The shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine; the fungus was first described scientifically as Agaricus edodes by Miles Joseph Berkeley in 1877. It was placed in the genus Lentinula by David Pegler in 1976; the fungus has acquired an extensive synonymy in its taxonomic history: Agaricus edodes Berk. Armillaria edodes Sacc. Mastoleucomychelloes edodes Kuntze Cortinellus edodes S. Ito & S. Imai Lentinus edodes Singer Collybia shiitake J. Schröt. Lepiota shiitake Nobuj. Tanaka Cortinellus shiitake Henn. Tricholoma shiitake Lloyd Lentinus shiitake Singer Lentinus tonkinensis Pat. Lentinus mellianus Lohwag The mushroom's Japanese name shiitake is composed of shii, for the tree Castanopsis cuspidata that provides the dead logs on which it is cultivated, take; the specific epithet edodes is the Latin word for "edible". It is commonly called "sawtooth oak mushroom", "black forest mushroom", "black mushroom", "golden oak mushroom", or "oakwood mushroom".
Shiitake grow in groups on the decaying wood of deciduous trees shii, oak, beech, poplar, ironwood and chinquapin. Its natural distribution includes moist climates in southeast Asia; the earliest written record of shiitake cultivation is seen in the Records of Longquan County compiled by He Zhan in 1209 during the Southern Song dynasty in China. The 185-word description of shiitake cultivation from that literature was crossed-referenced many times and adapted in a book by a Japanese horticulturist Satō Chūryō in 1796, the first book on shiitake cultivation in Japan; the Japanese cultivated the mushroom by cutting shii trees with axes and placing the logs by trees that were growing shiitake or contained shiitake spores. Before 1982, the Japan Islands' variety of these mushrooms could only be grown in traditional locations using ancient methods. A 1982 report on the budding and growth of the Japanese variety revealed opportunities for commercial cultivation in the United States. Shiitake are now cultivated all over the world, contribute about 25% of total yearly production of mushrooms.
Commercially, shiitake mushrooms are grown in conditions similar to their natural environment on either artificial substrate or hardwood logs, such as oak. In a 100 gram amount, raw shiitake mushrooms provide 34 kilocalories and are 90% water, 7% carbohydrates, 2% protein and less than 1% fat. Raw shiitake mushrooms are rich sources of B vitamins and contain moderate levels of some dietary minerals; when dried to about 10% water, the contents of numerous nutrients increase substantially. Like all mushrooms, shiitakes produce vitamin D2 upon exposure of their internal ergosterol to ultraviolet B rays from sunlight or broadband UVB fluorescent tubes. Fresh and dried shiitake have many uses in the cuisines of East Asia. In Japan, they are served in miso soup, used as the basis for a kind of vegetarian dashi, as an ingredient in many steamed and simmered dishes. In Chinese cuisine, they are sautéed in vegetarian dishes such as Buddha's delight. One type of high-grade shiitake is called donko in Japanese and dōnggū in Chinese "winter mushroom".
Another high-grade of mushroom is called huāgū in Chinese "flower mushroom", which has a flower-like cracking pattern on the mushroom's upper surface. Both of these are produced at lower temperatures. Consumption of raw or cooked shiitake mushrooms may cause an allergic reaction called "shiitake dermatitis", including an erythematous, micro-papular, streaky pruriginous rash that occurs all over the body including face and scalp, appearing about 24 hours after consumption worsening by sun exposure and disappearing after 3 to 21 days; this effect – caused by the polysaccharide, lentinan – is more common in Asia, but may be growing in occurrence in Europe as shiitake consumption increases. Thorough cooking may eliminate the allergenicity. There is research investigating the use of shiitake mushrooms in production of organic fertilizer and compost from hardwood. Lentinula Stamets, P.. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7
Ferydoon Zandi is a retired Iranian professional footballer and a current coach. Zandi was born in northern Germany, to an Iranian father and a German mother, he speaks Persian. Ferydoon started playing football at an early age when his talent shone through his playing for a number of youth clubs in and near his hometown. Zandi was called up for the German under-17 national football team and played for SV Meppen before being signed by SC Freiburg. There, he failed to establish himself as a starter and was traded to the 2. Bundesliga club VfB Lübeck. After struggling again Zandi broke through and established himself as one of the most dangerous and versatile attackers of the league, he was one of the top scorers and assist givers. After enjoying two successful seasons in Lübeck, he was signed by 1. FC Kaiserslautern in 2004 and given the number 10. In the 2005–06 season, in which 1. FCK fell to the end of the table, he lost his position as a starting playmaker, was benched for a longer period of time, had periods when he failed to be nominated as a bench player at all.
