click links in text for more info


A shibboleth is any custom or tradition a choice of phrasing or a single word, that distinguishes one group of people from another. Shibboleths have been used throughout history in many societies as passwords, simple ways of self-identification, signaling loyalty and affinity, maintaining traditional segregation, or protecting from real or perceived threats; the term originates from the Hebrew word shibbólet, which means the part of a plant containing grain, such as the head of a stalk of wheat or rye. The modern use derives from an account in the Hebrew Bible, in which pronunciation of this word was used to distinguish Ephraimites, whose dialect used a differently sounding first consonant; the difference concerns the Hebrew letter shin, now pronounced as. In the Book of Judges, chapter 12, after the inhabitants of Gilead under the command of Jephthah inflicted a military defeat upon the invading tribe of Ephraim, the surviving Ephraimites tried to cross the River Jordan back into their home territory, but the Gileadites secured the river's fords to stop them.

To identify and kill these Ephraimites, the Gileadites told each suspected survivor to say the word shibboleth. The Ephraimite dialect resulted in a pronunciation. In the King James Bible the anecdote appears thus: And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites: and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which were escaped said, Let me go over. If he said, Nay, they took him, slew him at the passages of Jordan: and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand. In modern English, a shibboleth can have a sociological meaning, referring to any in-group word or phrase that can distinguish members from outsiders – when not used by a hostile other group, it is sometimes used in a broader sense to mean jargon, the proper use of which identifies speakers as members of a particular group or subculture. The term shibboleth can be extended, as in the discipline of semiotics, to describe non-linguistic elements of culture such as diet and cultural values. Cultural touchstones and shared experience can be shibboleths of a sort.

For example, people about the same age who are from the same nation tend to have the same memories of popular songs, television shows, events from their formative years. One-hit wonders prove distinctive. Much the same is true of alumni of a particular school, veterans of military service, other groups. Discussing such memories is a common way of bonding. In-jokes can be a similar type of shared-experience shibboleth. In information technology a shibboleth is a community-wide password that enables members of that community to access an online resource without revealing their individual identities; the origin server can vouch for the identity of the individual user without giving the target server any further identifying information. Hence the individual user does not know the password, employed – it is generated internally by the origin server – and so cannot betray it to outsiders; the term can be used pejoratively, suggesting that the original meaning of a symbol has in effect been lost and that the symbol now serves to identify allegiance, being described as "nothing more than a shibboleth".

In 1956, Nobel Prize-laureate economist Paul Samuelson applied the term "shibboleth" in works including Foundations of Economic Analysis to an idea for which "the means becomes the end, the letter of the law takes precedence over the spirit." Samuelson admitted. Shibboleths have been used by different subcultures throughout the world at different times. Regional differences, level of expertise, computer coding techniques are several forms that shibboleths have taken; the legend goes that before the Guldensporenslag in May 1302, the Flemish slaughtered every Frenchman they could find in the city of Bruges, an act known as the Brugse Metten. They identified Frenchmen based on their inability to pronounce the Flemish phrase schild en vriend, or possibly's Gilden vriend. However, many Medieval Flemish dialects did not contain the cluster sch- either, Medieval French rolled the r just as Flemish did. Bûter, brea, en griene tsiis. Ships whose crew could not pronounce this properly were plundered and soldiers who could not were beheaded by Donia himself.

In Cologne, a common shibboleth to tell someone, born in Cologne from someone who had moved there is to ask the suspected individual, Saag ens "Blodwoosch". However, the demand is a trick; the Dut

Engineering an Empire

Engineering an Empire is a program on The History Channel that explores the engineering and/or architectural feats that were characteristic of some of the greatest societies on this planet. It is hosted by Peter Weller, famous for his acting role as RoboCop but a lecturer at Syracuse University, where he completed his Master's in Roman and Renaissance Art; the executive producer is Delores Gavin. The show started as a documentary about the engineering feats of Ancient Rome and evolved into a series, it ran for one full season of weekly episodes. Engineering an Empire has received critical acclaim; the premiere "Rome" won two Emmys after being nominated in four categories. The History Channel- Engineering an Empire The History Channel - Episode Summary Engineering an Empire at History Vault Engineering an Empire at Engineering an Empire on IMDb

