiled for each dynasty thereafter. Sima Qian is compared to the Greek Herodotus in scope and method, because he covered Chinese history from the mythical Xia Dynasty until the contemporary reign of Emperor Wu of Han while retaining an objective and non-biased standpoint.
This was difficult for the official dynastic historians, who used historical works to justify the reign of the current dynasty. He influenced the written works
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f