Trainer Wolfgang Wolf refused to play him in the second half of the season, after the relegation of the club, Zandi was confirmed to be cut from the squad. Amir Ghalenoei, the new manager of Iran national football team, did not invite Ferydoon to the Iranian squad for the AFC Asian Cup qualification games. In September 2006, he signed a one-year contract with 2. Bundesliga club TuS Koblenz, which he left in January 2007 due to the limited number of appearance he made. On 2 January 2007, Zandi signed a contract till the end of the 2006–07 season with Apollon Limassol of Cyprus. After his return from the 2007 AFC Asian Cup he was linked with moves to Steaua București, Rapid București and Birmingham City. On 18 January 2008, he joined Olympiakos Nicosia. On 24 March 2009, Zandi signed Alki Larnaca for a one-year contract. Zandi stayed there for two seasons. After the relegation of Steel Azin he left the club and on August 2011 he joined to Esteghlal but he started season with an injury. On 22 October 2011, he made his debut for Esteghlal and made an assist against Zob Ahan Esfahan F.
C.. He won the Hazfi Cup in his first season. Having been released by Esteghlal on 29 September 2012 Zandi joined the Qatari side Al Ahli. On 5 November 2015, he announced his retirement. Raised in Germany, Zandi did not have the permission to play for his ancestral Iran as he did not have Iranian citizenship. However, the Iranian Football Federation obtained permission for him to play for them, Zandi began to compete on the Iranian national side in the second round of 2006 FIFA World Cup qualification against Bahrain. After the qualifications he did not compete again on the team until being invited again for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup, he was recalled to the national squad in March 2007 for a friendly against Qatar, included in the Asian Cup squad, was featured for Iran in the friendly match against Mexico in June 2007. On 15 July 2007 he scored from a free kick for Iran in their 2–2 draw versus China in the 2007 Asian Cup, he played for Iran in the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification where after the departure of Ali Daei he was not invited for around a year and was invited again by Afshin Ghotbi for a couple of performances but was dropped again.
He was invited again after around 18 months by Carlos Queiroz for a friendly in May 2012 against Albania where before the match On 28 May 2012, Zandi announced his retirement from International football. In 2005, Zandi was victim of a heavy traffic accident on a highway; when another car swerved to the left directly in front of him, Zandi had to evade and crashed into a lorry of the US Army. The lorry took heavy damage, Zandi's car was utterly wrecked. Miraculously, Zandi made it out with minor injuries only; as of 10 May 2019 Scores and results list Iran's goal tally first. Scores and results list Iran's goal tally first. Esteghlal Hazfi Cup: 2011–12 Ferydoon Zandi at PersianLeague.com Latest news, goal downloads, information on Zandi Ferydoon Zandi at TeamMelli.com Official Website
Tar was an American post-hardcore band, formed in 1988 in Chicago, Illinois. Throughout their career they released four studio albums, two extended plays, a number of singles before breaking up in 1995, they were known for their dry sense of humor. The precursor to Tar was a hardcore punk outfit called Blatant Dissent, which formed in DeKalb, Illinois where singer/guitarist John Mohr and drummer Mike Greenlees were attending Northern Illinois University. Joining Mohr and Greenlees in Tar were original bassist Tim Mescher, bassist Tom Zaluckyj and guitarist Mark Zablocki. Zaluckyj and Mohr played unique instruments, crafted of aluminum, designed by Ian Schneller of Specimen Products; the band released albums on the Amphetamine Reptile and Touch and Go Records labels before disbanding in 1995. During its career, the band released a total of four singles, four albums, two mini albums, contributed songs to six compilations and split singles; the band toured nationally and internationally with bands such as Jawbox and the Jesus Lizard.