Garrett Halfhill

Garrett Halfhill is an American soccer player who plays for New York Cosmos in the National Premier Soccer League. Halfhill was born on July 26, 1993 in San Diego, California to parents Robert and Cheryl Halfhill, he grew up in Virginia Beach, where he attended Landstown High School from 2008 to 2011. He has two sisters and Amber. Halfhill played soccer for his high school team, the Landstown Eagles, for all four years of his attendance. In his freshman year, he participated in Landstown winning their first Beach District championship title, he received many accolades in high school, including being selected for the All-Virginia Beach Team three times. His senior year, he was named to the All-District and All-Region first teams and was an honorable mention for the All-State team. During high school, Halfhill played for Virginia Rush Soccer Club, a developmental soccer club in Southeastern Virginia. In 2011, Halfhill was admitted to Xavier University with a Dean's Award Scholarship to study marketing.

He played on the university's men's soccer team starting his freshman year, in which he had five starts, twenty appearances, one goal. From his sophomore year until his graduation, Halfhill appeared in every Xavier match and started in all but one of them, he was named to the Big East Conference all-academic team his senior years. In his senior year, Halfhill was named team captain, was second on the team in minutes played with 2,092 total minutes. On September 13, 2014, Halfhill scored a career-high four points in a 3–0 win against Cincinnati, leading him to be named to that week's Big East Weekly Honor Roll and College Soccer News National Team of the Week, he was named to the Big East's All-Tournament Team. At the end of his Xavier career, Halfhill held the university record for most matches played with 84 total appearances. Halfhill played in the Premier Development League with the Des Moines Menace in 2013, the Cincinnati Dutch Lions in 2014 and 2015. In May 2017, Halfhill signed with United Soccer League club FC Cincinnati.

He made his debut with FC Cincinnati in a U. S. Open Cup match against AFC Cleveland on May 17, 2017, he debuted in the USL on June 2017, in a match against Rochester Rhinos. In October 2017, FC Cincinnati announced. In addition to playing soccer, Halfhill has worked since 2015 as a sales representative at Paycor, a payroll and human resources company in Cincinnati, Ohio; as of end of 2019 season Garrett Halfhill on Twitter Garrett Halfhill at USL Championship Garrett Halfhill at Xavier Athletics

Brother in the Land

Brother in the Land is a 1984 post-apocalyptic novel by Robert E. "Bob" Swindells. It follows the adventures of a teenage boy as he fights for survival in Britain after a nuclear war has devastated the country; the narrative begins on a hillside, where the protagonist, Danny Lodge, encounters a man in a radiation suit, who confiscates his bike and orders him to return to his home town, the fictional Skipley. Arriving there, Danny finds the town in ruins, learns that his family's shop has collapsed, killing his mother, his brother Ben and their father have survived, as they were in the cellar, used as a stockroom. With so much food in their stockroom, the Lodges have plenty to live on, but as the weeks pass, other people begin fighting over food. Shortly after the war, Danny meets a girl named Kim; the local Commissioner issues an order that the injured and infirm are to be taken out of the tomb and placed at the roadside so they can be taken to hospital: this turns out to be front for his plan to kill off those who will be a burden.

After a while, the Commissioner implements a system of food and fuel rationing, with severe penalties introduced for hoarding. The injured and people who have been traumatised by the nuclear attack are given poisoned rations. Mr. Lodge refuses to allow his stock to be used for this purpose and, though Danny and Ben register for ration cards, they only visit the local feeding centre once. Presently, the Commissioner's men come to arrest Mr Lodge; the lorry bearing Mr. Lodge explodes, killing everyone on board, leaving Danny and Ben orphans; the brothers seek sanctuary at the home of Sam Branwell, a smallholder who, along with several other survivors, has formed a resistance movement called Masada, an acronym for "Movement to Arm Skipley Against Dictational Authority" and an allusion to the historic siege. Masada has the aim of preventing the creation of a feudal society. E. teacher, Kim. The protagonists discover that a concentration camp has been erected on a farm outside of Skipley, with the remaining able-bodied population being used as slave labour under the Commissioner's rule.