In 1994 the band made the decision to call. Over and Out was written and recorded over a period of a year and a half, produced by the band and engineered by Steve Albini and Bob Weston, released in 1995. Tar reunited for a one-off performance at the PRF BBQ 2012 festival in Chicago, in the year, as opening act for Shellac at Lincoln hall in Chicago. In 2013, a double vinyl disc compilation titled 1988-1995 was released through Chunklet Magazine, limited to 150 gold colored copies that included download cards; the group would reunite again in 2017 to perform at the All Tomorrow's Impeachments festival. Roundhouse Jackson Toast Over and Out 1988-1995 Handsome Clincher "Play to Win" b/w "Mel's" "Flow Plow" b/w "Hand" "Solution 8" b/w "Non-Alignment Pact" "Static" split 7" with Jawbox "Teetering" b/w "The In Crowd" "Feel This" b/w "Hell's Bells" AMG profile page Touch and Go Records page Southern Records page Trouser Press page PRF BBQ 2012 Reunion Performance
Variable renewable energy is a renewable energy source, non-dispatchable due to its fluctuating nature, like wind power and solar power, as opposed to a controllable renewable energy source such as dammed hydroelectricity, or biomass, or a constant source such as geothermal power. Several key terms are useful for understanding the issue of intermittent power sources; these terms are not standardized, variations may be used. Most of these terms apply to traditional power plants. Intermittency can mean the extent to which a power source is unintentionally stopped or unavailable. Intermittency refers to the changes of the variability of daily solar radiation according to the scale considered Intermittency and variability of daily solar irradiation. J. M. Vindel, J. Polo. Atmospheric Research.. Dispatchability is the ability of a given power source to increase and decrease output on demand; the concept is distinct from intermittency. Penetration in this context is used to refer to the amount of energy generated as a percentage of annual consumption.
Nominal power or nameplate capacity refers to the maximum output of a generating plant in normal operating conditions. This is the most common number used and expressed in Watt. Capacity factor, average capacity factor, or load factor is the average expected output of a generator over an annual period. Expressed as a percentage of the nameplate capacity or in decimal form. Capacity credit: the amount of output from a power source that may be statistically relied upon the minimum power within a longer period expressed as a percentage of the nominal power. Firm capacity is the amount of power. Non-firm capacity is the amount of power above the firm capacity, to be sold at higher price on the spot market. Conventional hydroelectricity and geothermal are dispatchable as each has a store of potential energy. Between wind and solar, solar has a more variable daily cycle than wind, but is more predictable in daylight hours than wind. Like solar, tidal energy varies between on and off cycles through each day, unlike solar there is no intermittentcy, tides are available every day without fail.
Biofuel and biomass involve multiple steps in the production of energy – growing plants, processing, transportation and burning to create heat for electricity, transportation or space heating. In the combined power plant used by the University of Kassel to simulate using 100% renewable energy, wind farms and solar farms were supplemented as needed by hydrostorage and biomass to follow the electricity demand. Wind power forecasting is the least accurate of all of the variable renewable energy sources. Grid operators use day ahead forecasting to determine which of the available power sources to use the next day, weather forecasting is used to predict the wind power and solar power output available. Although wind power forecasts have been used operationally for decades, as of 2019 the IEA is organizing international collaboration to further improve their accuracy; the variability of wind power can be seen as one of its defining characteristics. Wind-generated power is a variable resource, the amount of electricity produced at any given point in time by a given plant will depend on wind speeds, air density, turbine characteristics.
If wind speed is too low the wind turbines will not be able to make electricity, if it is too high the turbines will have to be shut down to avoid damage. While the output from a single turbine can vary and as local wind speeds vary, as more turbines are connected over larger and larger areas the average power output becomes less variable. Intermittence: Regions smaller than synoptic scale have the same weather and thus around the same wind power, unless local conditions favor special winds; some studies show that wind farms spread over a geographically diverse area will as a whole stop producing power altogether. However this is the case for smaller areas with uniform geography such as Ireland and Denmark which have several days per year with little wind power. Capacity factor: Wind power has a capacity factor of 20–40%. Dispatchability: Wind power is "highly non-dispatchable". MISO, which operates a large section of the U. S. grid, has over 13,000 MW of wind power under its control and is able to manage this large amount of wind power by operating it as dispatchable intermittent resources.
Capacity credit: At low levels of penetration, the capacity credit of wind is about the same as the capacity factor. As the concentration of wind power on the grid rises, the capacity credit percentage drops. Variability: Site dependent. Sea breezes are much more constant than land breezes. Seasonal variability may reduce output by 50%. Reliability: A wind farm has high technical reliability; that is, the output at any given time will only vary due to falling wind speeds or storms. A typical wind farm is unlikely to have to shut down in less than half an hour at the extreme, whereas an equivalent-sized power station can fail instantaneously and without warning; the total shutdown of wind turbines is predictable via weather forecasting. The average availability of a wind turbine is 98%, when a turbine fails or is sh
Sir David Michael Baldock Hall is a British Paediatrician. Hall is most notable for publishing a paper with Dr Gillian Baird, on the role of primary care in identifying developmental problems in children that resulted in the series of books being published called Health for all children that led in turn to one of the first attempts to apply an objective evidence based approach to medical practice for children. Hall is emeritus professor of community paediatrics at the Institute of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Sheffield. Hall was born in Reigate, where he was educated at Reigate Grammar School, his early medical training was at King's College London. Hall studied medicine at St George's Hospital and the University of London graduating with a Gold medal and qualifying in 1969. From 1973–78, he was Senior Medical Officer at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Johannesburg. Hall met his wife at King's College, Susan Hall. Susan Hall is a public health specialist, an honorary professor at the School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town.
They have two granddaughters. Hall moved with his wife Susan, to Cape Town. In Cape Town, the Halls were active in their retirements, working in the area of KwaZulu-Natal in local projects, as well as teaching and lecturing at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town. Indeed, through their efforts, the Halls managed to establish a Master's degree in paediatric public health. After graduation, Hall took a position as house officer at Croydon University Hospital. Hall spent a year in Canada as an intern at the Janeway Children's Rehabilitation Centre, it was the internship. Upon returning to the UK, Hall took a position as a paediatric audiologist at the Royal National Throat and Ear Hospital. Hall spent a further year at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children as a senior house officer. In 1973, Hall and his family moved to Baragwanath Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa for a 3-year posting with his wife. At Baragwanath Hospital, Hall studied paediatrics, neonatology as well as Pediatric Neurology and this set his career specialism in place, with an interest in childhood disability.
When Hall returned to the UK, he obtained a position at the Charing Cross Hospital as a senior registrar in child development. From 1978 Hall was appointed to the position of consultant at St George's Hospital in London; as a consultant Hall was responsible for children with disabilities. In 1993, Hall moved to University of Sheffield and was promoted to Professor of community paediatrics. While at Sheffield, Hall developed a Master's degree programme for neurodisability advanced education standards for paediatricians, worked as an investigator on the National Evaluation of the Sure Start campaign as well as consult on Scoliosis and adolescence for the Department of Health and Social Care. Hall became emeritus Professor of Community Paediatrics in 2005. In June 2006, Hall acting within a group of 30 leading scientists, including child health experts, wrote an open letter to the UK Government, the people of the United Kingdom, in an effort to close the autism and MMR vaccine controversy. Hall stated that: "The time has come to draw a line under the question of any association between the MMR vaccine and autism.