Members of Masada decide to step up their campaign of resistance, launch a night raid on the camp. After a battle, the Commissioner is overthrown and Branwell is established as the new leader. In the months after the raid, all of the newly planted crops fail due to radiation damage. Kim's sister Maureen has become pregnant, Kim is worried that the baby may be deformed. Foreign troops arrive by helicopter. Believing the Swiss troops will rescue them, the camp foolishly eat many of their rations. In fact, the Swiss disable the few vehicles they have. By now, the camp's food supplies are exhausted, forcing the people to scavenge for whatever they can find, many are dying. People start to leave in small groups to fend for themselves. Shortly after Branwell dies from exhaustion during the second winter after the war, Danny and Ben leave the camp and head to Holy Island, where Danny hopes they will be safe. During the journey to Holy Island, they encounter a group including Rhodes. Kim shoots another biker as they are about to shoot Danny in order to steal his food.

Ben becomes ill and dies of acute radiation syndrome: Danny and Kim bury him in the garden of an empty house. Inside the house, Danny finds a ledger, starts writing an account of his experiences after the war, he ends by saying. Danny dedicates his story to Ben, his "brother in the land". In 1994, the book was reprinted with an additional final chapter. In this revised ending, Ben still dies, rather than leave his account behind, Danny takes the ledger with him to Holy Island, Kim is expecting a baby, the fourth of Holy Island, with Danny being the father. If the baby survives, it will be named after Ben. A number of locations in the book are based with names changed. "Brother in the Land told me why I wouldn’t survive nuclear war" by Owen Jones

Dust (Laurel Halo album)

Dust is the third album by Berlin-based American electronic music artist Laurel Halo. It was released on June 2017 by Hyperdub; the album features contributions from Eli Keszler, Julia Holter, Michael Salu, Max D among others, was preceded by the single "Jelly", featuring Klein and Lafawndah. Upon its release, Dust was received positively by music critics, with a Metacritic weighed aggregate score of 84 out of 100 based on 18 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". Writing for The Guardian, Ben Beaumont-Thomas called the album "a triumph of impressionism, where the digital and organic coexist in a radically beautiful whole," while naming it electronic." In his review for AllMusic, Paul Simpson described Dust as, "very disorienting and not always easy to grasp hold of, but it never comes close to sounding like anything else, its best moments are compelling." Heather Phares described the album in the artist's biography as fusing jazz with avant-pop. Resident Advisor described the music on Dust as experimental.

Andrew Dorsett of PopMatters said in his review that Halo is "crafting a series of drifting art pop pieces that evoke forgotten, buried materials long since fallen into disrepair.". The Quietus' Joseph Burnett said that "her monomaniacal focus on the intricacies of sound since her earliest releases has culminated with this record, one, in constant flux between joyful abandon and grim introspection, pop-tinged electronica and avant-garde expressionism." Tracks adapted from Bandcamp. All tracks are written by Laurel Halo. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Dust

Seekirchen am Wallersee

Seekirchen am Wallersee is a town in the district of Salzburg-Umgebung in the state of Salzburg in Austria. The territory was settled 5,000 years ago and is the oldest Austrian settlement that still exists today. Today it has more than 10,000 inhabitants. Seekirchen is part of the legal district Neumarkt bei Salzburg, it borders on the neighboring towns of Anthering, Eugendorf, Henndorf am Wallersee, Köstendorf, Obertrum am See and Schleedorf. The Austrian land register subdivides Seekirchen into districts, some of which are cadastral municipalities: The city is 15 km distanced from Salzburg and is served by a railway line included in the Salzburg S-Bahn Wallersee Salzburgerland Andreas Ibertsberger, football player Thomas Winklhofer, football player and UEFA Cup finalist Robert Ibertsberger, football player.