The UK's children are in danger of serious illness or death if they are left unimmunised." In 1985, Hall published a paper with Gillian Baird amongst others, on the role of primary care in identifying developmental problems. Hall advanced the idea that there was a strong association between development problems at school entry and well understood parent and family risks to health; the group stated that strategies to improve health care outcomes would include family support, high quality early education and care programmes and early detection of problems at pre-school. Hall presented evidence that strategies and programmes for health care were best delivered inside a service framework, that the group called a framework of progressive universalism, where a universal selection of services for children and families would provide the earliest identification and appropriate treatment of development problems in the child. In 1986, Hall was contacted by the British Paediatric Association and invited to act on the findings of the report.
This led to the Hall chairing the Joint Working Party on Child Health Surveillance at the BPA. The group included a number of individuals from different areas of the paediatrics profession; the group reviewed working practices of the paediatrics professions, in all areas of the NHS. The results of the first working party in 1989, was a report, in which the group found there was a complete lack of evidence on the history of development problems in children, the current reliability of screening tests. A set of activities was proposed to advance the profession; the second edition was published. Health for all children was one of the first attempts to use an evidence-based approach in the formulation of health care for children, it led to vigorous debate in the paediatrics community both in the UK as well as the United States and Australia. Between 2000 and 2003 Hall was President of the British Paediatric Association; the first edition of Health for all children was published by Hall and David Elliman in 1989.
The book was built on an evidence review of a project called Child Health Surveillance, designed to conduct child health checks for a child in the first five years of their life. The aims of the programme was described and a new approach was proposed; the second edition was published in 1992, with a focus on knowledge and skills, as opposed to professional labels for procedures and processes. The third
Edward Kenneth Newman is a former All-Pro offensive guard who, from 1973 to 1984, played 167 games over 12 seasons with the Miami Dolphins. He is now a judge in Florida. Newman was born in Brooklyn, New York, grew up in Syosset, New York, Woodbury, New York, is Jewish. Once, when asked how he got up for a goal-line stand, he responded with a Yiddish word to describe the process, saying: "You gotta suck it up from the kishkes." He wrestled for Syosset High School in the late 1960s. He first played for Florida Atlantic, enrolled in 1969 at Duke University on an athletic scholarship, he participated or Duke in two sports: twice earning All Conference honors in football as an offensive lineman and defensive lineman, twice as a heavyweight wrestler winning the ACC heavyweight championship. He was a Football All-American in 1971, a Football All-ACC in 1971 and 1972. In 1973, Newman graduated from Duke University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology; the Miami Dolphins drafted Newman in the sixth round of the 1973 NFL Draft.
In his football career, the Dolphins went to three Super Bowls: Minnesota Vikings, Washington Redskins, San Francisco 49'ers. He did not play the 1985 season with his third serious knee injury, after having overcome thyroid cancer earlier in his career. A knee injury in his 13th season with the Dolphins in 1985 ended his career. During his pro career, he worked as an assistant coach of the Florida International University wrestling team in the off-season. During his NFL career, Newman spearheaded a community drive for blood donations on behalf of the South Florida Blood Service; this and other charitable efforts resulted in the renaming of Northwest 17th Street to "Ed Newman Street." Newman was inducted into the Duke Athletic Hall of Fame, the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame, the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in the Wingate Institute, outside of Netanya, in Israel. He was inducted, alongside a host of other former Miami Dolphins players, into the St. Thomas University Sports Hall of Fame in 2015.
He was inducted into the Dolphins Walk of Fame in 2014. In 1984, while playing pro football by day, Newman enrolled in the night division of the University of Miami Law School. After graduating in 1987, Newman practiced law as a litigation attorney for seven years. In 1994, Newman was elected County Court Judge in Miami and began his first term in January 1995, he presently serves at the Richard E. Gerstein Criminal Justice Building alongside his bailiff and former Dolphins teammate Tony Nathan. Newman married his wife Cathy in 1977, they have two daughters -- Holly Newman. Newman serves on the Miami Dolphins Alumni Board of Directors, the University of Miami – School of Law – Alumni Board, the Board of Transition, Inc. List of select Jewish football players Ed Newman for Judge Football Reference statistics Database Football data